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The Science subreddit is a place to share new findings. Read about the latest advances in astronomy, biology, medicine, physics and the social sciences. Find and submit the best writeup on the web about a discovery, and make sure it cites its sources.

Updated: 2017-12-16T06:54:25+00:00


Science AMA Series: This is Dr. Jason Spence, Dr. David Hill and Dr. Vincent Young. We've done research on how helpful bacteria activate the processes that lead to a mature, healthy gastrointestinal tract and we're here today to talk about it. Ask Us Anything!


Hi Reddit! Jason Spence: Hi! I’m an associate professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Cell and Developmental Biology and Bioengineering at the University of Michigan. I am broadly interested in understanding how tissues develop. I like to think about, and study, how stem cells decide to differentiate into a specific tissue lineage, how cells organize into complex tissue structures (i.e. organs), and how organs develop/mature. I have run a research laboratory for about six years at the University of Michigan, and my laboratory primarily uses human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to experimentally address these fundamental questions. hPSCs are grown in a tissue culture incubator, and have the capability to differentiate into any cell type in the human body. Our work has led us to develop complex, three-dimensional tissue models called ‘organoids’. Organoids are organ-like, meaning that they possess many different cell types that would be found in a human organ, and have some (but not all) features of that organ. For example, we have developed methods to guide hPSCs into intestinal organoids. I’m now having a lot of fun collaborating with Vince and David, using intestinal organoids to understand how microbes (bacteria) influence intestinal maturation and function. Vincent Young: I’m a physician-scientist and professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. I also moonlight as a microbiologist in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan. The research in my laboratory is directed at understanding the role of bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract play in influencing the health status of their host. This includes the study of traditional pathogenic bacteria in gastrointestinal illness, with a particular emphasis on Clostridium difficile. In addition, we also examine how the indigenous GI microbiota can influence the host-pathogen interaction and how changes in the gut microbiome itself can lead to pathogenic states. In a dramatic turn of events, I’ve recently realized that my true scientific love is developmental biology, and it has been really rewarding to work with David and Jason to bring our areas of interest together to explore new areas of biology. David Hill: I'm a postdoctoral fellow in the University of Michigan Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology. My interest is in understanding the reciprocal relationship between the microbes that reside in the intestine and their host tissue. In particular, I study how the newborn intestine facilitates and adapts to colonization by beneficial organisms while defending against potential pathogens and damaging inflammation. Understanding these events may be important for improving health outcomes, especially among infants born prematurely. I've been lucky to be co-mentored by both Vince and Jason for the past three years. The experience has taught me a lot about how to conduct collaborative and open team science, as my project leans heavily on both Vince's expertise in microbiology and Jason's developmental biology perspective. Together, we generated intestinal tissue from stem cells and asked how these tissues would be able to adapt to microbial colonization in the culture dish. Our studies suggest that the ability to adapt to microbial colonization is present even in immature intestinal tissue lacking dedicated immune cells. We found that the intestine relies on contact with bacteria to enhance its protective properties and limit damage from inflammatory stimuli. Our findings lay out a new approach that can be used to better understand how interactions with some bacteria lead to improved health, and how some interactions may lead to disease in early life. submitted by /u/Healthy_Gut [link] [comments][...]

/u/masta on They revamped the nearby McDonald's. One human cashier and four of these. Someone's getting ready for $15 an hour.


Naw... these things are so much better than dealing with a real person, and probably works both ways... as I'm sure there are Mc Donalds employees who get irritated with an annoying customers.

When I was in Europe, these things displayed the menu in dozens of languages, and accepted my usa payment card. Knowing exactly what I want means I can input my selection quickly to queue my order in the kitchen. So besides the obvious solution to the many languages problem, and payment issues, these things are more efficient than people... the lines move faster.

Honestly, the debate about minimum wage is orthogonal to the huge improvement these things bring in multiple ways. These things would have happened anyways.

/u/masta on If you bought a "fat" PS3 you might be eligible for a $65 payment by completing a simple claim


Still running Linux on mine, never updated the firmware.

/u/masta on How much are the medical expenses for childbirth?


and benadryl, because airplanes

/u/masta on Ardour vs Tracktion/waveform


  • rosegarden

  • lmms

  • bitwig

  • ardour

Never tried Waveform by Trackington, but the download site has a form to fill. So meh!

/u/masta on What is the best possible response to "You don't generate money for the company." ?


Very few IT operations are converted from cost center to profit center. Amazon elastic cloud comes to mind. Amazon literally converted it's entire IT operation in to a rental service, which it then rented to itself, and any spare capacity sold to public. But the problem here is that it's perfectly fine to be a cost center. One does not have to convert the data center to a public cloud that pays for itself.

/u/masta on Russia banned from 2018 Winter Olympics for doping


Steroid olympics would be kinda epic though, i'd watch it.

/u/masta on [Image] They dont even need to turn on the controllers (Dark, Netflix)


To save battery I either set mine too the lowest brightness, or completely off. So it's possible still.

/u/masta on Net Neutrality and VPN


You first have to define what net neutrality means to you, so we can answer your question.

Because Net neutrality means different things to different people.

For the sake of simplicity, lets assume that for you Net Neutrality means consumer protection things between you and your Internet service provider. Net Neutrality was previously (like 10 years ago) a concept that applied to the Internet back-haul, how Internet routers peered with each other while exchanging packets. Most ISP customers are not Internet backbone peers, and there probably are not neutrality clauses in the contract held with the provider.

So to answer your question, in this context. Your VPN post Net Neutrality will probably be the same as a VPN was pre Net Neutrality (10 years ago). Actually, to be fair... Net Neutrality existed 10 years ago, but it was left unregulated, and it was governed by contract law between the parties involved in exchanging Internet packets out on the Internet back-haul.

Anyways, at this point it's a term that most folks associate with consumer protection, which is fine. You will probably want to use a VPN regardless. Simply to protect yourself from your ISP, because do you really trust them to not inspect your packets?

/u/masta on Net Neutrality and VPN


A VPN can traverse any port on the Internet, just like say port 443 for HTTPS.... and actually most modern VPN's are SSL/TLS protocol based, just like HTTPS does.... so from an ISP perspective.... they cannot tell the difference. Even the DNS protocol is going the way of being TLS ciphered, so in a few years the ISP won't even be able to snoop what people are name resolving... closing one of the last big holes in internet security.

The entire Internet is going dark, so to speak, in terms of ISP having transparency into what their customers are doing online. And, there is nothing the ISP can do about that.

/u/masta on NFS cache invalidation in Centos 7.4 (693 kernel)


Looks encouraging.

/u/masta on Mildly Infuriating, daughter's school censoring the bill of rights!


Freedom of association is missing, but then again..... considering how that right has been neutered, it might as well not even exist anymore.

/u/masta on [Update] Hit another milestone today. After 1,000 days of not smoking here are my stats!


Firstly congrats on the not smoking thing, that is a huge step for your lifelong wellness. The costs over a year might seem significant, and will only magnify over time. However, these are drops in the bucket compared to the healthcare costs associated with smoking long term. It tends to hit people later in life when they are more vulnerable to high medical expenses.

So consider quitting more of a retirement plan.

/u/masta on NFS cache invalidation in Centos 7.4 (693 kernel)


Thanks for testing that.

Seems like a performance regression.

Can you please open a bug report with Red Hat?

/u/masta on NFS cache invalidation in Centos 7.4 (693 kernel)


Scroll down to the end.

Is your setup using NFSv4 or v3 ? Well the v4 locking was updated, but v3 should in theory stay the same.

/u/masta on I Built the Leg Lamp from "A Christmas Story" (the manly version)


I'm totally going to get one of those. Thanks

/u/masta on I Built the Leg Lamp from "A Christmas Story" (the manly version)


Nice. I've never seen an angle grinder used in wood work, but of course I've no issue there, just totally new to me. Only ever used them for metal work.

/u/masta on DFW Airport Gets $50 Million in Federal Money for Runway Work (crosspost /r/TexasPolitics)


I suppose there is only one solution here, and that would be to build a new runway, then round-robin rebuild the remaining.

After several more decades it will require an overhaul.

/u/masta on I Built the Leg Lamp from "A Christmas Story" (the manly version)


So that happened..... angle grinder was used on wood.

/u/masta on Meredith, Backed by Koch Brothers, Acquires Time Inc. for $2.8 Billion


wow, Time was sold cheap!

I've seen worthless tech start-ups sell for more. What the heck happened here? Is Time really so low valued?

/u/masta on I'm replacing the internal HDD of my PS3. What's the easiest way to move my games from one to the other?


I do believe the PS3 will want exclusive use of the external usb storage, so my advice here... start with the usb storage drive. You want one of these dedicated to the PS3 for routine backups. Ideally it should be a little larger than what internal storage you upgrade the PS3 to. In your case something larger than 500GB.

Once you have that, you can migrate to the new storage via restoring from back-up.

I'm not sure if you can do a low level copy of the smaller disk drive to the new larger one. Even if you could the partitions would need to be enlarged some how, and I'm not sure that would work. Give it a shot if you want..... in Linux it would be trivial using the dd(1) command-line utility.

/u/masta on China going from 2% electric cars last month to 20% in 2025 to possibly 100% in 2030


That is one way to delete the world already low supply of lithium.

/u/masta on How do you like to pronounce "ctl" in so many systemd commands like `hostnamectl` and `bootctl` and `coredumpctl`


Hostnamectl has its purposes, and I believe it can change the host name imperative, without resetting processes. I'm sure it does other useful things too, involving hostnames. Systemd is a collection of these small utilities, which do their things very well.... But probably not to the asinine levels people from would like.

/u/masta on How do you like to pronounce "ctl" in so many systemd commands like `hostnamectl` and `bootctl` and `coredumpctl`


I have always pronounced as C,T,L. So for example, "system Cee Tee Ell", for systemctl.

And yes, it's for control.