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Preview: 28 years later

28 years later

Updated: 2017-11-26T20:09:31.579+08:00


Fashion break



Alternative Input Devices for Students


Alternative Input Devices for Students with Physical DisabilitiesSwitches:Switches control the flow of electrical power to a device that the userwants to turn on or off. Switches can be activated by almost any part of thebody a person is able to voluntarily and reliably control—for example,switches are available that can be activated by the use of an arm, hand, finger,leg, foot, head, or chin. They also may be controlled by less obvious move-ments of the eyebrow, or the rib cage with access through controlled breath-ing. While the movement does not have to be big, it must be controllable andreliable, and often considerable training is required before the use of theswitch is reliable.Basic Adaptive Keyboards:Basic keyboard adaptations that assist physically dis-abled students to use computers include replacing standard keys with largerkeys that are easier to see and touch, reducing the number of keys on the key-board, placing letter keys in alphabetical order, and providing keys that arebrightly colored and easy to read. Other keyboards are much smaller thantheir traditional counterparts and have keyboard surfaces that are much moresensitive to touch. These keyboards are excellent for individuals with a limitedrange of motion or for individuals who have a difficult time applying pressureto keys.Touch-Sensitive Screens: Touch-sensitive screens are very popular with youngcomputer users and with individuals who have severe developmental or phys-ical disabilities. This technology allows the user to simply touch the computerscreen to perform a function. Many touch-sensitive screens come completewith multiple screen overlays that can be used to perform a variety of tasks.Similarly, many companies provide additional software that enables the usersto create their own overlays.Infrared Sensors with Pneumatic Switches:Use of an infrared sensor worn on thehead, along with use of a pneumatic switch, can enable physically disabled stu-dents to interact with the computer. As the user looks at the computer screen,the cursor follows the user’s head movement. Moving the head to the leftmoves the cursor in the same direction on the screen. Thus, users can positionthe cursor anywhere on the screen by moving their head left, right, up, ordown. The pneumatic switch, which is activated by inhaling or exhalingthrough a plastic tube, enables the user to use the mouse. When the user sipsor puffs on the switch, the computer responds as if the mouse button had beenclicked. In this manner, the user can move a cursor and click on items dis-played on the computer screen. Special software is used in conjunction withthese movements to allow the user to type out information on a facsimile of akeyboard that is displayed on the computer monitor.Voice Recognition:Using voice recognition software, the user can bypass the key-board and just speak to the computer. By programming the computer with aset of predefined instructions, the user can control the computer by verballyissuing commands into a microphone. In most cases, the reliability of thesystem can be enhanced by having the user “train” the computer to recognizehis or her speech patterns. Voice recognition systems allow students to operatea variety of application programs, to dictate to a word processor, and to enterdata into spreadsheets.[...]

Devices to Assist Students with Visual Impairments


Closed-Circuit Television Magnification (CCTV): CCTV is designed to enlargeany type of text or graphic material by using a small vertically mountedvideo camera with a zoom lens directly connected to a monitor for display-ing the image. The text or graphic material is placed under the camera lenson a sliding reading stand and the image is projected on the attached videomonitor. CCTVs allow the user to adjust the magnification, contrast,brightness, and focus, and to change the background display to eitherblack or white, or in some cases, color. Older CCTVs, while still useful formany classroom applications, are expensive and cumbersome to move. Butthe newer, smaller versions of this technology are portable, and thus mucheasier for students to use.Computer Screen Magnification: Most computers sold today allow for themagnification of the screen through the use of special software. Typically,the user can select a portion of the screen and then enlarge that section upto 16 times the original size. Although the user is somewhat inconve-nienced by having to view a smaller portion of the original screen as themagnification increases, this technology makes it possible for students withvisual impairments to use computers in ways similar to their nondisabledpeers.Descriptive Video Services (DVS):DVS technology inserts a narrative verbaldescription of visual elements—such as sets and costumes, characters’ phys-icaldescriptions, and facial expressions—into pauses in a program’s dialogue.The majority of television sets and VCRs manufactured in the past six yearshave been designed with a “second audio program” (or SAP) switch thatcan be turned on so that the user can automatically hear descriptive video.DVS is available for both standard VHS and DVS formatted videotapes.DVS technologies help students by providing them with access to informa-tion, and through the increased opportunities to discuss programs andmovies that are part of the popular culture, by providing them with oppor-tunities for increased socialization and knowledge building.Screen Readers:Screen reader software represents what is known as a text-to-speech application, which analyzes letters, words, and sentences and con-verts them into synthetic or digital speech. Today, text-to-speech software iscommon in many software packages, including many word processing andeducational software programs in math, reading, and spelling. In someinstances, the student can adjust the volume, pitch, and speed of reading, andeven choose between a male or a female voice. With synthetic speech, thecomputer reads text passages, analyzes the phonetic structure of words, andattempts to reconstruct the words by putting together a string of syntheticphonemes that are then “spoken” by the computer. However, when thewords are not phonetically predictble, the results can be difficult to under-stand. In contrast, digital speech is composed of actual recordings of humanspeech. While digital speech is much easier to understand, it requires a largeamount of storage because each word that the computer may encountermust be prerecorded. Consequently, its use is often not feasible for class-roominstruction. As more low-cost options for storing electronic informationbecome available, however, this technology will likely be used more extensivelyto assist students who have communication disorders or visual impairments.Optical Character Recognition (OCR): OCR technology enables blind stu-dents to place books or other print materials on a scanner and have the textinterpreted and read using synthetic or digital speech. The first OCRsystem for individuals with visual impairments was introduced in 1976,when Ray Kurzweil invented the Kurzweil Reader. The early KurzweilReader was about the size of a small photocopy machine and was consid-ered to be a truly remarkable advance for students with visual disabilities.While the device was often found in libraries, it was too bulky and expen-sive to[...]

Devices to assist students.


Devices to Assist Students with Hearing ImpairmentsHearing Aids:The hearing aid is a miniature public address system worn bythe user (listener). It works best in quiet, structured settings, where thespeaker is no more than a few feet away and extraneous noise is minimized.Hearing aids are generally available in four styles: body-worn, behind-the-ear, eyeglass, and in-the-ear. School-age children most often use postauricu-lar hearing aids, which are designed to fit unobtrusively behind the ear.Almost all people with hearing loss, including “nerve loss,” can benefit tosome extent from hearing aids.Frequency-Modulated (FM) Amplification Systems: Also known as an auditorytrainer, the FM transmission device creates a direct link between theteacher, who wears a microphone, and the student, who wears a hearingaid. In this system, background noise is reduced and the teacher and stu-dents are free to move around the room. For more than 40 years, FM sys-tems have been used by teachers and students in the classroom, and theyare still one of the most commonly used auditory enhancement devices inschools because of their versatility and portability for use in or out of theschool building.Audio Loops:The audio loop is another type of amplification system. It wasintroduced in an attempt to meet the need to control the sound level of theteacher’s voice, to maintain consistency in auditory cues between homeand school, to deal more effectively with background noise, and to providemaximum mobility within a classroom. An adaptation of the FM devicedescribed above, the audio loop directs sound from its source directly tothe listener’s ear through a specially equipped hearing aid. Sound may betransmitted through a wire connection or by using radio waves. Audioloops can be built into the walls of a room or created to surround only acertain section of seats in a room.Infrared Systems: Infrared systems transmit clean, clear sound invisibly tohearing impaired listeners. They provide better hearing in public placeswithout the hassle of wires and cords, and they suffer less from interferenceemanating from pagers and other outside radio signals, but they may havelimited accessibility because of issues related to line-of-site or distancebetween the emitter and the transceiver. Nevertheless, as costs come down,the popularity of infrared systems is increasing.Cochlear Implants: A cochlear implant is a relatively new device designed toprovide sound information for people with profound hearing impairments.While hearing aids and other assistive devices are designed to amplifysound, an implant can actually enable the wearer to hear sounds that werepreviously indistinguishable. The implant, which is surgically placedbeneath the skin, bypasses the damaged parts of the inner ear and stimu-lates nerves that have not been stimulated before. Signals are sent contin-uously when sound is present in the environment, but special circuitry inthe speech processor reduces unwanted background noise.Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf (TDDs):The TDD, which enables aperson with no hearing to make or receive telephone calls, is the mostwidely known telecommunication device used today. The TDD is attachedto a telephone and resembles a small keyboard with a screen to display theincoming or outgoing messages. Some TDDs have a paper printout torecord a permanent copy of the conversation. To use a TDD, the user typesa message on the keyboard that is automatically converted into tones andtransmitted over the phone line to another TDD, which converts the mes-sage back into text form. In this system, both the sender and the receiverof the message must have access to the technology. Although these tech-nologies are not typically used in the classroom environment, they enablestudents with disabilities to interact with each other outside of the schoolenvironment for both academic and social reasons, just as their nondisabledpeersdo.Caption[...]

Catering for a difference websites


Question 3


The Restorative Justice model is a peaceful approach that can be used to deal with incidents of bullying within the classroom. It takes into account both the victim and bully’s needs in the hope to create ‘more socially responsible relationships, and promoting ‘empathy and concern for others’.Within schools it is important to have a well-structured, whole school approach to bullying. So that if incidents happened within the classroom there is already a procedure in place that can be swiftly put into action. To implement the Restorative Justice model these are the things that the website ‘Bullying. No way!’ states that you must have in place:• the support of the victimised person who needs to have identified that he/she is being bullied and is confident that the approach advocated will workIt is very important for this model that the victim is very involved, which can be a confronting and intimating thought, the school must therefore set up a culture that promotes this model by explaining it in classes such as PDHPE, through video’s that are available, group discussions and role playing activities.• preliminary investigation to clearly understand the issues before the process is implementedThe teacher’s who are implementing this approach must have a thorough understanding of the incidents, the back ground of the relationship between the victim and the Bullies, have discussed with other teachers and students what they know about the incidents and have tried to find out as much background information about the victims because without this they will be unable to help foster change for both parties.• staff guidelines and professional development to build understanding, skills and confidence in using the strategiesThis approach is not easy, without the skill and confidence in what they are implementing, teachers could actually make the situation worse.• support within the school community for the approachAs I stated before it is best implemented with a whole school approach because a lot of support is required in it’s implementation and follow up process.• agreement that the goal is to solve the problem rather than to interrogate, punish, blame or label individuals• respectful facilitation of the process by trained people• follow up monitoring of the agreement.Restorative Justice methods include these four approaches:• No blame approach• Method of shared concern• Formal apology• Community conferenceIn a situation where a student is being pushed, name called and excluded from the group my first choice of approach from the Restorative Justice Model is the Method of Shared Concern. This method is about the reconciliation of differences, which encourages empathy and equitable relationships within groups of students.After a teacher has established that the victim has agreed that this method be used, they have a greater understanding of the incident, and the victims and bullies backgrounds meetings are set up. All the perpetuators are meet individually to allow the teacher to encourage the students to acknowledge what has been happening; why it is happening and help the students establish a way to modify this misbehavior. It is very important that at this meeting the teacher does not bully the perpetrator. This method is about understanding all parties involved.A meeting is set up with the victim to establish what has been happening and ways in which teachers can help to change this situation.Then another meeting is held individually with the perpetuators to establish what progress has been made in the modification of their behaviour.After the evidence of positive change then a meeting can be set up to reinforce the good behaviour.A final meeting is held that allows both the bullies and the victims to meet and acknowledge that the bullying has stopped.I have also seen a de[...]

Question 2 Exam 2


Question 2An inspiring lesson is one that has come from a bright spark of inspiration from the teacher. A teacher’s inspiration comes from knowing their subject area and having a passion for it and teaching. (Hattie) To be an expert teacher all these things must come together, with a passion for teaching but only a little knowledge you can possibly create an alright lesson but a teacher with no passion is not a teacher at all.I structure my lessons from the starting point of being an ‘expert’ (an always learning more expert), in my area with a passion for my art and teaching. (Hattie) I am always trying to source inspiration for new ideas for interesting projects, keeping my knowledge of fashion and textiles up to date.Relevance is a major starting point for motivation. Sewing is in some ways a dying art form but by keeping it relevant and inspiring through the projects I choose and the fabric’s maybe I can inspire a new generation of cutting edge designers. For year 8 I selected a range of fashionable fabric from which they can chose for their boxer shorts or short shorts and for their next project they design a soft toy bling keyring. The inspiration for this was the influence of the Japanese youth culture and it’s growing influence on Australian youth culture.I find Glasser’s five Drivers integral to the way I structure my lessons. Leader teacher is the only way to handle teaching, if I start to become a boss teacher I feel I have lost the class.I try to make sure everyone in my class is accepted and feels they belong through being very conscious of acknowledging every student and where they are up to and what they need to get done. In a lesson that can be so fragment due to the fact that students are up to different parts of the task I find this very important otherwise the students get lost or go under the raider and don’t engage in the lesson. It is also very important to give constant feedback. (Hattie)I find the power and freedom of choice is very motivational, within every task I try to have areas of choice, choice of fabric, design elements or whole design. (Glasser)Fun is ultimately the best motivator.I had an outcome that had to covered in year 8 textiles “Identify the role of designers and their contributions to improvement of life” (Mandatory technology year 7-8 Syllabuses). My first plan was to get the students to research the history of the elements of textiles that have improved our lives safety pins, buttons, zipper e.t.c I went on to the internet to do the research myself and found it took me less than five minutes to copy and paste the information into a document. I wasn’t inspired so I changed my whole lesson plan. I took my research and turned it into a quiz. In my Quiz Show I was the presenter and the students where placed in groups of three or more, I tried to eliminate friendship groups by choosing the groups.My quiz included multiple choice, who am I questions, role play, charades and the highly amusing test of trying to find the object in the sand (inspired by Reality TV shows definitely a Gen Y thing) Points where given but in the end everyone received a prize. This was the lead in lesson to a group discussion of the ‘role of designers and their contributions to improvement of life’Piaget said “Children construct their knowledge” (from a sheet that Allan Coman present to us).I endeavour to teach students the starting point from which to launch their knowledge of sewing and constructing garments by setting a series of tasks that build up their knowledge.Social interaction (Vygotsky) is another strong motivator by using peer to peer coaching and group work students can encourage and motivate each other to deepen their learning.In this High School I am very lucky to that the School culture of the Wearable Arts helps to encourage and motivate students to [...]

Exam 2


Question 1William Glasser’s 5 drivers:• A safe secure place where they belong• To be loved and valued • To have power• To have freedom• To have fun and learnChoice Theory.Walking into a year 9 classroom is daunting prospect; these students are at an age where it’s all about their peers. Their social interaction is the most important thing to them and they are the stage of development where a lot of misbehaviour surface. This has started maybe midway through year 7 or in year 8 and starts to settle down again in year 10 (if your lucky).So knowing all this from your own experience or here say you must be very clear when you prepare for year 9 that you come into each lesson with a “Focus on the present and avoid discussing/thinking of the past” (Reality therapy [From WikEd] Glasser choice theory underpins reality therapy which is a method of counseling) by doing this you will be able to allow the students to develop and move beyond their misbehaviours.Walking into the room as leader teacher not boss teacher you can address each of the five drivers in many ways here are some ways that each driver can be met.A safe secure place where they belong.Classrooms need to be laid out in ways that encourage constructivist learning, desks set up in blocks which promote group work and social interaction.Encourage students to have a place in the room that is there own, this could be a desk, and maybe a locker as well, this quite often happens anyway, it seems very natural thing that humans do, students and adults a like. Knowing they have a place that is theirs helps students feel safer. As well as physical place the teacher needs to ensure it is an emotionally safe space eliminating bullying and encouraging respect between peers and students and teachers.To be loved and valued.The teachers must know their students by knowing them they can quickly understand the purpose of the students behaviours and misbehaviour and help the student in what ever way is necessary and help them replace misbehaviours.Being valued is very important at this age, it is in a stage of development when adolescents can feel unheard and that no one cares or understands what they are going through. Teach them that they are valued through listening and acknowledging their ideas and thoughts. When considering what the activities you will be doing with them give students choices within that activity this gives the students a sense that their decisions are of value as well as giving them personal power within the lesson. To have power and to have freedom.Giving them choices gives them power and freedom; it allows them to feel that they have control over their learning, thereby giving them ownership and helps in their development as individual empowered humans.By setting up boundaries and guidelines for your classroom rather than ruling with a strict Skinner approach you give them more power, freedom and trust therefore love.Most important is fun, every lesson and every subject can be fun, as teachers we must strive to incorporate fun in how we teacher even the driest of subjects.[...]

Question 4


The Board of Studies website is a quick resource centre for any of your board of studies requirements, once you have located it through a search engine such as Google it is easy to navigate around through it’s internal search engine. Some of the menu’s include: "HSC Exam Papers HSC Assessment HSC Syllabuses School Certificate All NSW Syllabuses K to 6 Website Assessment Resource CentreManuals & GuidesEmployers Parents Page Special Education Needs Vocational Education Official Notices Board Bulletin Statistics Archive Registered NSW Schools Board of Studies NSW Job VacanciesDates & Events"From the BOS site website also have What's new this week, contacts, links and resources for students and teachers.Here is the list of what is available for Design and Tech:"• Stage 4 year 7 and 8 mandatory technology Syllabus• The guide to the new Year7- 8 syllabus• Mapping of Information and Communications Technologies in Revised Mandatory Stages 4 and 5 Syllabuses• Support documents (that include Establishing a scope and sequence plan, advice on assessment, programming units of work, sample units of work)• Life skills years 7-10 advice on planning, programming and assessment• Stage 5 syllabus Design and Technology• Equipment list for School certificate test • Stage 6 syllabus Design and Technology• Stage 6 Design and Technology Support document• An introduction to design and technology stage 6 in the new HSC• Specimen papers (mapping grid, marking guidelines, specimen examinations)• Past HSC papers• The new standards-based Higher School Certificate• Stage 6 syllabus Design and Technology Resources• Draft performance bands for D&T• Marking Guidelines• To name a few." Board of studies provide each subject with a Syllabus which have at least the following:• Rationale for Design and Technology in the Stage …• Curriculum • Continuum of Learning for Design and Technology Students • Aims• Objectives• Course structure, objectives and outcomes in table form, post school opportunities• Assessment and reporting• And moreAs well as support documents that outline how to program units of work.All of this is used in the process of programming. Here is one way you could go about programming:"• Select the outcomes (from your syllabus) that will be focus of the design task and those that will be contributing outcomes for the unit of work. Ensure that you have a manageable number of outcomes.• Decide on the specific evidence of learning to be observed through the teaching, learning and assessment activities. This evidence will facilitate judgments of student achievement in relation to the outcomes and identified content. • Select the relevant syllabus content, identifying what students are going to ‘learn about’ and ‘learn to’ do.• Plan the teaching and learning strategies for the identified content and decide on the assessment for learning strategies that will provide evidence of learning. • Strategies should include a range of student-centered experiences that promote the development of knowledge, understanding and skills. • Provide feedback so that students have the necessary information and direction to progress their learning. • Reflect on the previous steps and evaluate the degree to which the unit has remained focused on the outcomes."(Modified from the support document for year7-8 mandatory technology)The Board of studies are the starting point for your programming and resource centre for any series of lessons, and as a NSW registered school we need to document our application of the Syllabus in each of the KLA areas. [...]

Question 3


Provide an analysis of how you would provide for the diversity of learning styles and ensure the deep learning occurs in all students when teaching a lesson.• Know the intelligences/ diversity of learning styles • Know the students• Know how to identify each of the learning styles in the students • Prepare tasks with the intelligences/ diversity of learning styles in mind • Have a range of tasks that foster/ are aimed at each or some of the different learning styles so that students can chose a learning style they feel most comfortable with. • Have a set of tasks throughout the series of lessons that cater for a diversity of learning styles • Keep your teaching style balanced by thinking outside your square (own preferred style of learning) and make sure you’re not always teaching one way, variety is the spice of life • Deep learning will occur if you are reaching your students with a diversity of learning styles • Promote and foster deep learning by allowing students time to critically reflect on the lesson, their work, the process, what they have learnt e.t.cGardner states there are 9 intelligences:Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"); Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart"); Spatial intelligence ("picture smart"); Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart"); Musical intelligence ("music smart"); Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart"); Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") Existential intelligenceEach student will have a unique combination of these with a possible dominate one.Within my area of textiles I have found it fascinating to watch different groups of year7 and year8 be challenged by the technical act of sewing. In textiles/ sewing you use an interesting combination of logical-mathematical, spatial, and body-kinaesthetic intelligence.For some students it is the body-kinaesthetic intelligence that is the most challenging in relation to sewing because it is the about using your body in conjunction with a machine. This is all about practice, for some students it comes naturally as they get more confident and less afraid of the machines. I am very aware of teaching students how to a line their bodies with the machine, there by giving them the best starting point of working towards sewing a straight line. I do this by visual and spoken demonstration as well as observing how they sew and being very conscious of reminding them constantly of how to sit properly.The logical-mathematical and spatial intelligences comes into play with pattern making, understanding patterns, how garments are constructed, the design elements, and aesethic aspects of textiles.It is fascinating to watch some students get thoroughly confused as they try to assemble a garment even after I have:Given visual and spoken demonstrations of how to make a garment; Posted up on the wall the instructions step by step in writing and actual fabric samples of the garments;Or posted up instructions of written and drawn instruction; Laid out on the table step by step fabric samples that can be looked at and be handled;And sometimes I get the students to layout the garment on a partner to see how they think it would look (in the case of making the Kimono).Sometimes I think they forget what they are making and can only see pieces of fabric in front of them not the garment they are trying to create.Trying to provide deep learning for a variety of learning styles is a challenge with sewing but I feel it can be achieved by not only being very competent with the craft itself but being able to break it down into bite sized chucks, back to the basics, it’s about being very clear about what you are teaching and being able to know your students we[...]

Question 2


Assessment:When teachers establish the way in which a lesson or outcome is going to be assessed they need to:• be clear, and have direct links with outcomes (in syllabus)• be integral to there area of teaching and learning• be balanced, comprehensive and varied• be valid and fair• Engage the learner• be time efficient and manageable• resource availability• how the task will be administered• the way in which feedback will be provided.The standard Framework"The Board of studies curriculum framework is a standards –reference framework that describes, through syllabuses and other documents, the expected learning outcomes for students.Standards in the framework consist of two interrelated elements:• outcomes and content in syllabuses showing what is to be learnt• descriptions of levels of achievement of that learning”From the year7-8 mandatory technology SyllabusThe other types of assessing are Norm-reference Assessment or normative assessing which is used to compare the performance of individuals or groups against/ in comparison with each other or other comparable students doing the same task.When a test is taken the average score (mean) of that test becomes the mark against which each student is compared. The average score becomes the performance standard against which every student is compared.This can be used within a class, within a school or a district.As a teacher you have to have professional judgement and is base your assessment of students on reliable data acquired in a fair and challenging environment, from multiple performances in a variety of contexts. You should use the assessments to determine the students’ initial knowledge, understanding and skills, to monitor student progress and to collect information to report student achievement.In year 7 and year 8 Textiles I use classroom observation, students demonstration of their skill, project work completion and quality, and design folio completion and quality among other things. Other way of assessing could be through research activities, that show’s the students ability to obtain information and interpret it, presentations of ideas etc, written responses and reports, Peer assessments and Self-assessment.Assessment for learning: • Enhances teaching and improve learning.• Reflects the belief that all students can improve.• Involves setting learning goals with students.• Involves students in self-assessment and peer assessment.• Provides feedbackWith thanks from the Technology (mandatory) Year7-8 Syllabus and Principles for assessment and reporting in NSW Government Schools. [...]

Exam 1 Question 1


Describe how you would go about selecting and applying a range of instructional strategies and resources to a lesson in your main teaching area."Instructional methods are used by teachers to create learning environments and to specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and learner will be involved during the lesson. Instructional strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives."According to the Instructional strategies online website the beginning of the year I start with my room as a blank canvas, my area is Textiles so there are some essential resources that I must have sewing machines, thread, scissors the list goes on, there are also things that dictate how my room must be set up like power points so keeping all this in mind I go about creating a place that is both functional and inspirational.Once I have formulated my layout of my room, this changes depending on the lesson that I am teaching. One such layout was made up of three different work stations, that promotes ease for group work a strategy I often use within my lessons either in pairs or small groups encouraging social interaction (Vygotsky).Then I create inspiration walls of images that change and expand throughout the year and areas of instructional material (visual and written instructions of how to use the machine or make boxer shorts etc) which helps promote different styles of learning (Gardner).Now I have created a place that is motivational (loads of images of fashion, soft toys etc) and hopefully safe, a place that is friendly in which the students can feel like they belong (Glasser).Then my next reference is my program that outlines the Board of studies outcomes that I plan to cover though out the semester (or year depending on how your lessons are structured). My program has the area of the outcomes I will need to focus on in relation to the tasks that I have set. Within my area of teaching, Textiles, I have decided to cover the outcomes by sewing tasks that are set out in an order that always keeps in mind the students prior knowledge and ZPD (Vygotsky) within which they will start and end the lesson.The actual lesson, I start with the outcome that is the focus of the lesson then I create a key question.This key question gives the teacher an in for the lesson something from which the whole lesson can be formulated and referenced back too, it also helps the students a get into the ZPD for that lesson and gives them security of knowing what it is they have to learn about or achieve through out the day (Glasser).I also list on the board the aims for the day before they enter the room so I can quickly reference it when I am verbally going through the day’s aims (Gardner). Once I have formulated my Key question I would look at how I would structure the class considering the percentage of teacher input, teacher directed, student centred, student groups and remember that the timing of it all is very important.Piaget “emphasised the importance of active problem solving” sewing is all about problem solving. Firstly there is the problem of how you logistically teacher fifteen children how to sew (a seemingly dying art in a lot of peoples eyes), one teacher, fifteen or so students in a room with machines and sharp objects.(I have a list of safety and appropriate behaviour laminated in bold colourful writing on my wall for a start.)I have tried to grab the student’s attention by providing a room that is exciting and inspiring so this helps the process of drawing them into the right space to learn.Next there is the problem of the diverse range of teaching styles of which I try to cover as many as possible.[...]



The issues

Making informed responses to bullying, harassment, discrimination and violence based on understanding of the issues helps us to create safe school communities.

Your rights

Everyone has the right to safety and respect. We also have the responsibility to help guarantee these same rights for others.

The behaviours

Understanding the role of power in relationships helps us to identify harmful behaviours and to develop a shared approach to these issues.

Deeper issues

Day-to-day relationships in the school community are influenced by underlying factors that maintain behaviours such as bullying, harassment and discrimination in society.

Creating change

Positive change incorporates support for individuals, fair and consistent expectations, and approaches that address the deeper issues and encourage wellbeing for all individuals, groups and the whole school community.

Where to now?

We know that school communities are addressing issues of bullying, harassment and violence. Social capital suggests ways to measure and benchmark these changes.
posted by sallyd




Restorative justice methods for addressing social problems include the method of shared concern, the no blame approach, restitution, community conferencing and the formal apology.

Restorative justice approaches use the incident of misbehaviour as an educative opportunity for repairing the harm and fostering more socially responsible relationships and behaviours that take others' perspectives into account. This is achieved through carefully structured opportunities for individuals to understand the impact of their actions, recognise their social responsibilities and make amends to those who have been affected by their actions. The young person is also assisted to reintegrate successfully into the school community. The most common form of restorative justice is community conferencing.

The key principles of these methods are:

* Bullying and harassment occur in the context of group behaviour.
* The aim is to develop empathy and concern for others.
* The dynamics that sustain bullying and harassment can be shifted by working with the perpetrators, and often their family and/or peer group.
* A shift in behaviour can be achieved by developing a sense of shared concern for the bullied or harassed persons.
* Punitive measures model and reinforce the abuse of power to meet individual needs, place the target at greater risk of revenge and may send the bullying underground.

Restorative justice approaches require these factors to be in place first:

* the support of the victimised person who needs to have identified that he/she is being bullied and is confident that the approach advocated will work
* preliminary investigation to clearly understand the issues before the process is implemented
* staff guidelines and professional development to build understanding, skills and confidence in using the strategies
* support within the school community for the approach
* agreement that the goal is to solve the problem rather than to interrogate, punish, blame or label individuals
* respectful facilitation of the process by trained people
* follow up monitoring of the agreement.


* No blame approach
* Method of shared concern
* Formal apology
* Community conference

Posted by Sally d



Self-actualizationSelf-actualization is the instinctual need of humans to make the most of their abilities and to strive to be the best they can.Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is.Maslow writes the following of self-actualizing people: They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them. They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions. They are creative. They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus in their lives. They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate life. They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and independent of external authority. They have discernment and are able to view all things in an objective manner.In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential. Very few people reach this level, two percent to be exact.According to Maslow, the tendencies of self-actualizing people are as follows:Awarenessefficient perception of realityfreshness of appreciationpeak experiences ethical awareness Honestyphilosophical sense of humor social interestdeep interpersonal relationships democratic character structure Freedomneed for solitudeautonomous, independentcreativity, originality spontaneous Trustproblem centeredacceptance of self, others, natureresistance to enculturation - identity with humanitySelf-transcendenceAt the top of the triangle, self-transcendence is also sometimes referred to as spiritual needs. Spiritual Needs are a little different from other needs, accessible from many levels. [3]Maslow believes that we should study and cultivate peak experiences as a way of providing a route to achieve personal growth, integration, and fulfillment. Peak experiences are unifying, and ego-transcending, bringing a sense of purpose to the individual and a sense of integration. Individuals most likely to have peak experiences are self-actualizing, mature, healthy, and self-fulfilled. All individuals are capable of peak experiences. Those who do not have them somehow suppress or deny them.Maslow originally found the occurrence of peak experiences in individuals who were self-actualizing, but later found that peak experiences happened to non-actualizers as well but not as often:I have recently found it more and more useful to differentiate between two kinds of self-actualizing people, those who were clearly healthy, but with little or no experiences of transcendence, and those in whom transcendent experiencing was important and even central… It is unfortunate that I can no longer be theoretically neat at this level. I find not only self-actualizing persons who transcend, but also non-healthy people, non-self-actualizers who have important transcendent experiences. It seems to me that I have found some degree of transcendence in many people other than self-actualizing ones as I have defined this term…'s_hierarchy_of_needs[...]

Exactly what is Emotional Intelligence?


The term encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities:
1. Self-awareness--knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur, and discriminating between them
2. Mood management--handling feelings so they're relevant to the current situation and you react appropriately
3. Self-motivation--"gathering up" your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, inertia, and impulsiveness
4. Empathy--recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal and nonverbal cues
5. Managing relationships--handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution, and negotiations

Managing children in pain


The very difficult children in your classroom.Children in pain need to be helped to remove the pain.Whole brain teachingDefinitionWhole-brain teaching is an instructional approach derived from neurolinguistic descriptions of functions of the brain’s left and right hemispheres.Basic elementsNeurolinguistic findings about the brain’s language functions shows that in the integrated brain, the functions of one hemisphere are immediately available to other, producing a more balanced use of language. Whole-brains teaching emphasizes active learning, in which the learner makes connections that tap both hemispheres.Another aspect of whole-brain teaching is managing the emotional climate, to relax learners.In whole-brain learning, imaging is seen as the basis for comprehension. For this reason, learners are encouraged to visualize, draw, and use drama as they develop new ideas, in order to retain them. (even in mathematics)Emotional intelligence (developing emotional intelligence removes pain)In a 1994 report on the current state of emotional literacy in the U.S., author Daniel Goleman stated:" navigating our lives, it is our fears and envies, our rages and depressions, our worries and anxieties that steer us day to day. Even the most academically brilliant among us are vulnerable to being undone by unruly emotions. The price we pay for emotional literacy is in failed marriages and troubled families, in stunted social and work lives, in deteriorating physical health and mental anguish and, as a society, in tragedies such as killings..." Goleman attests that the best remedy for battling our emotional shortcomings is preventive medicine. In other words, we need to place as much importance on teaching our children the essential skills of Emotional Intelligence as we do on more traditional measures like IQ and GPA.Exactly what is Emotional Intelligence?The term encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities:1. Self-awareness--knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur, and discriminating between them2. Mood management--handling feelings so they're relevant to the current situation and you react appropriately3. Self-motivation--"gathering up" your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, inertia, and impulsiveness4. Empathy--recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal and nonverbal cues5. Managing relationships--handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution, and negotiations[...]

Glasser and Classroom management.


• Look to behaviour to find solutions• Who do you have control over only your self • Major focus is relationships and so need connecting habits not disconnecting habits • All behaviour is purposeful.• A students behaviour is an attempt to meet a biological or psychological need.Sucessful teachers ask“What is the purpose of the student’s behaviour?”“How can I help this student learn a replacement behaviour?”Behaviour is made up of these 4 components:1. Acting2. Thinking3. Feeling4. PhysiologyGlasser suggests that we have considerable control or choice over the first two of these, and little ability to directly choose the latter two.The choices we make in our thinking and acting greatly affect our feeling and physiology.Choice theory posits that most mental illness is, in fact an expression of unhappiness and that we are able to learn how to choose alternate behaviours that will result in greater satisfaction.The democratic Discipline model. Rudolf DreikursStudents should be given a choice rather than be forced to behave as directed.Attaining recognition as a worthy, able individual in the group is central to personality and happiness.This theory of classroom management is for pre adolescents. It is useful for year 7 and year 8. Some of the ideas are useful for older children.This theory is based on the fundamental idea thatPeople are, basically, social in nature and, as such, have an innate drive to belong to a social group.Principles of democratic discipline1. Try to understand why a student is behaving in a particular manner2. Allow students to have some say in decisions that effect them 3. Be a kind, responsible accepting person who models for students the behaviour that is expected of them.Preventive Strategies1. Offer encouragement on a regular basis2. Focus on effect rather than achievement 3. Encourage in a way that highlights the value of learning 4. Classroom discussions are helpful in preventing discipline problems 5. Develop a positive relationship with students 6. Establish a relationship of mutual respect 7. Look for assets in each of the students 8. Have a flexible attitude towards studentsTaken from a paper given out by Alan Coman.[...]

Successful Classroom Teaching


“To be successful in the classroom, teachers • Need a well-planned, individual model of discipline • Must understand various psychological theories of discipline • Must understand the assumptions upon which they are based, • Must understand their own values and educational philosophy • Must use a model of discipline that is in harmony with their convictions.” The best approach is the leader teacher not the boss teacher. This is best achieved using Glasser’s choice theory. Essentially it is saying that the only thing we can control is the way we think and act- not the way we feel, which is a consequence. So we can choose to think and to act in certain ways. Children and adolescents seek five main things in life.• A safe secure place where they belong • To be loved and valued • To have power• To have freedom • To have fun and learn A good teacher will provide these things in the way they structure their lesson.In some situations teachers can resort to Assertive Discipline Assertive discipline is a structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher-in-charge classroom environment. Lee and Marlene Canter, when consulting for school systems, found that many teachers were unable to control undesirable behavior that occurred in their classrooms. The Cantors, rightfully so, attributed this to a lack of training in the area of behavior management. Based on their research and the foundations of assertiveness training and applied behavior analysis, they developed a common sense, easy-to-learn approach to help teachers become the captains of their classrooms and positively influence their students' behavior. Today, it is the most widely used "canned" (prepared/packaged) behavior management program. Assertive discipline has evolved since the mid 70's from an authoritarian approach to one that is more democratic and cooperative.• What are some of the positive consequences that so motivate students?• Personal attention from the teacher--greetings, short talks, compliments, acknowledgements, smiles, and friendly eye contact.• Positive notes/phone calls to parents.• Special awards--from comments on papers to certificates.• Special privileges--five extra minutes of a desired activity for the whole class, choosing a friend with whom to work.• Material rewards--posters, school pencils, popcorn.• Home rewards--in collaboration with parents, privileges can be extended at home. Completing homework can earn extra TV time. Reading a book can earn a favorite meal.• Group rewards--Preferred Activity Time.[...]

Motivation to Learn.



• Guide
• Facilitate
• Prompt
• Open doors
• Make a learning Place not space

What engages a child?
• From the moment they walk in the door Grab their attention.
• Get them into the zone of proximal development.
• Bring them into a learning place
• Create places in the room for different kind of learners
• Make them feel connected.
• Skill the students

Basic Assumption (Dreikurs)


All misbehavior is the result of a child’s mistaken assumption about the way he can find a place and gain status (Dreikurs, 1968, p. 36).Rudolf Dreikurs main focus is on establishing a classroom which is democratic in nature and gives students a sense of belonging. This is put in place when students have some voice as to the functions of the classroom. Mutual trust between the teacher is created in various ways, including common group discussions about class concerns.Dreikurs maintains that "discipline makes no use of punishment." He further believes that students have different levels of misbehavior. These misbehaviors occur in a progressive manner. The child first tries to get attention. If this does not work, the child will misbehave further in an effort to achieve power over the teacher or others. When attention or power do not gain the student sufficient status, they seek revenge. They believe they can only feel significant if they hurt others. After all else fails, the student then displays inadequacy. This is also called "learned helplessness." The student sees themselves as a complete failure. They feel others will leave them alone if others see them as inadequate.Dreikurs model is an ideal one for enhancing student empowerment.Dreikurs defined three types of teachers: autocratic, permissive and democratic.• Autocratic teachers are teachers who exhibit the following traits: the are bossy, use a sharp tone of voice, command, exercise power, dominate, exert pressure, demand cooperation, tell you what you should do, impose ideas, dominate, criticize, find fault, punish and unilaterally establish all procedures, rules and consequences. • Permissive teachers place few if any limits on student’s behavior, nor do they invoke logical consequences when misbehavior disrupts the class. Their demeanor is wishy washy and they tend to make excuses for students who misbehave.• Democratic teachers stand in marked the following traits of democratic teaching: leadership, friendliness, inviting nature, stimulation traits of ideas, cooperation, guidance, encouragement, acknowledgement, helpfulness and shared responsibilities. Dreikurs believed that democratic teachers in contrast to autocratic and permissive teachers are more likely to help students become self-disciplined.Dreikurs did not consider punishment as an effective method of discipline. He viewed punishment as an action taken by the teacher to get back at students and show them whose boss. He believed that punishment was humiliating and offensive to students.Dreikurs central focus was on constructive behavior rather than coercive discipline. He believed that teachers should have a democratic classroom and teaching style, for helping students gain a sense of belonging (genuine goal). He believed that in this manner students would have a social interest: a condition in which students come to see that it is to their advantage to contribute to the welfare of a group.posted by sallyd[...]



MODEL OF EDUCATION IN VOGUE: CONSTRUCTIVIST EDUCATIONPIAGET- Children are not adults; children construct their own understanding of reality through trial and error. Piaget gave the example of his own daughter who was asked, 'what makes the wind'. The answer she gave was that 'the trees make the wind'. Then her father asked her what makes the wind on the water. This question required further contemplation and enhances the possibility of the child entering what Vygotsky was later to name the Zone of Proximal Development. A good teacher engages students by finding their current understandings and then giving them the opportunity to gather more information and integrate it into their current scheme of understanding. Piaget refers to knowledge as a scheme that can be modified and built upon.VYGOTSKY- SOCIAL INTERACTION: Students need to have effective social interaction for good learning to occur. While an individual can build their own schemes, a person only really learns when they discuss an idea with another person. This requires that they question, think, ask, help and rethink. Their Scheme of Understanding is constantly developing. It is important to remember this in the classroom.Group work and the classroomFor effective group work we need the following factors to be presenti) Three, four or five members onlyii) Positive Interdependenceiii) A clear set of specific student learning outcomesiv) Recognition of the groupv) Interaction within the groupvi) Structuring the taskvii) Resourcesviii) Post Group Reflectionix) Assessment in groupsThe social interaction in a classroom is provided by group work. This involves students collaborating in their learning. Your may remember the conditions required for a group to be able to function effectively. In summary these arei) Appropriate Placeii) Quality TimeCollaborative Learning Typesi) Pairs. This is very important and really needs to be taking place constantly in a classroom. The challenge for the teacher is to focus the students on discussion of the topic in hand. For it to be successful it is important that the pair have the sense of a common project, that they are solving a problem, that they are building knowledge. It is necessary to tap into this creative side of the individuals. They have to have a sense of working on a project together to find an original solution.It is largely a waste of time to tell them to discuss what you have just been saying. What you have to do is throw out a challenging question or issue that they discuss in order to form an opinion or to find an answer. The need for a well prepared lesson including the preparation of good key questions is the key to success here.Remember it is through their discussion, their social interaction that the learning occurs, that their Scheme of Understanding develops. They need to have a feedback mechanism for their solution to you the teacher and their fellow students. It is here that group work begins.Think ---- Pair --- Shareii) Group work.One of the frustrations in group work is that only some individuals contribute. This is why it is important that you prepare well for group work. The technical word is scaffold learning. There are two proven methods to improve group work.a) Think, pair, shareHere the students come to the group having thought about the issue and already discussed it with another person. We know that the most effective way to learn is to teach others. So, when you are doing the thi[...]

Basics of Adler and Dreikurs’s social theory


Adler’s Basic premises (Dreikurs, 1972, pp. 8-9)i) Man is a social being and his main desire (the basic motivation) is to belong.ii) All behavior is purposive. One cannot understand behavior of another person unless one knows to which goal it is directed, and it is always directed towards finding one's place.iii) Man is a decision-making organism.iv) Man does not see reality as it is, but only as he perceives it, and his perception may be mistaken or biased.Students’ goals that motivates misbehavior (Wolfgang, 2001, pp. 117-122) (Dreikurs, 1968, pp. 37-40)
i) Attention GettingStudents who are looking to belong and be recognized in the class. This is more often identified with disturbing behavior. Many times this occurs because students are not getting the recognition that they feel they deserve. If students cannot get attention for their positive behaviors (being on task, completing work, arriving on time, etc.), they will seek it with inappropriate behaviors (continually calling out, refusing to work, asking irrelevant questions, etc.)Wolfgang (2001) explains, "A student who seeks attention should not receive it when he acts out. To give attention to the student for inappropriate behavior would be playing into the student's plan and would not help the student learn how to behave productively in the group" (p. 120).Instead of giving attention to the attention seeker, look to these techniques:• Minimize the Attention (Ignore the behavior, stand close by, give written notice)• Legitimize the Behavior (Make a lesson out of the behavior, have the whole class join in the behavior)• Do the Unexpected (Turn out the lights, play a musical sound, talk to the wall)• Distract the Student (Ask a direct question, ask a favor, change the activity)• Notice Appropriate Behavior (Thank students, write well-behaved students' names on the chalkboard)• Move the Student (Change the student's seat, send the student to the thinking chair)
ii) Power and ControlStudents who feel inferiority, so trying to be boss. Once the battle has been joined, the child has already won it. Behavior characteristics consist of the student repetitively doing a behavior to make him or her the center of attention. When asked to stop, he or she becomes defiant and escalates his or her negative behavior and challenges the adult. The teacher will feel annoyed at the student’s actions.Wolfgang (2001) states, "A student who wishes to possess power should not be able to engage the teacher in a struggle. The teacher who falls for this 'bait' and gets pulled into the battle is merely continuing the excitement and challenge for the student. The student becomes increasingly bolder and pleased with trying to test the teacher. The teacher should attempt to remove the issue of power altogether and force the student to look for some other goal for behaving" (p. 121).
iii) RevengeStudents who think the only way to get recognition is to retaliate against adults for the way they feel they have been unfairly treated. This is formed after a long series of discouragement by failing trials for attention getting and power.Behavior characteristics consist of a student who hurts others physically or psychologically. The teacher will feel hurt in relation to the student's actions.Wolfgang (2001) explains, "In this case, the teacher is dealing with a more difficult task. A student who feels hurt and wishes[...]