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pubmed: 0077-8923



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Contemporaneous reproduction of preclinical science: a case study of FSH and fat.
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Contemporaneous reproduction of preclinical science: a case study of FSH and fat.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 15;:

Authors: Rosen CJ, Zaidi M

PMID: 28810084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Dreamless: the silent epidemic of REM sleep loss.
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Dreamless: the silent epidemic of REM sleep loss.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 15;:

Authors: Naiman R

Abstract
We are at least as dream deprived as we are sleep deprived. Many of the health concerns attributed to sleep loss result from a silent epidemic of REM sleep deprivation. REM/dream loss is an unrecognized public health hazard that silently wreaks havoc with our lives, contributing to illness, depression, and an erosion of consciousness. This paper compiles data about the causes and extent of REM/dream loss associated with commonly used medications, endemic substance use disorders, rampant sleep disorders, and behavioral and lifestyle factors. It examines the consequences of REM/dream loss and concludes with recommendations for restoring healthy REM/dreaming.

PMID: 28810072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase prevents STAT1 induction of claudin-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.
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T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase prevents STAT1 induction of claudin-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 14;:

Authors: Krishnan M, McCole DF

Abstract
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylates a number of substrates, including JAK-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling proteins, which are activated by interferon (IFN)-γ, a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. A critical function of the intestinal epithelium is formation of a selective barrier to luminal contents. The structural units of the epithelium that regulate barrier function are the tight junctions (TJs), and the protein composition of the TJ determines the tightness of the barrier. Claudin-2 is a TJ protein that increases permeability to cations and reduces transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). We previously showed that transient knockdown (KD) of TCPTP permits increased expression of claudin-2 by IFN-γ. Here, we demonstrate that the decreased TER in TCPTP-deficient epithelial cells is alleviated by STAT1 KD. Moreover, increased claudin-2 in TCPTP-deficient cells requires enhanced STAT1 activation and STAT1 binding to the CLDN2 promoter. We also show that mutation of this STAT-binding site prevents elevated CLDN2 promoter activity in TCPTP-deficient epithelial cells. In summary, we demonstrate that TCPTP protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by restricting STAT-induced claudin-2 expression. This is a potential mechanism by which loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding TCPTP may contribute to barrier defects in chronic intestinal inflammatory disease.

PMID: 28804910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Looking beyond the intervertebral disc: the need for behavioral assays in models of discogenic pain.
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Looking beyond the intervertebral disc: the need for behavioral assays in models of discogenic pain.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 10;:

Authors: Mosley GE, Evashwick-Rogler TW, Lai A, Iatridis JC

Abstract
Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior. Looking beyond the intervertebral disc, we describe the different ways to classify pain in human patients and animal models. We describe several behavioral assays that can be used in rodent models to augment disc degeneration measurements and characterize different types of pain. We review rodent models of discogenic pain that employed behavioral pain assays and highlight a need to better integrate neuroscience and orthopedic science methods to extend current understanding of the complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of discogenic back pain.

PMID: 28797134 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Antiobesity effects of resveratrol: which tissues are involved?
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Antiobesity effects of resveratrol: which tissues are involved?

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Aug 10;:

Authors: Fernández-Quintela A, Milton-Laskibar I, González M, Portillo MP

Abstract
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current options for overweight and obesity management are energy restriction and physical activity. However, compliance with these treatments is frequently poor and less successful than expected. Therefore, the scientific community is interested in active biomolecules, which may be useful in body weight management. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an antiobesity agent. The focus of this report is the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on several tissues (i.e., white and brown adipose tissues, liver, and skeletal muscle). Resveratrol blunts fat accumulation through decreasing adipogenesis and/or de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. The effects on lipolysis are controversial. Regarding brown adipose tissue, resveratrol increases the capacity for adaptive thermogenesis. As far as liver and skeletal muscle is concerned, resveratrol increases lipid oxidation in both tissues. Therefore, in rodents, there is a general consensus concerning the effect of resveratrol on reducing body fat accumulation. By contrast, in humans, the studies are scarce, and no clear antiobesity action has been revealed so far.

PMID: 28796895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.
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Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):8-32

Authors: Christensen JF, Cela-Conde CJ, Gomila A

Abstract
This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance.

PMID: 28787539 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.
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International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):3-7

Authors: Krebs N, Bagby S, Bhutta ZA, Dewey K, Fall C, Gregory F, Hay W, Rhuman L, Caldwell CW, Thornburg KL

Abstract
An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world.

PMID: 28722768 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




A novel framework for analyzing conservation impacts: evaluation, theory, and marine protected areas.
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A novel framework for analyzing conservation impacts: evaluation, theory, and marine protected areas.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):93-115

Authors: Mascia MB, Fox HE, Glew L, Ahmadia GN, Agrawal A, Barnes M, Basurto X, Craigie I, Darling E, Geldmann J, Gill D, Holst Rice S, Jensen OP, Lester SE, McConney P, Mumby PJ, Nenadovic M, Parks JE, Pomeroy RS, White AT

Abstract
Environmental conservation initiatives, including marine protected areas (MPAs), have proliferated in recent decades. Designed to conserve marine biodiversity, many MPAs also seek to foster sustainable development. As is the case for many other environmental policies and programs, the impacts of MPAs are poorly understood. Social-ecological systems, impact evaluation, and common-pool resource governance are three complementary scientific frameworks for documenting and explaining the ecological and social impacts of conservation interventions. We review key components of these three frameworks and their implications for the study of conservation policy, program, and project outcomes. Using MPAs as an illustrative example, we then draw upon these three frameworks to describe an integrated approach for rigorous empirical documentation and causal explanation of conservation impacts. This integrated three-framework approach for impact evaluation of governance in social-ecological systems (3FIGS) accounts for alternative explanations, builds upon and advances social theory, and provides novel policy insights in ways that no single approach affords. Despite the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems and the difficulty of causal inference, the 3FIGS approach can dramatically advance our understanding of, and the evidentiary basis for, effective MPAs and other conservation initiatives.

PMID: 28719737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Characterizing a mouse model for evaluation of countermeasures against hydrogen sulfide-induced neurotoxicity and neurological sequelae.
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Characterizing a mouse model for evaluation of countermeasures against hydrogen sulfide-induced neurotoxicity and neurological sequelae.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):46-64

Authors: Anantharam P, Whitley EM, Mahama B, Kim DS, Imerman PM, Shao D, Langley MR, Kanthasamy A, Rumbeiha WK

Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a highly neurotoxic gas. It is the second most common cause of gas-induced deaths. Beyond mortality, surviving victims of acute exposure may suffer long-term neurological sequelae. There is a need to develop countermeasures against H2 S poisoning. However, no translational animal model of H2 S-induced neurological sequelae exists. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity for translational research. In paradigm I, C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 765 ppm H2 S for 40 min on day 1, followed by 15-min daily exposures for periods ranging from 1 to 6 days. In paradigm II, mice were exposed once to 1000 ppm H2 S for 60 minutes. Mice were assessed for behavioral, neurochemical, biochemical, and histopathological changes. H2 S intoxication caused seizures, dyspnea, respiratory depression, knockdowns, and death. H2 S-exposed mice showed significant impairment in locomotor and coordinated motor movement activity compared with controls. Histopathology revealed neurodegenerative lesions in the collicular, thalamic, and cortical brain regions. H2 S significantly increased dopamine and serotonin concentration in several brain regions and caused time-dependent decreases in GABA and glutamate concentrations. Furthermore, H2 S significantly suppressed cytochrome c oxidase activity and caused significant loss in body weight. Overall, male mice were more sensitive than females. This novel translational mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity is reliable, reproducible, and recapitulates acute H2 S poisoning in humans.

PMID: 28719733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Winter storm intensity, hazards, and property losses in the New York tristate area.
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Winter storm intensity, hazards, and property losses in the New York tristate area.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):65-80

Authors: Shimkus CE, Ting M, Booth JF, Adamo SB, Madajewicz M, Kushnir Y, Rieder HE

Abstract
Winter storms pose numerous hazards to the Northeast United States, including rain, snow, strong wind, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions of dollars in damages from one storm alone. This study investigates meteorological intensity and impacts of winter storms from 2001 to 2014 on coastal counties in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York and underscores the consequences of winter storms. The study selected 70 winter storms on the basis of station observations of surface wind strength, heavy precipitation, high storm tide, and snow extremes. Storm rankings differed between measures, suggesting that intensity is not easily defined with a single metric. Several storms fell into two or more categories (multiple-category storms). Following storm selection, property damages were examined to determine which types lead to high losses. The analysis of hazards (or events) and associated damages using the Storm Events Database of the National Centers for Environmental Information indicates that multiple-category storms were responsible for a greater portion of the damage. Flooding was responsible for the highest losses, but no discernible connection exists between the number of storms that afflict a county and the damage it faces. These results imply that losses may rely more on the incidence of specific hazards, infrastructure types, and property values, which vary throughout the region.

PMID: 28715602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Assessing musical ability quickly and objectively: development and validation of the Short-PROMS and the Mini-PROMS.
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Assessing musical ability quickly and objectively: development and validation of the Short-PROMS and the Mini-PROMS.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):33-45

Authors: Zentner M, Strauss H

Abstract
The study of musical ability has gained considerable traction across disciplines in recent years. In comparison, less effort has been invested in the development of sound measures of musical ability. To redress this gap, we conducted four studies to empirically validate two brief measures derived from the Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS)-an exceptionally inclusive battery of musical abilities that takes about 1 h to complete. In the Short-PROMS, test duration was reduced to less than half an hour by substantially reducing the number of trials per subtest. In the Mini-PROMS, the number of subtests was reduced to four, resulting in a battery that takes 15 min to complete. Both measures exhibited good internal consistency and retest reliability. Support for convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity was found across the studies. Additional strengths of the new instruments include their suitability for online administration and a feature called Modular PROMS, which offers researchers the possibility to request customized batteries that may include any combination of the subtests. The role of refining objective assessment instruments in research on music and the mind is discussed.

PMID: 28704888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.
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Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):5-26

Authors: Arkema KK, Griffin R, Maldonado S, Silver J, Suckale J, Guerry AD

Abstract
Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection.

PMID: 28370069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




The ecology of human microbiota: dynamics and diversity in health and disease.
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The ecology of human microbiota: dynamics and diversity in health and disease.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):78-92

Authors: Karkman A, Lehtimäki J, Ruokolainen L

Abstract
Social welfare, better health care, and urbanization have greatly improved human health and well-being. On the other hand, Western societies suffer from the downsides of the elevated standard of living. Among other factors, the Western diet (poor in dietary fiber), lack of contact with natural biodiversity, and excessive antibiotic use are known to be associated with the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders. Limited exposure to microbial biodiversity, in combination with severe lifestyle-related disturbances to commensal microbial communities, especially during early life, is changing the diversity and composition of human microbiota. In this review, we try to promote and apply ecological theory to understand the dynamics and diversity of human commensal microbiota. In this context, we explore the changes in the microbiota that are relevant to human health, especially in light of the rise of chronic inflammatory disorders. We try to elucidate the underlying ecological mechanisms behind these disorders and provide potential solutions for their avoidance.

PMID: 28319653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Zika and chikungunya: mosquito-borne viruses in a changing world.
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Zika and chikungunya: mosquito-borne viruses in a changing world.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):61-77

Authors: Shragai T, Tesla B, Murdock C, Harrington LC

Abstract
The reemergence and growing burden of mosquito-borne virus infections have incited public fear and growing research efforts to understand the mechanisms of infection-associated health outcomes and to provide better approaches for mosquito vector control. While efforts to develop therapeutics, vaccines, and novel genetic mosquito-control technologies are underway, many important underlying ecological questions remain that could significantly enhance our understanding and ability to predict and prevent transmission. Here, we review the current knowledge about the transmission ecology of two recent arbovirus invaders, the chikungunya and Zika viruses. We introduce the viruses and mosquito vectors, highlighting viral biology, historical routes of transmission, and viral mechanisms facilitating rapid global invasion. In addition, we review factors contributing to vector global invasiveness and transmission efficiency. We conclude with a discussion of how human-induced biotic and abiotic environmental changes facilitate mosquito-borne virus transmission, emphasizing critical gaps in understanding. These knowledge gaps are tremendous; much of our data on basic mosquito ecology in the field predate 1960, and the mosquitoes themselves, as well as the world they live in, have substantially changed. A concerted investment in understanding the basic ecology of these vectors, which serve as the main drivers of pathogen transmission in both wildlife and human populations, is now more important than ever.

PMID: 28187236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.
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Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):27-41

Authors: Eklund J, Cabeza M

Abstract
Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs.

PMID: 27918838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]




Understanding local-scale drivers of biodiversity outcomes in terrestrial protected areas.
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Understanding local-scale drivers of biodiversity outcomes in terrestrial protected areas.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1399(1):42-60

Authors: Barnes MD, Craigie ID, Dudley N, Hockings M

Abstract
Conservation relies heavily on protected areas (PAs) maintaining their key biodiversity features to meet global biodiversity conservation goals. However, PAs have had variable success, with many failing to fully maintain their biodiversity features. The current literature concerning what drives variability in PA performance is rapidly expanding but unclear, sometimes contradictory, and spread across multiple disciplines. A clear understanding of the drivers of successful biodiversity conservation in PAs is necessary to make them fully effective. Here, we conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current state of knowledge concerning the drivers of biological outcomes within PAs, focusing on those that can be addressed at local scales. We evaluate evidence in support of potential drivers to identify those that enable more successful outcomes and those that impede success and provide a synthetic review. Interactions are discussed where they are known, and we highlight gaps in understanding. We find that elements of PA design, management, and local and national governance challenges, species and system ecology, and sociopolitical context can all influence outcomes. Adjusting PA management to focus on actions and policies that influence the key drivers identified here could improve global biodiversity outcomes.

PMID: 27589395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]