Subscribe: pubmed: 0724-8741
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pubmed: 0724-8741



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Semi-Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of L-Histidine Disposition and Brain Uptake in Wildtype and Pht1 Null Mice.
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Semi-Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of L-Histidine Disposition and Brain Uptake in Wildtype and Pht1 Null Mice.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):19

Authors: Wang XX, Li YB, Feng MR, Smith DE

Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop a semi-mechanistic population pharmacokinetic (PK) model to quantitate the disposition kinetics of L-histidine, a peptide-histidine transporter 1 (PHT1) substrate, in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma of wildtype (WT) and Pht1 knockout (KO) mice.
METHODS: L-[14C]Hisidine (L-His) was administrated to WT and KO mice via tail vein injection, after which plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma samples were collected. A PK model was developed using non-linear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM). The disposition of L-His between the plasma, brain, and CSF was described by a combination of PHT1-mediated uptake, CSF bulk flow and first-order micro-rate constants.
RESULTS: The PK profile of L-His was best described by a four-compartment model. A more rapid uptake of L-His in brain parenchyma was observed in WT mice due to PHT1-mediated uptake, a process characterized by a Michaelis-Menten component (Vmax = 0.051 nmoL/min and Km = 34.94 μM).
CONCLUSIONS: A semi-mechanistic population PK model was successfully developed, for the first time, to quantitatively characterize the disposition kinetics of L-His in brain under in vivo conditions. This model may prove a useful tool in predicting the uptake of L-His, and possibly other PHT1 peptide/mimetic substrates, for drug delivery to the brain.

PMID: 29305823 [PubMed - in process]




Coadministration of Polymeric Conjugates of Docetaxel and Cyclopamine Synergistically Inhibits Orthotopic Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis.
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Coadministration of Polymeric Conjugates of Docetaxel and Cyclopamine Synergistically Inhibits Orthotopic Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):17

Authors: Almawash SA, Mondal G, Mahato RI

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether co-administration of hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor cyclopamine (CYP) and microtubule stabilizer docetaxel (DTX) as polymer-drug conjugates, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-carboxyl-propylenecarbonate-graft-dodecanol-graft-cyclopamine) (P-CYP) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-carboxyl-propylene carbonate-graft-dodecanol-graft-docetaxel) (P-DTX) could synergistically inhibit orthotopic pancreatic tumor growth in NSG mice.
METHODS: P-DTX and P-CYP were synthesized from mPEG-b-PCC through carbodiimide coupling reaction and characterized by 1H-NMR. The micelles were prepared by film hydration and particle size was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis of P-DTX and P-CYP were evaluated in MIA PaCa-2 cells. In vivo efficacy of P-DTX and P-CYP were evaluated in NSG mice bearing MIA PaCa-2 cells derived orthotopic pancreatic tumor.
RESULTS: P-CYP and P-DTX self-assembled into micelles of <90 nm and their combination therapy efficiently inhibited the proliferation of MIA PaCa-2 cells, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at M-phase more efficiently than P-CYP and P-DTX monotherapies. Furthermore, the combination therapy of P-CYP and P-DTX significantly reduced Hh component expression compared to P-CYP alone as determined by Western blot analysis. Lastly, the combination therapy induced greater inhibition of orthotopic pancreatic tumor growth in NSG mice compared to their monotherapies.
CONCLUSION: Combination of polymer conjugated anticancer drug (P-DTX) with polymer conjugated Hh inhibitor (P-CYP) enhanced pancreatic cancer cell killing, apoptosis as well as in vivo tumor growth inhibition with no obvious toxicities.

PMID: 29305793 [PubMed - in process]




Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.
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Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):23

Authors: Teerakapibal R, Gui Y, Yu L

Abstract
PURPOSE: Inhibit the fast surface crystallization of amorphous drugs with gelatin nano-coatings.
METHODS: The free surface of amorphous films of indomethacin or nifedipine was coated by a gelatin solution (type A or B) and dried. The coating's effect on surface crystallization was evaluated. Coating thickness was estimated from mass change after coating.
RESULTS: For indomethacin (weak acid, pKa = 4.5), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 and 10 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. The coating thickness was 20 ± 10 nm. A gelatin coating deposited at pH 3, however, provided no protective effect. These results suggest that an effective gelatin coating does not require that the drug and the polymer have opposite charges. The ineffective pH 3 coating might reflect the poor wetting of indomethacin's neutral, hydrophobic surface by the coating solution. For nifedipine (weak base, pKa = 2.6), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Gelatin nano-coatings can be conveniently applied to amorphous drugs from solution to inhibit fast surface crystallization. Unlike strong polyelectrolyte coatings, a protective gelatin coating does not require strict pairing of opposite charges. This could make gelatin coating a versatile, pharmaceutically acceptable coating for stabilizing amorphous drugs.

PMID: 29305725 [PubMed - in process]




Influence of Low-Molecular-Weight Excipients on the Phase Behavior of PVPVA64 Amorphous Solid Dispersions.
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Influence of Low-Molecular-Weight Excipients on the Phase Behavior of PVPVA64 Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):25

Authors: Lehmkemper K, Kyeremateng SO, Degenhardt M, Sadowski G

Abstract
PURPOSE: The oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be improved by the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) where the API is dissolved in polymeric excipients. Desired properties of such ASDs like storage stability, dissolution behavior, and processability can be optimized by additional excipients. In this work, the influence of so-called low-molecular-weight excipients (LMWEs) on the phase behavior of ASDs was investigated.
METHOD: Binary ASDs of an amorphous API, naproxen (NAP) or acetaminophen (APAP), embedded in poly-(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) were chosen as reference systems. Polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG1500), D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS1000), propylene glycol monocaprylate type II (Capryol™ 90), and propylene glycol monolaurate type I (Lauroglycol™ FCC) were used as LMWEs. The API solubility in the excipients and the glass-transition temperature of the ASDs were modeled using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and the Kwei equation, respectively, and compared to corresponding experimental data.
RESULTS: The API solubility curves in ternary systems with 90/10 wt%/wt% PVPVA64/LMWE ratios were very close to those in pure PVPVA64. However, the glass-transition temperatures of API/PVPVA64/LMWE ASDs were much lower than those of API/PVPVA64 ASDs. These effects were determined experimentally and agreed with the predictions using the PC-SAFT and Kwei models.
CONCLUSION: The impact of the LMWEs on the thermodynamic stability of the ASDs is quite small while the kinetic stability is significantly decreased even by small LMWE amounts. PC-SAFT and the Kwei equation are suitable tools for predicting the influence of LMWEs on the ASD phase behavior.

PMID: 29305717 [PubMed - in process]




Investigation Into the Effects of Tenilsetam on Markers of Neuroinflammation in GFAP-IL6 Mice.
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Investigation Into the Effects of Tenilsetam on Markers of Neuroinflammation in GFAP-IL6 Mice.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):22

Authors: Gyengesi E, Liang H, Millington C, Sonego S, Sirijovski D, Gunawardena D, Dhananjayan K, Venigalla M, Niedermayer G, Münch G

Abstract
PURPOSE: To test the short- and long-term effects of Tenilsetam on chronic neuroinflammation in the GFAP-IL6 mouse.
METHODS: From 3 months of age, GFAP-IL6 mice were divided into 2 groups and fed with Tenilsetam enriched food pellets or control food pellets, respectively, for either 5 or 15 months. Total numbers of Iba-1+ microglia, TSPO+ cells were determined using an unbiased stereological method. Levels of methylglyoxal and TNF-α in the cerebellar homogenate were tested using HPLC and ELISA, respectively.
RESULTS: Tenilsetam decreased the total number of Iba-1+ microglia in both the cerebellum and the hippocampus of GFAP-IL6 mice at 8 months and in the cerebellum at 18 months. In the cerebellum, it decreased the density of microglia in GFAP-IL6 mice to a similar level after 5 and 15 months' feeding. Tenilsetam prevented the volume loss of the cerebellum at 8 months. It also significantly decreased TNF-α in the cerebellum of GFAP-IL6 mice to a similar level of WT mice after 15 months of feeding.
CONCLUSION: Tenilsetam has anti-inflammatory effects evidenced by the decreased number of microglia in both the cerebellum and hippocampus, and decreased TNF-α levels in the GFAP-IL6 Tenilsetam fed animals.

PMID: 29305671 [PubMed - in process]




Bioactive-Chylomicrons for Oral Lymphatic Targeting of Berberine Chloride: Novel Flow-Blockage Assay in Tissue-Based and Caco-2 Cell Line Models.
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Bioactive-Chylomicrons for Oral Lymphatic Targeting of Berberine Chloride: Novel Flow-Blockage Assay in Tissue-Based and Caco-2 Cell Line Models.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):18

Authors: Elsheikh MA, Elnaggar YSR, Otify DY, Abdallah OY

Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop novel bioactive-chylomicrons to solve oral delivery obstacles of Berberine chloride and target the lymphatic system.
METHODS: Berberine-loaded bioactive-chylomicrons were prepared and underwent full in vitro characterization. Intestinal permeability was appraised via both non-everted gut sac model and Caco-2 cell model. Furthermore, Bioactive-chylomicrons' cellular uptake and distribution were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Finally, a novel chylomicron flow-blockage assay on tissue and cellular levels were elaborated to assess the lymphatic targeting ability.
RESULTS: Berberine-loaded chylomicrons showed spherical vesicles of size (175.6 nm), PDI (0.229), zeta potential (-16 .6 mV) and entrapment efficiency (95.5%). Ex-vivo intestinal permeability studies demonstrated 10.5 fold enhancement in permeability of Berberine-loaded chylomicrons over free Berberine. Moreover, Caco-2 studies revealed significant improvement in chylomicrons' permeability and cellular uptake. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analyses revealed 2 fold increase in berberine-loaded chylomicrons' intracellular fluorescence. Lymphatic targeting models were successfully elaborated using cycloheximide protein synthesis inhibitor. Such models demonstrated 47 and 27.5% reduction in ex-vivo and Caco-2 permeability respectively. Finally, a good rank order correlation was established between different permeability assessment techniques.
CONCLUSION: The findings shed the light on the underlying mechanisms of Berberine bioavailability improvement. Consequently, berberine-loaded chylomicrons could be considered as promising bioactive-nanocarriers for Berberine lymphatic targeting and bioavailability improvement.

PMID: 29305670 [PubMed - in process]




Iloprost Affects Macrophage Activation and CCL2 Concentrations in a Microdialysis Model in Rats.
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Iloprost Affects Macrophage Activation and CCL2 Concentrations in a Microdialysis Model in Rats.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):20

Authors: Alkhatib K, Poseno TM, Diaz Perez A, Durdik JM, Stenken JA

Abstract
PURPOSE: The hypothesis that locally-released iloprost, a synthetic prostacyclin analog, affects macrophage phenotype at a microdialysis implant in the subcutaneous space of rats was tested. Macrophage activation towards alternatively-activated phenotypes using pharmaceutical release is of interest to improve integration of implants and direct the foreign body reaction toward a successful outcome.
METHODS: Macrophage cell culture was used to test iloprost macrophage activation in vitro. Microdialysis sampling probes were implanted into the subcutaneous space of Sprague-Dawley rats to locally deliver iloprost in awake- and freely-moving rats. Monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (CCL2) was quantified from collected dialysates using ELISA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the presence of CD163+ macrophages in explanted tissues.
RESULTS: Iloprost reduced CCL2 concentrations in NR8383 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. CCL2 concentrations in collected dialysates were similarly reduced in the presence of iloprost. Iloprost caused an increase in CD163+ cells in explanted tissue surrounding implanted microdialysis probes at two days post probe implantation.
CONCLUSIONS: Localized delivery of iloprost caused macrophage activation at the tissue interface of a microdialysis subcutaneous implant in rat. This model system may be useful for testing other potential macrophage modulators in vivo.

PMID: 29305668 [PubMed - in process]




Decorated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Monoclonal Antibody and Diethylene-Triamine-Pentaacetic Acid Labeled with Thechnetium-99m and Galium-68 for Breast Cancer Imaging.
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Decorated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Monoclonal Antibody and Diethylene-Triamine-Pentaacetic Acid Labeled with Thechnetium-99m and Galium-68 for Breast Cancer Imaging.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):24

Authors: de Souza Albernaz M, Toma SH, Clanton J, Araki K, Santos-Oliveira R

Abstract
PURPOSE: In this study we developed and tested an iron oxide nanoparticle conjugated with DTPA and Trastuzumab, which can efficiently be radiolabeled with 99m-Tc and Ga-68, generating a nanoradiopharmaceutical agent to be used for SPECT and PET imaging.
METHODS: The production of iron oxide nanoparticle conjugated with DTPA and Trastuzumab was made using phosphorylethanolamine (PEA) surface modification. Both radiolabeling process was made by the direct radiolabeling of the nanoparticles. The in vivo assay was done in female Balb/c nude mice xenografted with breast cancer. Also a planar imaging using the radiolabeled nanoparticle was performed.
RESULTS: No thrombus and immune response leading to unwanted interaction and incorporation of nanoparticles by endothelium and organs, except filtration by the kidneys, was observed. In fact, more than 80% of 99mTc-DTPA-TZMB@Fe3O4 nanoparticles seems to be cleared by the renal pathway but the implanted tumor whose seems to increase the expression of HER2 receptors enhancing the uptake by all other organs.
CONCLUSION: However, even in this unfavorable situation the tumor bioconcentrated much larger amounts of the nano-agent than normal tissues giving clear enough contrast for breast cancer imaging for diagnostics purpose by both SPECT and PET technique. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

PMID: 29305666 [PubMed - in process]




Synergistic Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Copovidone in Itraconazole Amorphous Solid Dispersions.
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Synergistic Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Copovidone in Itraconazole Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):16

Authors: Wlodarski K, Zhang F, Liu T, Sawicki W, Kipping T

Abstract
PURPOSE: The first objective is to evaluate the feasibility of melt-extruding polyvinyl alcohol-based amorphous solid dispersions for oral drug delivery. The second objective is to investigate the miscibility between polyvinyl alcohol 4-88 and copovidone, and to characterize the properties of ternary itraconazole amorphous solid dispersions comprising both polymers.
METHODS: Samples were prepared using a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. A solution precipitation study was conducted to compare the precipitation inhibition of polyvinyl alcohol against other commonly used polymers for amorphous solid dispersions. Miscibility between polyvinyl alcohol 4-88 and copovidone was determined using DSC and XRD analyses. All extrudates were characterized using DSC, XRD, and non-sink dissolution.
RESULTS: Polyvinyl alcohol demonstrated the highest capacity for inhibiting the precipitation of itraconazole. Itraconazole was found to be more soluble in copovidone (>30%) than in polyvinyl alcohol 4-88 (<5%) in binary extrudates. Polyvinyl alcohol and copovidone are miscible when the proportion of polyvinyl alcohol 4-88 does not exceed 30% (w/w). Compared to binary extrudates, the ternary extrudate demonstrated a higher degree of supersaturation and more sustained supersaturation of itraconazole in purified water and phosphate buffer pH 6.8 solution.
CONCLUSION: As a surface-active material, polyvinyl alcohol was effective in inhibiting precipitation of itraconazole in aqueous media. Solubility of itraconazole in polyvinyl alcohol in solid state was limited because of the high polarity of the polymer. Ternary systems comprising a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and copovidone demonstrated better supersaturation in aqueous media than binary systems. Ternary systems benefited from both the high solubilizing capacity of copovidone and high precipitation inhibition capacity of polyvinyl alcohol.

PMID: 29305665 [PubMed - in process]




Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on the Disproportionation of Indomethacin Sodium in Buffered Lyophilized Formulations.
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Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on the Disproportionation of Indomethacin Sodium in Buffered Lyophilized Formulations.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 05;35(1):21

Authors: Koranne S, Thakral S, Suryanarayanan R

Abstract
PURPOSE: (i) To investigate buffer salt crystallization and the consequent pH shifts during the freezing stage of the lyophilization of indomethacin sodium (IMCNa) in aqueous sodium phosphate buffer. (ii) To determine the effect of pH shift on the disproportionation of IMCNa in lyophilized formulations.
METHODS: Prelyophilization solutions containing IMCNa in sodium phosphate buffer, at initial buffer concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mM (pH 7.0), and at IMCNa concentrations of 5, 10 & 15 mg/ml, were investigated. Their phase behavior during cooling was monitored by low temperature X- ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pH measurements. The final lyophiles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and XRD.
RESULTS: Upon cooling to -25°C, pronounced pH shifts were observed only in IMCNa buffered solutions containing high initial buffer concentration (100 mM), due to crystallization of Na2HPO4. 12H2O. In the final lyophiles, disproportionation of IMCNa to the free acid (IMC) was observed in systems with buffer concentrations ≥50 mM, but not low buffer concentration (10 mM). At intermediate buffer concentrations (35 & 20 mM) the disproportionation depended on IMCNa concentration. The initial concentrations of both buffer and IMCNa influenced the buffer crystallization.
CONCLUSIONS: During freeze drying, selective crystallization of a buffer component and the consequent pH shift can cause disproportionation of IMCNa. This can prolong the reconstitution time or retain particles of the poorly soluble free acid in the reconstituted solution.

PMID: 29305664 [PubMed - in process]




Optimization of Weight Ratio for DSPE-PEG/TPGS Hybrid Micelles to Improve Drug Retention and Tumor Penetration.
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Optimization of Weight Ratio for DSPE-PEG/TPGS Hybrid Micelles to Improve Drug Retention and Tumor Penetration.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 04;35(1):13

Authors: Jin Y, Wu Z, Li C, Zhou W, Shaw JP, Baguley BC, Liu J, Zhang W

Abstract
PURPOSE: To enhance therapeutic efficacy and prevent phlebitis caused by Asulacrine (ASL) precipitation post intravenous injection, ASL-loaded hybrid micelles with size below 40 nm were developed to improve drug retention and tumor penetration.
METHODS: ASL-micelles were prepared using different weight ratios of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethyleneglycol-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000) and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) polymers. Stability of micelles was optimized in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC) and drug release properties. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug loading were determined using an established dialysis-mathematic fitting method. Multicellular spheroids (MCTS) penetration and cytotoxicity were investigated on MCF-7 cell line. Pharmacokinetics of ASL-micelles was evaluated in rats with ASL-solution as control.
RESULTS: The ASL-micelles prepared with DSPE-PEG2000 and TPGS (1:1, w/w) exhibited small size (~18.5 nm), higher EE (~94.12%), better sustained in vitro drug release with lower CMC which may be ascribed to the interaction between drug and carriers. Compared to free ASL, ASL-micelles showed better MCTS penetration capacity and more potent cytotoxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the half-life and AUC values of ASL-micelles were approximately 1.37-fold and 3.49-fold greater than that of free ASL.
CONCLUSIONS: The optimized DSPE-PEG2000/TPGS micelles could serve as a promising vehicle to improve drug retention and penetration in tumor.

PMID: 29302821 [PubMed - in process]




Regulation of the Human Fc-Neonatal Receptor alpha-Chain Gene FCGRT by MicroRNA-3181.
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Regulation of the Human Fc-Neonatal Receptor alpha-Chain Gene FCGRT by MicroRNA-3181.

Pharm Res. 2018 01 04;35(1):15

Authors: Ferguson DC, Blanco JG

Abstract
PURPOSE: FCGRT encodes the alpha-chain component of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). FcRn is critical for the trafficking of endogenous and exogenous IgG molecules and albumin in various tissues. Few regulators of FcRn expression have been identified. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of FcRn by two microRNAs (hsa-miR-3181 and hsa-miR-3136-3p) acting on FCGRT.
METHODS: The binding of candidate microRNAs to the 3'-untranslated region of FCGRT was evaluated using luciferase reporter constructs in CHO cells. The effect of microRNAs on FCGRT mRNA and FcRn protein expression was evaluated using specific microRNA mimics and inhibitor transfections in A549, HEK293 and HepG2 cells.
RESULTS: Hsa-miR-3181 mimic reduced luciferase reporter activity by 70.1% (10 nM, P < 0.0001). In A549, HEK293 and HepG2 cells, hsa-miR-3181 decreased FCGRT mRNA expression (48.6%, 51.3% and 43.5% respectively, 25 nM, P < 0.05). The hsa-miR-3181 mimic decreased the expression of FcRn protein by 40% after 48 h (25 nM, P < 0.001). The mature form of hsa-miR-3181 was detected in samples of human liver.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hsa-miR-3181 is an epigenetic regulator of FCGRT expression. The identification of this regulator of FCGRT may provide insights into a potential determinant of interindividual variability in FcRn expression.

PMID: 29302759 [PubMed - in process]




Indinavir Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Lamivudine Partially via Inhibition of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Protein 1 (MATE1).
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Indinavir Alters the Pharmacokinetics of Lamivudine Partially via Inhibition of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Protein 1 (MATE1).

Pharm Res. 2018 01 04;35(1):14

Authors: Li Q, Ye Z, Zhu P, Guo D, Yang H, Huang J, Zhang W, Polli JE, Shu Y

Abstract
PURPOSE: Lamivudine, a characterized substrate for human multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (hMATE1) in vitro, was commonly used with indinavir as a therapy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We aimed to investigate whether mouse MATE1 is involved in the disposition of lamivudine in vivo, and whether there is any transporter-mediated interaction between indinavir and lamivudine.
METHODS: The role of MATE1 in the disposition of lamivudine was determined using Mate1 wild type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice. The inhibitory potencies of indinavir on lamivudine uptake mediated by OCT2 and MATE1 were determined in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells stably expressing these transporters. The role of MATE1 in the interaction between indinavir and lamivudine in vivo was determined using Mate1 (+/+) and Mate1 (-/-) mice.
RESULTS: The plasma concentrations and tissue accumulation of lamivudine were markedly elevated in Mate1 (-/-) mice as compared to those in Mate1 (+/+) mice. Indinavir significantly increased the pharmacokinetic exposure of lamivudine in mice; however, the effect by indinavir was significantly less pronounced in Mate1 (-/-) mice as compared to Mate1(+/+) mice.
CONCLUSION: MATE1 played an important role in lamivudine pharmacokinetics. Indinavir could cause drug-drug interaction with lamivudine in vivo via inhibition of MATE1 and additional mechanism.

PMID: 29302757 [PubMed - in process]