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Updated: 2017-10-10T03:34:31.194-07:00

 



Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950.

2012-01-05T20:08:01.952-08:00

“Over the expanse of five continents throughout the coming years an endless struggle is going to be pursued between violence and friendly persuasion, a struggle in which, granted, the former has a thousand times the chances of success than that of the latter. But I have always held that, if he who bases his hopes on human nature is a fool, he who gives up in the face of circumstances is a coward. And henceforth, the only honorable course will be to stake everything on a formidable gamble: that words are more powerful than munitions.” Albert Camus in Neither Victims nor Executioners (1946) 1 “Article 55. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate … Article 56. To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining , with the cooperation of the national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their duties …” Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1950) 2 “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” American Declaration of Independence (1776) 3 “… consider the dreadful nature of the suspicions you have entertained. What have you been judging from? Remember the country and the age in which we live. Remember that we are English, that we are Christians. Consult your own understanding, your own sense of the probable, your own observation of what is passing around you. Does our education prepare us for such atrocities? Do our laws connive at them? Could they be perpetrated without being known, in a country like this, where social and literary intercourse is on such a footing, where every man is surrounded by a neighbourhood of voluntary spies, and where roads and newspapers lay everything open?” Henry Tilney to Catherine Morland in Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen 4 “We have come into this world to accept it, not merely to know it. We may become powerful through knowledge, but we attain fullness through sympathy.” Rabindranath Tagore quoted in Moloch by Henry Miller 5 BODY COUNT Global avoidable mortality since 1950 Gideon Polya Polya, Melbourne Publication details CONTENTS Preamble viii 1. Introduction – global avoidable mortality 1 2. Global post-1950 excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality 7 3. Correlates and causes of post-1950 avoidable global mass mortality 26 4. Country-by-country analysis of avoidable mortality in European countries 45 5. Latin America and the Caribbean – from European invasion, genocide and slavery to US hegemony 71 6. North Africa, Asia & Pacific – the i[...]



Body Count. 10. Bibliography

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10. Bibliography AAAS (2007), AAAS President John P. Holdren urges swift action to build a sustainable future, AAAS News, 16 February, 2007 [see: http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2007/0216am_holdren_address.shtml ]. Aarons, M. & Loftus, J.(1997), The Secret War Against the Jews. How Western Espionage Betrayed the Jewish People (Mandarin, Melbourne). Agee, P. (1975), Inside the Company. CIA Diary (Penguin, London). Ali, T. (2002), The Clash of Fundamentalisms. Crusades, Jihads and Modernity (Verso, London). Ali, T. (2003), Bush in Babylon: the Recolonisation of Iraq (Verso, London). Applebaum, A. (2003), Gulag: a History (Doubleday, New York). Arnett, P (2001), Brutal fate for those in war’s way. USA Today, 3 May 2001. Austen (1818), Northanger Abbey (Thomas Nelson, London). Baldwin, J (1963), The Fire Next Time (Penguin, London). Balmford, A. et al. (2002), Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science, Vol. 297, 950-953. Belich, J. (1986), The Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict. The Maori, the British, and the New Zealand Wars (McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1989). Bennett, J. (with George, S.) (1987), The Hunger Machine. The Politics of Food (Polity, Cambridge). Bhattacharya, S. (1967), A Dictionary of Indian History (University of Calcutta, Calcutta). Bissio, R.R. (1990), Third World Guide 91/92 (Instituto del Tercer Mondo, Montevideo). Blix, H. (2004), Disarming Iraq (Pantheon, New York). Blum, W. (1995), Killing Hope. US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Courage Press, New York). Blum, W. (2000), Rogue State: a Guide to the World’s Only Superpower (Common Courage Press, Monroe, Maine). Blum, W. (2003), Killing Hope. US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (updated through 2003) (Courage Press, New York). Boccaccio, G. (1350), The Decameron, transl. J.M. Rigg (Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1961). Bradfield, S. (1996), Australia’s Genocide, Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies Newsletter vol.2 (4), 7-10. Brooks, G. (2002), The Year of Wonders (Penguin, London). Brown, D. (1973), Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: an Indian History of the American West (Pan Books, London, 1973). Thomson, N., Burns, J., Burrow, S. & Kirov, E. (2004), Overview of Indigenous Health: December 2004 {see: http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/html/html_overviews_our_overview_2.htm ]. Barber, N. (1966), The Black Hole of Calcutta. A Reconstruction (Houghton Mifflin, Boston). Butler, S. (1933), speech on War as a Racket; quoted by Ali (2002). Butler, S. (1935), War as a Racket (Philadelphia). Butler, S.D. & Parfrey (2003), War is a racket: The Anti-war Classic by America’s Most decorated general, Two Other anti-Interventionist Tracts, and Photographs from the Horror of It (Feral House, USA). Camus, A. (1946), Neither Victims nor Executioners, eds. R.S. Kennedy & P. Klotz-Chamberlin (New Society, Philadelphia, 1986). Camus, A. (1948), The Plague (La Peste); transl. S. Gilbert (Hamish Hamilton, London). Camus, A. (1947), The Plague (La Peste) (Penguin, London, 1975). Carson, R. (1962), Silent Spring (Penguin, London, 1965). Carter, E.H. & Mears, R.A.F. (1962), A History of Britain (Clarendon Press, Oxford). Chalk, F. & Jonassohn, K. (1990), The History and Sociology of Genocide. Analyses and Case Studies (Yale University Press, New Haven). Chang, J. (1991), Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China (Harper Collins, London). Chang, J. & Halliday, J. (2005), Mao: the Unknown Story (Jonathan Cape, London). Chatterjee, S.K. (1944), The Starving Millions (Asoka Library, Calcutta). Chatterjee, P. (1984), Bengal 1920-1947. Volume 1. The Land Question (K.P. Bagchi, Calcutta). Churchill, W.S. (1954), The Second World War. Volumes I-VI (Cassell, London). Chomsky, N. (1983), The Fateful Triangle: the United States, Israel and the Palestinians (Pluto Press, London). Chomsky, N (1999), Why American should care about East Timor, Mother Jones, 26 August. Chomsky, N. (2001), September 1[...]



Body Count. 9. Notes

2012-01-05T20:03:57.367-08:00

Body Count. 9. Notes Full bibliographic details are provided in Section 10. Preamble 1. Camus (1946). 2. United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2005). 3. Congress (1776). 4. Austen (1818), Northanger Abbey, Chapter 24, pp201-202. 5. Rabindranath Tagore quoted in Henry Miller (1992), Moloch or, this Gentile World, p257. Chapter 1 1. Lem (1967), The Cyberiad, Tale of the Three Story-telling Machines of King Genius, p148. 2. McCullers (1943), p136. 3. Hansard of the House of Commons, Winston Churchill speech, Hansard, vol. 302, cols. 1920-21, 1935; quoted by Jog (1944), p195. 4. Wasserstein (1979), p357. 5. Molière (1664); see Oxford University Press (1981), p171. 6. Popper (1976). 7. Kuhn (1970). 8. Koestler (1964). 9. Santayana (1953), “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it”. 10. Chatterjee (1944, 1984); Das (1949); Drèze & Sen (1989); Drèze, Sen & Hussain (1995); Ghosh (1944); Greenough (1982); Greenough (1988); Jog (1944); Mason (2000); Polya (1995, 1998a,b, 1999a,b,c, 2001a,b, 2005); Ray (1973); Sen (1945); Sen (1981a,b); Uppal (1984); Villager (1945). 11. Mason (2000), pp177-178. 12. Carter & Mears (1962). 13. Greenough (1982); Jog (1944); Polya (1998); Sen (1945). 14. Hitchens (2001). 15. UN Population Division (2004); UN Population Division (2005). 16. Laqueur (1980); Wasserstein (1979). 17. Wasserstein (1979), p357; Holy Bible, Luke, 10:30-35. Chapter 2 1. Marsden (1988), p23. 2. Singer (2000), ppxv-xvi. 3. Holy Bible, Exodus, 20:13. 4. UN (1948), UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 3. 5. American Declaration of Independence, Congress, July 1776; see Orwell (1949) p236. Chapter 3 1. Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, III, I, line 273. 2. Davidoff (1942), p425. 3. Goldsmith, The Deserted Village, lines 51-52; Eastman et al. (1970), p500. 4. Schopenhauer (1860), Essays, On Books and Reading; Davidoff (1942), p148. 5. Hemingway (1932), Ch1. Chapter 4 1. Suetonius, Divus Julius, 37.2. 2. Marsden (1988), p42. 3. Knightley (1975). 4. Orwell (1946); Orwell & Angus (1968). 5. Widely attributed to Albert Einstein. 6. Bradfield (1996); Flannery (1994); Gilmore (1934, 1935); Macintyre (1999); Macintyre & Clark (2003); Manne (2003); McQueen (1971); Reynolds (1990). 7. Gilbert (1969), p88; Gilbert (1982). 8. Polya (2006a); Treurniet et al. (2004); see Funder (2002), Chapter 19 & Uhlig (2001) re Stasi radiological tagging of East German dissidents; differential mortality of Roma may contribute to excess mortality in Hungary in particular. Chapter 5 1. Todorov (1982), p134; Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), p178. 2. Todorov (1982), pp137-138; Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), p178. 3. Darwin (1839), Ch.5; quoted by Lindqvist (1992), p116. 4. Lindqvist (1992), p116; Scobie (1964), Ch.1. 5. Butler (1933) speech, quoted by Ali (2002), p260; see also Butler (1935) and Butler & Palfrey (2003). 6. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990); Darlington (1969); Diamond (1997). 7. Bissio (1990). Chapter 6 1. Mason (2000), pp177-178. 2. Ali (2002), p264. 3. Eisenhower (1961); Ali (2002), p266. 4. Arnett (2001). 5. 1966 60 Minutes interview of UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright with Lesley Stahl 6. Bissio (1990). 7. Diamond (1997). 8. Mao Tse-Tung (1965) 9. Indian Child (2000); Mason (2000); Monbiot (2005); Polya (1998a); Schama (2002); Singh et al. (1997); Singh & Singh (1997); US Library of Congress (1998), Country Studies/Area Handbook Series: India. Chapter 7 1. Conrad (1899). 2. Sven Lindqvist (1992), “Exterminate All the Brutes”, an analysis of European racism and colonialism. 3. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), p241. 4. Chalk & Jonassohn (1990), p243. 5. Lindqvist (1992), p160. 6. Mandela (1994), p386. 7. Bissio (1990); Blum (1995, 2003). 8. UNAIDS (2005). 9. Bis[...]



8.16. APPENDIX – State of the World (2003). Tables 8.6-8.12 8.6-8.12

2012-01-05T19:58:32.573-08:00

8.16. APPENDIX – State of the World (2003). Tables 8.6-8.12Table 8.6 Mortality, excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality in East Asia (2003) COUNTRY 2003 MORT (m) 2003 EM (m) 2003 <5IM (m) 2003 Pop (m) 2003 MORT/ Pop (%) 2003 EM/ Pop (% ) 2003 <5IM/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IPOP (m) 2003 <5IPOP/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IM/ <5IPOP (%) 2003 HIV+ (%) China 9.0913 0.0000 0.7344 1298.760 0.70 0.00 0.057 89.996 7.0 0.82 0.065 Hong Kong 0.0413 0.0000 0.0002 6.995 0.59 0.00 0.003 0.310 4.6 0.08 0.037 Macao 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000 0.461 0.47 0.00 0.004 0.205 4.5 0.09 - Japan 1.0454 0.0000 0.0047 127.480 0.82 0.00 0.004 5.963 4.7 0.08 0.009 North Korea 0.2483 0.1174 0.0202 22.572 1.10 0.520 0.090 1.821 8.3 1.12 - South Korea 0.2803 0.0000 0.0023 47.508 0.59 0.00 0.005 2.744 5.8 0.08 0.017 Mongolia 0.0186 0.0057 0.0053 2.584 0.72 0.22 0.204 0.269 10.5 1.96 <0.019 Taiwan 0.1379 0.0000 0.0036 22.603 0.61 0.00 0.016 1.334 5.9 0.27 - TOTAL 10.8653 0.1231 0.7707 1528.963 0.71 0.01 0.050 102.642 6.7 0.75 Notes. Abbreviations are as for Table 8.2. Table 8.7 Mortality, excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality in Central Asia, Turkey and Iran (2003) COUNTRY 2003 MORT (m) 2003 EM (m) 2003 <5IM (m) 2003 Pop (m) 2003 MORT/ Pop (%) 2003 EM/ Pop (% ) 2003 <5IM/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IPOP (m) 2003 <5IPOP/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IM/ <5IPOP (%) 2003 HIV+ (%) Afghanistan 0.5092 0.4140 0.2885 23.681 2.15 1.75 1.218 5.048 18.9 5.72 - Azerbaijan 0.0467 0.0000 0.0156 8.342 0.56 0.00 0.187 0.646 7.9 2.41 0.017 Iran 0.3634 0.0892 0.0542 68.559 0.53 0.13 0.079 6.009 8.9 0.90 0.045 Kazakhstan 0.1472 0.0000 0.0193 15.502 0.95 0.00 0.125 1.107 7.5 1.75 0.106 Kyrgyzstan 0.0362 0.0160 0.0067 5.100 0.71 0.31 0.131 0.540 10.6 1.24 0.076 Tajikistan 0.0373 0.0125 0.0110 6.223 0.60 0.20 0.176 0.853 13.5 1.29 <0.003 Turkey 0.4248 0.0000 0.0592 70.792 0.60 0.00 0.084 7.250 10.3 0.82 - Turkmenistan 0.0314 0.0121 0.0106 4.829 0.65 0.25 0.220 0.487 10.5 2.[...]



8.16 APPENDIX – State of the World (2003). Tables 8.1-8.5

2012-01-05T20:54:01.716-08:00

8.16 APPENDIX – State of the World (2003) in relation to mortality, excess mortality, under-5 infant mortality and HIV/AIDS. Table 8.1 Global mortality, excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality (2003) REGION 2003 MORT (m) 2003 EM (m) 2003 <5IM (m) 2003 Pop (m) 2003 MORT/ Pop (%) 2003 EM/ Pop (% ) 2003 <5IM/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IPOP (m) 2003 <5IPOP/ Pop (%) 2003 <5IM/ <5IPOP (%) Overseas Europe 2.9086 0 0.0390 357.713 0.81 0 0.011 24.3370 6.8 0.16 Western Europe 3.9593 0.1782 0.0239 392.442 1.01 0.05 0.006 20.812 5.3 0.12 Eastern Europe 4.4622 1.0717 0.0571 342.510 1.30 0.31 0.017 16.438 4.8 0.38 Latin America & Caribbean 3.4166 0.1759 0.3720 535.281 0.63 0.03 0.069 56.483 10.6 0.66 East Asia 10.8653 0.1231 0.7707 1528.963 0.71 0.01 0.050 102.642 6.7 0.75 Central Asia, Iran & Turkey 1.7464 0.5904 0.5033 228.919 0.76 0.26 0.220 24.766 10.8 2.03 Arab North Africa & Middle East 1.9046 0.7393 0.4990 289.956 0.67 0.25 0.172 37.379 12.9 1.33 South East Asia 3.8645 1.4158 0.5659 539.255 0.72 0.26 0.105 54.634 10.1 1.04 Pacific 0.0667 0.0320 0.0180 8.184 0.82 0.39 0.220 1.135 13.9 1.59 South Asia 12.0343 5.3275 3.2570 1400.532 0.86 0.38 0.233 163.949 11.7 1.99 Non-Arab Africa 11.5099 6.3866 4.4590 659.995 1.74 0.97 0.676 114.385 17.3 3.90 EUROPE 11.3301 1.2499 0.1200 1092.665 1.04 0.11 0.011 61.587 5.6 0.19 NON-EUROPE 45.4083 14.7906 10.4449 5191.085 0.87 0.28 0.201 555.373 10.7 1.88 TOTAL 56.2044 16.0405 10.5649 6283.750 0.89 0.26 0.168 616.960 9.8 1.71 Abbreviations: MORT, 2003 mortality; EM, 2003 excess mortality; <5IM, 2003 under-5 infant mortality; Pop, 2003 population; <5IPOP, 2003 under-5 infant population; m, million. Notes. Overseas Europe includes Australia, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, USA and US Virgin Islands. Armenia and Georgia as Christian countries of the former Soviet Union are included conveniently in the Eastern Europe. Population and mortality data have been conveniently rounded-off in Tables 8.1- 8.12. Table 8.[...]



Chapter 8. Synthesis, conclusions & suggestions

2012-01-05T19:52:28.441-08:00

Chapter 8 Synthesis, conclusions & suggestions “the ultimate privilege of the élite is not just their deluxe lifestyles, but deluxe lifestyles with a clear conscience.” Arundhati Roy in The Chequebook and the Cruise Missile 1 “You already know enough. So do I. It is not knowledge we lack. What is missing is the courage to understand what we know and to draw conclusions.” Sven Lindqvist in Exterminate All the Brutes 2 “You will do well to try to innoculate (sic) the Indians by means of blankets as well as to try every other method that can serve to extirpate this exorable race” Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander-in-Chief, British forces in North America, 1765 3 “We don’t do body counts.” General Tommy Franks, Iraq, 2003 4 “The corporate revolution will collapse if we refuse to buy what they are selling – their ideas, their version of history, their wars, their weapons, their notion of inevitability.” Arundhati Roy in The Ordinary Person’s Guide to Empire 5 8.1 Finding causes and solutions This book has been largely concerned with the horrendous post-1950 avoidable mortality in the world. This analysis has been possible because the relevant data have been quantitated by the United Nations 6, the administrative responsibility is explicit (especially in the case of foreign-occupied countries) 7 and the actual causes can be addressed. As stated in Chapter 1, the post-1950 era is also useful for such an analysis of mortality because in this era potentially all of humanity had access to adequate nutrition, clean water, soap, other antiseptics, sanitation, hygiene, antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, mosquito netting and other prophylactics, preventative medicine, major vaccinations, primary health care, literacy, public health education and preventive medicine. It must be noted that all of these benefits protect Western bushwalkers (campers, treckers) when they leave “civilization” and go camping to recapture the connection to wilderness of our hunter-gatherer ancestors - and have done so for over half a century. Yet these life-preserving requisites are still not made available to billions of Third World people living under First World global hegemony, nor (in gross contravention of the Geneva Conventions) to nearly 60 million people living under Coalition guns in the Occupied Iraqi and Afghan Territories. 8 Chapters 4-7 have summarized pre-1950 mass mortality events that were also potentially avoidable such as explicit genocide, dispossession and the spread of epidemic diseases. Violent mass killing and deadly resource dispossession were clearly avoidable impositions. Further, the benefits of isolation and quarantining were known 3000 years before bacteria and viruses and their animal vectors were discovered. Thus the Bible recommended isolation of the diseased 9; plague victims were catapulted into besieged cities to spread infection 10; people such as the young men and women of Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron fled to the Italian countryside to escape urban plague epidemics 11; and smallpox-contaminated sheets were used for genocidal infection of American Indians by European invaders. Religious mass gatherings during the Black Death contributed to infection 12; the post-contact sickening of American Indians was known from the time of Columbus and certainly after the catastrophic epidemics after European invasion 13; and mass mortality from introduced disease of the indigenous peoples of Australasia and the Pacific was thoroughly predictable and rapidly realized 14. Sadly, man-made mass mortality continues apace in the 21st century despite the general lip-service to humanity and condemnation of particular past horrors such as the Jewish Holocaust. Three of the World’s oldest democracies, namely the UK, the US and Australia (together with their generally prosperous allies) have been involved in the impositio[...]



Chapter 7. Non-Arab Africa – colonialism, neo-colonialism, militarism, debt, economic constraint and incompetence

2012-01-05T19:50:15.779-08:00

Chapter 7. Non-Arab Africa – colonialism, neo-colonialism, militarism, debt, economic constraint and incompetence “Exterminate all the brutes.” Kurtz in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad 1 and title of a key book on colonial racism by Sven Lindqvist 2 “I know enough tribes in Africa. They all have the same mentality insofar as they yield only to force. It was and remains my policy to apply this force by unmitigated terrorism and even cruelty. I shall destroy the rebellious tribes by shedding rivers of blood and money. Only thus will it be possible to sow the seeds of something new that will endure.” General von Trotha, responsible for the German genocide of the Hereros of South West Africa. 3 “The Herero people will have to leave the country. Otherwise I shall force them to do so by means of guns. Within the German boundaries, every Herero, whether found armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, will be shot. I shall not accept any more women and children. I shall drive them back to their people – otherwise I shall order shots to be fired at them.” The “Extermination Order” by General von Trotha, 2 October 1904, that forced scores of thousands of Hereros to die in the desert 4 “The Nazis gave the Jews a star on their coats and crowded them into “reserves” – just as the Indians, the Hereros, the Bushmen, the Amandabele, and all the other children of the stars had been crowded together. They died on their own when the food supply was cut off … Auschwitz was the modern industrial application of a policy of extermination on which European world domination had long since rested.” Sven Lindqvist in Exterminate all the Brutes 5 “Why is it that in this courtroom I am facing a white magistrate, confronted by a white prosecutor, escorted by white orderlies? Can anybody honestly and seriously suggest that in this type of atmosphere the scales of justice are evenly balanced? Why is it that no African in the history of this country has ever had the honour of being tried by his own kith and kin? … Your Worship, I hate racial discrimination most intensely and in all its manifestations. I have fought it all my life. I fight it now, and will do so until the end of my days. I detest most intensely the set-up that surrounds me here. It makes me feel that I am a black man in a white man’s court. This should not be.” Nelson Mandela, defending himself in court, October 1962 6 7.1 Overview of the continuing African tragedy The awful history of colonial and post-colonial non-Arab Africa is sketched below with key dates as points of relativity. The countries are dealt with in alphabetical order for simplicity and ease of reference in relation to the core mortality data presented in Table 2.12. Foreign countries explicitly involved by military participation in the pre- and post-1950 eras are listed at the end of each “history” together with the post-1950 excess mortality and post-1950 under-5 infant mortality (in millions, m) expressed as a ratio with respect to the 2005 population (in millions, m), each ratio being presented as a percentages (%). The excess mortality/2005 population ratio is at a typical Western European level for the Indian Ocean island states of Mauritius and Réunion (5.1% and 6.0%, respectively), demonstrating that peace, humane administration, literacy and a modest annual per capita income can yield excellent mortality outcomes. For the rest of non-Arab Africa the excess mortality/2005 population ratio is appallingly high and ranges from 19.4% (Western Sahara) to 85.2% (Sierra Leone), the highest value for any country in the World. The colonial history of non-Arab Africa involves European invasion, occupation, indigenous dispossession, exploitation (through slavery, forced labour, dispossession and global economics) and crude destruction for commercial gain of sophisticate[...]



Chapter 6. North Africa, Asia & Pacific – the impact of colonialism, neo-colonialism and war

2012-01-05T19:48:04.028-08:00

Chapter 6. North Africa, Asia & Pacific – the impact of colonialism, neo-colonialism and war “Several of the factors mentioned above suggest a British “scorched earth” policy designed to deny assets in Bengal to the Japanese, at monstrous cost, should they successfully invade India. Those consequences severely indict British policy makers of the time, and the failure to investigate and acknowledge them is to the discredit of all subsequent British governments.” Colin Mason (2000) on the “forgotten”, man-made 1943/44 Bengal Famine (4 million victims) 1 “all or nearly all of the whole Korean peninsular is a terrible mess. Everything has been destroyed, there’s nothing left standing.” General Emmett O’Donnell, Chief of Bomber Command (1951) 2 “In the councils of government we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought of unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.” Dwight Eisenhower, farewell speech, 17 January 1961 3 “Well, we had to destroy the town in order to save it.” US major in Ben Tre, Vietnam (1968), reported by Peter Arnett 4 “the price was worth it.” Madeleine Albright, former US Secretary of State and UN Ambassador, when asked in 1996 about the death of half a million Iraqi children due to sanctions 5 6.1 Overview As seen in Chapter 5, many Latin American countries escaped violent invasion and occupation by First World armies (or their local surrogates) in the post-1950 era. Thus the list of Central and South American countries that experienced direct invasion by US forces in this period includes the Dominican Republic, Panama, Grenada, Haiti and Cuba; those experiencing violent surrogate invasions from US-trained armies include Guatemala, Nicaragua and El Salvador. However most of the countries merely suffered the consequences of US hegemony through US-backed military dictatorships, mass murder of political dissidents and elevated mortality due to excesses of the US-backed élites. The colonial regimes in Belize, Suriname, French Guiana, Guyana and the Caribbean islands were relatively benign. 6 In contrast, nearly all the countries of the global East-West axis reaching from North Africa through Asia to the Pacific have experienced partial or complete First World military occupation or protectorate status in the post-war era. Indeed it is simplest to list the three exceptions to this, namely Turkey, Thailand and Saudi Arabia, of which all have nevertheless experienced US-based militarization and a major US military presence at various times, namely air force and missile bases (US NATO and CENTO partner Turkey), air force bases and Vietnam War R&R sex industry (Thailand) and huge all-service military presence (Saudi Arabia). As discussed by Diamond (1997), 7 the East-West axis Eurasian mass has benefited from the rapid East-West movement of agricultural and technological advances. However, in the end colonialism funded the industrial revolution, Europe won the global arms race and as Mao Tse-Tung famously put it: “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”. 8 The process is still continuing with the rampant militarism of the US Empire evidenced by scores of US military bases from Korea to Britain, horrendous US and Israeli occupation of 4 Asian countries (Syria, Palestine, Iraq and Afghanistan), acute threat to other Asian countries (notably North Korea, Iran and Syria) and on-going, high technology, civilian-butchering war against lightly-armed, indigenous insurgents in Afghanistan, Iraq and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The post-invasion excess mortality in the Occupied Palestinian, Iraqi and Afghan territories totals 0.3, 0.5 and 1.6 million, respectively; the post-invasion under-5 infant mortality in the [...]



Chapter 5. Latin America and the Caribbean – from European invasion, genocide and slavery to US hegemony

2012-01-05T19:44:22.857-08:00

Chapter 5. Latin America and the Caribbean – from European invasion, genocide and slavery to US hegemony “As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them with, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7,000 children died in three months.” Bartolomé de las Casas on Spanish enslavement of Indians in Cuba 1 “The bodies of these Indians and of the slaves who died in the mines produced such a stench that it caused a pestilence … the flocks of birds and crows that came to feed on the corpses were so numerous that they darkened the sun, so that many villages along the road and in the district were deserted.” Fray Toribio de Benavente (Motolinia) on Indian slaves of the Spanish 2 “This is a dark picture, but how much more shocking is the undeniable fact that all the women who appear above twenty years old are massacred in cold blood! When I exclaimed that this appeared rather inhuman, he answered “Why what can be done? They breed so!” Charles Darwin recounting a Spanish commander’s view of genocide in Argentina 3 “When Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871, the hunting down of Indians was still going on in Argentina, financed by a bond loan. When the land was cleared of Indians, it was shared among the bondholders, each bond giving a right to twenty-five hundred hectares.” Sven Lindqvist 4 “I spent thirty-three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country’s most agile military force, the Marine Corps … And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high class muscle-man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism …I helped make Honduras “right” for American fruit companies in 1903…I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street … Looking back on it I feel that I could have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.” Major General Smedley Butler (1888-1940), one of America’s greatest generals 5 5.1 Overview Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean in 1492 and the decimation of indigenous peoples commenced. The general pattern in the Caribbean involved Spanish invasion, enslavement of Carib and residual Arawak Indians and importation of African slaves to work sugar and cotton plantations after Indian populations crashed due to disease and violence. 6 British, French, Dutch and Danish colonial involvements were followed by major US interventions in the 19th century. Haiti and the Dominican Republic achieved independence in the 19th century but US hegemony was reinforced by post-WW2 military invasions. Similarly, Cuba achieved independence from Spain but was immediately seized, together with Puerto Rico, by the US. Since the 1960s Cuban independence has been associated with sustained US economic blockade and threat. Most of the very small Caribbean islands variously gained independence in the post-1950 era with continuing neo-colonial arrangements and general US hegemony involving commercial domination, threat and invasion in the case of Grenada. In Central America the pre-colonial Aztec and Maya civilizations were remarkable for their social organization and public architecture. Spanish invasion in the 16th century led immediately to decimation of indigenous populations by disease and colonial violence. The subsequent Spanish colonies achieved independence in the early 19th century with politics involving liberal/conservative and military/civilian dichotomies. However there was major repeated commercial and military intervention by Britain, France and the US in the 19th century. Thus the US successively removed huge swat[...]



Chapter 4. Country-by-country analysis of avoidable mortality in European countries

2012-01-06T13:26:14.956-08:00

Chapter 4 Country-by-country analysis of avoidable mortality in European countries “Veni, vidi, vici” (“I came, I saw, I conquered” ) Julius Caesar 1 “History is a set of lies agreed upon.” Napoleon Bonaparte 2 “If the public knew the truth, the war would end tomorrow. But they don’t know and they can’t know.” Lloyd George to Manchester Guardian editor C.P. Scott, 1914 3 “The quickest way of ending a war is to lose it.” George Orwell 4 “I do not know with what weapons World War 3 will be fought, but World War 4 will be fought with sticks and stones.” Albert Einstein 5 4.1 Introduction – matching excess mortality with foreign occupation A huge historical work would be required to precisely match post-1950 events with changes in excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality for every country in the world. However it is useful to at least sketch some of the salient events (especially those involving violent foreign occupation of countries) in relation to changes in mortality. In doing so we will again go from the best region to the worst region in a systematic fashion. In Chapters 4-7 “potted histories” are provided to simply and succinctly document the historical background to the glaringly obvious reality described in Chapter 3 of post-war avoidable mortality correlating with violent pre- and post-1950 First World impositions on victim countries. Readers are simply invited to inspect this succinctly presented historical record, assess the excess mortality statistics and then consider their own conclusions. Of course post-1950 avoidable mortality does not only relate to concurrent foreign occupation of a country - thus prior colonial occupation and the violence of such occupation will have a big impact. By way of example, British occupation of Australia commenced in 1788 and by 1900 the indigenous population had dropped from about 1 million to 90,000 through dispossession, violence and introduced disease. Two centuries after the commencement of this genocide, the indigenous death rate is 3 times greater than in Australia as a whole and this yields an excess mortality of about 4,000 - 8,000 annually. 6 Accordingly, pre-1950 violent foreign occupations over the last half millennium or so are also briefly summarized at the end of each of the snapshot accounts given below, together with (simplified) pre-1950 foreign military presence, post-1950 foreign military occupation, post-1950 foreign military presence and 1950-2005 excess mortality and 1950-2005 under-5 infant mortality in millions (m) and also expressed as percentages (%) of the 2005 population. . As you go through this sad testimonial in the following 4 Chapters, think of the extreme situations that scientists call the “boundary conditions” i.e. consider the best and the worst outcome countries. Thus the “Overseas European” countries, which have the lowest avoidable mortality, have not been occupied by foreigners ever, let alone in the post-1950 era – and, conversely, have all invaded and occupied non-European countries during that era. At the other extreme, nearly all of the countries of non-Arab Africa have been subject to violent European occupation for a substantial part of the post-1950 era, none have invaded non-contiguous states and nearly all continue to suffer horrendous avoidable mortality. Specifically, the democratic state of Israel has not ever been occupied by foreign forces since independence, but has militarily attacked 10 other countries, has violently occupied 5 of them for substantial periods, continues to occupy 2 of them and has one of the best excess mortality outcomes; the entry below for Israel concludes thus (m = million): foreign occupation: none (pre-1950); none (post-1950); post-1950 foreign militar[...]



Chapter 3. Correlates and causes of post-1950 avoidable global mass mortality

2012-01-05T19:39:19.874-08:00

Chapter 3. Correlates and causes of post-1950 avoidable global mass mortality “Cry “Havoc”, and let slip the dogs of war.” Mark Antony in Shakespeare, Julius Caesar 1 “The American people will not relish the idea of any American citizen growing rich and fat in an emergency of blood and slaughter and human suffering.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt, radio broadcast, May 1940 2 “Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, Where wealth accumulates, and men decay” Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village 3 “Ignorance is degrading only when found in company with riches.” Schopenhauer, Essays: On Books and Reading 4 “About morals, what is moral is what you feel good after and what is immoral is what you feel bad after.” Ernest Hemingway, Death in the Afternoon 5 3.1 “Big picture” regional analysis of global post-1950 under-5 infant mortality and excess mortality Table 2.1 summarizes post-1950 excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality for the various regions of the world. The following Tables 2.1-2.12 provide detailed country-by-country mortality data together with complementary current information on present life expectancy, annual per capita income and adult literacy. We can now briefly examine the major regional differences with a view to identifying some major correlates and causes of the excess mortality holocaust. In a sense everyone knows that the Third World has suffered a major burden of “poverty, war and disease” but, as discussed in the previous chapters, it is important to quantitate the human cost. Having calculated post-1950 excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality for essentially every country in the world, it has been possible to sum, group and organize the data to permit sensible analysis of this immense catastrophe. The following sections deal with post-1950 mortality in various regions of the world in order of increasing values of average post-1950 excess mortality/current population. The regions in Table 2.1 are also listed in order of increasing post-1950 excess mortality/current population. However it will become glaringly obvious that the best mortality outcomes correlate with high annual per capita income, high adult literacy, lack of invasion by foreign powers and, for many such countries, a post-1950 record of occupying and invading other countries. Conversely, low annual per capita income, low adult literacy and a burden of occupation and war (universally with major First World involvement) correlates with a poor mortality outcome. 3.2 Overseas Europe: domestic democracy, prosperity, peace and Anglo-American invasion of distant lands The best outcome region is “Overseas Europe” which includes Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Israel and the US (plus associated territories such as the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico that we will here conveniently subsume under the aegis of the US) and Canada. Inspection of the detailed information for this region (Table 2.2) reveals that these countries have the very high life expectancies (78-79 years), high annual per capita incomes ($15,870-$37,610) and the high adult literacy (~98%) found for the best-achieving countries in Western Europe. For the Western European countries the post-1950 excess mortality/2005 population ratio ranges from 1.0-3.6%% and the post-1950 under-5 infant mortality/2005 population ranges from 3.3-7.0%% (Table 2.2). None of these “Overseas Europe” countries have been subject to invasion in the post-1950 period but have all been involved in invading and occupying other countries. There is an extraordinary and obscene contrast between the social profiles of these countries and the countries in which they have waged war in the post-1950 era: on the perpetrator side[...]



Chapter 2. Tables 2.6-2.12 & Summary

2012-01-05T18:42:12.288-08:00

Table 2.6 Excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality in East Asia COUNTRY EM (m) IM (m) POP (m) MORT (m) EM/ POP (%) EM/ MORT (%) IM/ POP (%) IM/ MORT (%) LE (yr) PCI US$ LIT (%) China 155.670 157.726 1322.273 504.199 11.8 30.9 11.9 31.3 71 1,100 85 Hong Kong 0.125 0.105 7.182 1.445 1.7 8.7 1.5 7.3 Macao 0.036 0.007 0.472 0.107 7.6 33.6 1.4 6.3 Taiwan 0.560 0.459 22.894 5.268 2.4 10.6 2.0 8.7 Japan 3.596 2.452 127.914 43.718 2.8 8.2 1.9 5.6 82 34,510 ~98 North Korea 2.945 1.559 22.876 8.225 12.9 35.8 6.8 19.0 63 ~500 98 South Korea 5.013 3.085 48.182 15.568 10.4 32.2 6.4 19.8 76 12,030 98 Mongolia 0.640 0.402 2.667 0.989 24.0 64.7 15.0 40.6 64 480 98 TOTAL 168.585 165.795 1544.460 579.519 10.9 29.1 10.7 28.6 Notes. Abbreviations for Tables 2.6 are as for Tables 2.1 and 2.2. Table 2.7 Excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality in Turkey, Iran and Central Asia COUNTRY EM (m) IM (m) POP (m) MORT (m) EM/ POP (%) EM/ MORT (%) IM/ POP (%) IM/ MORT (%) LE (yr) PCI ($) LIT (%) Afghanistan 16.609 11.514 25.971 19.739 64.0 84.1 44.3 58.3 43 ~250 36 Azerbaijan 0.428 1.032 8.527 2.222 5.0 19.3 12.1 46.4 72 810 ~97 Iran 14.272 10.875 70.675 21.710 20.2 65.7 15.4 50.1 70 2,000 76 Kazakhstan 0.983 1.661 15.364 7.147 6.4 13.8 10.8 23.2 67 1,780 ~98 Kyrgyzstan 1.041 0.657 5.278 1.800 19.7 57.8 12.4 36.5 69 330 ~98 Tajikistan 0.924 0.739 6.356 1.771 14.5 52.2 11.6 41.7 69 190 ~98 Turkey 10.488 10.987 73.302 25.381 14.3 41.3 15.0 43.3 71 2,790 85 Turkmenistan 0.817 0.591 5.015 1.443 16.3 56.6 11.8 41.0 67 1,120 ~98 Uzbekistan 3.585 2.403 26.868 7.003 13.3 51.2 8.9 34.3 70 420 ~98 TOTAL 49.1[...]



Chapter 2 continued. Tables 2.1- 2.5

2012-01-05T18:24:22.909-08:00

Table 2.1 Post-1950 global excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality REGION EM (m) IM (m) IM/EM (%) POP (m) MORT (m) MORT/ POP (%) EM/ POP (%) EM/ MORT (%) IM/ POP (%) IM/ MORT (%) Overseas Europe 9.750 5.344 55 366.747 131.795 36 2.7 7.4 1.5 4.1 Western Europe 19.680 6.857 35 394.384 205.574 52 5.0 9.6 1.7 3.3 Eastern Europe 25.578 12.781 51 338.752 178.344 53 7.6 14.3 3.8 7.2 Latin America & Caribbean 50.579 52.232 103 540.034 165.220 31 9.4 30.6 9.7 31.6 East Asia 168.585 165.795 98 1544.460 579.519 38 10.9 29.1 10.7 28.6 Central Asia, Iran & Turkey 49.147 40.459 82 237.356 88.216 37 20.7 55.7 17.0 45.9 Arab North Africa & Middle East 70.516 47.174 67 305.985 107.101 35 23.0 65.8 15.4 44.0 South East Asia 140.222 71.492 51 558.155 224.318 40 25.1 62.5 12.8 31.9 Pacific 2.347 1.114 47 8.595 3.503 41 27.3 67.0 13.0 31.8 South Asia 465.320 284.797 61 1459.046 669.115 46 31.9 69.5 19.5 42.6 Non-Arab Africa 300.834 189.834 63 696.515 382.116 55 43.2 78.7 27.3 49.7 EUROPE 55.008 24.982 46 1099.883 515.713 47 5.0 10.7 2.2 4.8 NON-EUROPE 1247.550 852.897 68 5350.146 2219.108 41 23.3 56.2 15.9 38.4 TOTAL 1302.558 877.879 67 6450.029 2734.821 42 20.2 47.6 13.6 32.1 Abbreviations: EM, total 1950-2005 (mid-1950-mid-2005) excess mortality; IM, total 1950-2005 under-5 infant mortality; LE, life expectancy at birth (UNICEF, 2003); MORT, total 1950-2005 mortality; POP, 2005 population; m, million. Notes. Overseas Europe includes Australia, Canada, Israel, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, USA and US Virgin Islands. Armenia and Georgia as Christian countries of the former Soviet Union are included conveniently in the Eastern Europe category. Population and mortality data have been conveniently rounded-off in Tables 2.1-2.12. Table 2.2 Excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality in Overseas Europe COUNTRY EM (m) IM (m) POP (m) MORT (m) EM/ POP (%) EM/ MORT (%) IM/ POP (%) IM/ MORT (%) LE (yr) PCI ($) LIT (%) Australia 0.587 0.202 20.092 6.084 2.9 9.6 1.0 3.3 79 21,650 ~98 Canada [...]



Chapter 2. Global post-1950 excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality

2012-01-05T18:19:26.715-08:00

Chapter 2. Global post-1950 excess mortality and under-5 infant mortality “A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic.” Joseph Stalin 1 “We are responsible not only for what we do but also for what we could have prevented… We should consider the consequences both of what we do and what we decide not to do.” Peter Singer in Writings on an Ethical Life 2 “Thou shalt not kill.” Ten Commandments of the Holy Bible, Exodus, 20:13 3 “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.” Article 3, UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 4 “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Thomas Jefferson, The American Declaration of Independence 5 2.1 Estimation of mortality and avoidable mortality (excess mortality) Excess mortality for a given country for a given period is the difference between the ACTUAL mortality and the deaths EXPECTED for a decently run, peaceful country with the same demographics. The problem of assessing such “ideal”, EXPECTED mortality rates has been approached here in an empirical, interpolative fashion. The United Nations Populations Division has provided detailed demographic data of population, crude birth rate and crude death rate for the period from 1950 onwards for essentially all countries in the world together with projections for beyond 2005. This enables simple calculation of mortality for all countries in the world for the period 1950-2005 (or, precisely, from mid-1950 to mid-2005) . This detailed demographic data has also been used graphically to assess baseline “ideal” mortality rates for all countries to enable calculation of “excess mortality” over the period since 1950 as described below. Typically, since 1950 the observed crude death rate for a “good” country starts out at a relatively very high value, progressively declines to a minimum value and then starts increasing slightly, this latter effect reflecting an increasingly older population. However there are a number of variations on this theme: a. In the case of the Netherlands the mortality rate did not decrease since 1950 and in fact has steadily increased, albeit very slightly. This situation formally yields an excess mortality estimate of zero over this period. b. A more typical result for “good” countries (notably most Western European countries but with numerous examples in the non-European world) involves a slight decrease in the death rate to a minimum value, this being followed by a very small but steady increase reflecting an increasingly aged population (in an ideal situation only the elderly would die) . This minimum value has been taken as a “baseline” estimate of “ideal” mortality rate for the preceding period, excess mortality being taken as zero for the period after this minimum was achieved. c. With some European countries, notably many in Eastern Europe (and Hungary in particular), the death rate from the 1960s onwards has been slightly but distinctly higher than that obtained in Western European countries. The causes of this small elevation in death rate are not clear (although smoking, excess alcohol consumption and socio-medical factors linked to authoritarian communist régimes can be speculatively invoked). This post-minimum “extra” mortality rate has been taken into account for these countries. d. For “good” non-European countries with an initially high but subsequently declining birth rate (notably in East Asia and in many countries of South East Asia, So[...]



Chapter 1. Introduction – global avoidable mortality

2012-01-05T18:02:25.263-08:00

Chapter 1 Introduction – global avoidable mortality “What are a few hundred thousand to the Multitudians, whose myriads are countless?! A loss that goes unnoticed is no loss at all.” the Multitudians to the Great Constructor Trurl in The Cyberiad by Stanislaw Lem 1 “But the main thing he sees is that the whole system of the world is built on a lie.” Jake in The Heart is a Lonely Hunter by Carson McCullers 2 “In the standard of life they have nothing to spare. The slightest fall from the present standard of life in India means slow starvation, and the actual squeezing out of life, not only of millions but of scores of millions of people, who have come into the world at your invitation and under the shield and protection of British power.” Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons (1935) 3 “But the agony of European Jewry was enacted in a separate moral arena, a grim twilight world where their conventional ethical moral code did not apply. And so they “came and looked, and passed by on the other side”.” Bernard Wasserstein on British Establishment moral perception of the Jewish Holocaust 4 “Le scandale du monde est ce que fait l’offence, Et ce n’est pas pécher que pécher en silence (It is public scandal that constitutes offence, and to sin in secret is not to sin at all).” Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) in Le Tartuffe 5 1.1 Science & history – history ignored yields history repeated Humanity has made immense strides over the last few millennia through rational investigation of the world. Scientific analysis of the world involves truth, reason, free communication and application of the scientific method involving generating and critically testing potentially falsifiable hypotheses 6. Departure from this methodology de-rails the scientific process (although as analysed by Kuhn 7, Koestler 8 and others there are other ways of approaching reality and “right brain” mysticism, aesthetics and poetry have been important in the genesis of some radical new views of reality leading to major scientific breakthroughs). Critically, lying by omission (ignoring, rubbing out, deleting or hiding the data) or lying by commission (falsifying the data) are fundamentally inimical to understanding reality. This is particularly true in scientific approaches to history and human affairs. “Rubbing out” data relating to mass human mortality greatly increases the probability of the recurrence of such events. Thus we are familiar with the adage “history ignored yields history repeated” 9 and the post-Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) resolution “Never again” of the Jewish people. Indeed in this same spirit, Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland and Israel have made holocaust denial illegal (albeit only in relation to the Jewish Holocaust). While we are all aware of the horror and magnitude of the Jewish Holocaust (6 million victims) we shall see that other immense, man-made mass mortality events have been deleted from history even as they were happening. 1.2 Deleting history – the “forgotten”, man-made, WW2 Bengal famine Even in the liberal Anglo-Celtic democracies, huge, man-made mass mortality events continue to be “rubbed out” of history books, media offerings and hence from general public perception. Thus during World War 2 (WW2) in British-ruled India there was an immense man-made, economic, “market forces” famine in the major province of Bengal that killed an estimated 4 million Hindu and Muslim victims. In essence, a number of factors had led to an increase in the price of rice, the Bengali staple. Those who could not afford the ultimate 4-fold[...]



BODY COUNT. Global avoidable mortality since 1950

2011-12-25T13:09:18.619-08:00

BODY COUNT. Global avoidable mortality since 1950 I am a highly published biological scientist and in 2003 published a huge pharmacological text entitled "Biochemical Targets of Plant Bioactive Compounds. A pharmacological reference guide to sites of action and biological effects" (Taylor & Francis, London & New York). Over the last few years I have carefully researched, written, edited and finally published a science-based history book of very wide potential utility entitled “Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950” (G.M. Polya, Melbourne, 2007; 220 pages, 24 tables; ISBN 1921377051). In the interests of Humanity I am sending copies of this big reference book to key scholars, writers, journalists, humanitarians, media and libraries around the world. In 1998 I published a detailed book entitled “Jane Austen and the Black Hole of British History. Colonial rapacity holocaust denial and the crisis in biological sustainability” (G.M. Polya, Melbourne; second edition in preparation) (see: http://janeaustenand.blogspot.com/ ). This book dealt with the 2 century atrocity of British rule over India culminating in the man-made Bengal Famine of 1942-1945, The man-made, WW2 Bengal Famine killed 6-7 million people (it is similar in death toll magnitude to the WW2 Jewish Holocaust) but has been largely deleted from British historiography in a continuing process of sustained, racist holocaust denial. “Body count” documents the similarly non-reported avoidable death of 1.3 billion people since 1950 on Spaceship Earth with the First World in control of the flight deck. “Body Count” is a carefully researched book by a 4 decade career biological scientist on a key social parameter “avoidable mortality” (excess death, deaths that should not have happened) which is nevertheless largely ignored by Mainstream media and for good reason – the post-1950 global avoidable mortality totals about 1.3 billion. Even in the United States, the richest country in the World, it can be estimated from publicly available UN demographic data that 0.2 million under-5 year old American infants have died avoidably over the last 10 years due to the warped Administration priorities of international wars (that have so far caused violent deaths and excess deaths from war-imposed deprivation totalling 4.6 million, 2.2 million and 5.0 million in in Iraq 1990-2011, Somalia 1992-2011, and and Afghanistan 2001-2011, respectively, mostly of Women and Children) rather than of addressing urgent domestic priorities such as infant and maternal health. I am a scientist and not an ideologue – my core humanitarian philosophy is simply that of the American Declaration of Independence, that all men are created equal and have an inalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. “Body Count” is a number of books efficiently packaged in a user-friendly way as a KEY REFERENCE WORK for laypersons, high school and college students, teachers, researchers, journalists, human rights activists and workers and other people in public life. “Body Count”: (a) summarizes, tabulates and analyzes avoidable mortality for every country in the world since 1950; (b) uniquely provides a succinct and systematically organized history of every country in the world coupled with key avoidable mortality statistics (a fabulous resource for students, scholars, journalists and human rights activists); (c) a systematic analysis of the actual causes of excess death in the world (noting that 16 million people die avoidably in the world every year, this including 10 million under-5 avo[...]