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Physorg.com provides the latest news on physics, materials, nanotech, science and technology. Updated Daily.



 



Concrete applications for accelerator science

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 08:00:02 EDT

Particle accelerators are the engines of particle physics research at Fermilab. They generate nearly light-speed, subatomic particles that scientists study to get to the bottom of what makes our universe tick. Fermilab experiments rely on a number of different accelerators, including a powerful, 500-foot-long linear accelerator that kick-starts the process of sending particle beams to various destinations.



The superconducting magnets of the future

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 07:40:02 EDT

The superconducting magnets of the future are under development and CERN is on the front line. To increase the energy of circular colliders, physicists are counting on ever more powerful magnets, capable of generating magnetic fields way beyond the 8 Tesla produced by the magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).



Neutrino facility could change understanding of the universe

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 06:50:20 EDT

The University of Oxford's Department of Physics will play a pivotal role in a flagship global science facility that could change our understanding of the universe.



Revolutionary guitar string rocks the guitar world

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 06:36:35 EDT

A revolutionary guitar string developed at the University of St Andrews has struck a chord with some of the greats of the music world.



Quantum data takes a ride on sound waves

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 06:35:30 EDT

Yale scientists have created a simple-to-produce device that uses sound waves to store quantum information and convert it from one form to another, all inside a single, integrated chip.



New technique accurately digitizes transparent objects

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 15:11:13 EDT

A new imaging technique makes it possible to precisely digitize clear objects and their surroundings, an achievement that has eluded current state-of-the-art 3D rendering methods. The ability to create detailed, 3D digital versions of real-world objects and scenes can be useful for movie production, creating virtual reality experiences, improving design or quality assurance in the production of clear products and even for preserving rare or culturally significant objects.



Detecting cosmic rays from a galaxy far, far away

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 14:00:05 EDT

In an article published today in the journal Science, the Pierre Auger Collaboration has definitively answered the question of whether cosmic particles from outside the Milky Way Galaxy. The article, titled "Observation of a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmicrays above 8 × 1018 eV", notes that studying the distribution of the cosmic ray arrival directions is the first step in determining where extragalactic particles originate.



Physicists publish new findings on electron emission

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 14:00:03 EDT

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. In the report now published in the journal Science ultrashort pulses of light were employed to start a race between electrons emitted from different initial states in a solid material. Timing this race reveals an unexpected result: The fastest electrons arrive in last place.



Rapid imaging of granular matter

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 12:16:48 EDT

Granular systems such as gravel or powders can be found everywhere, but studying them is not easy. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method by which pictures of the inside of granular systems can be taken ten thousand times faster than before.



Researchers demonstrate quantum teleportation of patterns of light

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 12:15:13 EDT

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. This is a crucial step towards realizing a quantum repeater for high-dimensional entangled states.



Researchers set time limit for ultrafast perovskite solar cells

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 09:46:34 EDT

Researchers have quantified the astonishingly high speeds at which future solar cells would have to operate in order to stretch what are presently seen as natural limits on their energy conversion efficiency.



Gravitational waves may oscillate, just like neutrinos

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 09:30:01 EDT

(Phys.org)—Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. The physicists explain that this phenomenon is analogous to the way that neutrinos oscillate between three distinct flavors—electron, muon, and tau. The oscillating gravitational waves arise in a modified theory of gravity called bimetric gravity, or "bigravity," and the physicists show that the oscillations may be detectable in future experiments.



Multiscale simulations help predict unruly plasma behavior

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 08:02:45 EDT

Decades of fusion research have brought many advances in our understanding of the physics of plasma, the hot ionized gas at the heart of a fusion reactor. While many questions are being answered, important challenges remain.



New analysis explains role of defects in metal oxides

Thu, 21 Sep 2017 06:43:16 EDT

Sometimes things that are technically defects, such as imperfections in a material's crystal lattice, can actually produce changes in properties that open up new kinds of useful applications. New research from a team at MIT shows that such imperfections in a family of materials known as insulating metal oxides may be key to their performance for a variety of high-tech applications, such as nonvolatile memory chips and energy conversion technologies.



Theoretical physicist rethinks how we differentiate organisms on the microbial scale

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 11:15:08 EDT

Even Charles Darwin, the author of "The Origin of Species", had a problem with species.



Theoretical discovery of transparent particles that break the previously accepted limit of visibility

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 07:30:04 EDT

Transparent particles with extraordinarily high refractive indices can become almost invisible at wavelengths longer than the particle size, an A*STAR-led theoretical study has shown. The discovery challenges the accepted wisdom around the limits of light scattering and visibility, and could lead to a new class of 'invisible' materials.



New technique promises tunable laser devices

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 16:18:28 EDT

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a phenomenon similar to an effect observed in circular galleries, such as in some cathedrals or museums, where sound waves travel across the gallery and are reflected and refocused tightly enough that a whisper on one side can be heard on the other.



Running roaches, flapping moths create a new physics of organisms

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 13:11:25 EDT

Sand-swimming lizards, slithering robotic snakes, dusk-flying moths and running roaches all have one thing in common: They're increasingly being studied by physicists interested in understanding the shared strategies these creatures have developed to overcome the challenges of moving though their environments.



One-way track for microwaves based on mechanical interference

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 13:08:27 EDT

Devices that allow to route microwave signals are essential engineering tools. In particular, isolators, which let signals flow in one direction but block them in the other, are needed to protect sensitive equipment from harm. Now, scientists at EPFL and the University of Cambridge have demonstrated a new principle for developing such tools by harnessing the motion of microscopic drums. The study is published in Nature Communications.



Researchers develop a rapid, automatable, chip-based platform to analyze live cells

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 13:05:51 EDT

Fluorescence microscopy gives researchers incredible power to illuminate the tiniest structures and capture the real-time activities of live cells by tagging biological molecules with a veritable rainbow of fluorescent dyes. This power comes at a cost: The technology can be expensive and time-consuming and, so far, has resisted attempts at automation.



Rogue wave analysis supports investigation of the El Faro sinking

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 13:02:11 EDT

A new analysis done to support the investigation into the 2015 sinking of the El Faro cargo ship has calculated the likelihood of a massive rogue wave during Hurricane Joaquin in October of that year - and demonstrated a new technique for evaluating the probability of rogue waves over space and time.



Nonlinear physics bridges thoughts to sounds in birdsong

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 11:00:06 EDT

The beautiful sound of birdsongs emerging from the trees is a wonderful example of how much nature can still teach us, even as much about their origins are still mysterious to us. About 40 percent of bird species learn to vocalize when they are exposed to a tutor, a behavior of interest to many neurologists and neurobiologists. The other 60 percent can vocalize instinctually in isolation. The variety across species, and the relationship between the nervous system and biomechanics makes birdsong production a complex process to unravel and understand.



Cost effective quantum moves a step closer

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 10:37:19 EDT

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack.



Speed plus control in new computer chip—slowing down light to sound

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:48:54 EDT

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing.



Physicists develop new design for fast, single-photon guns

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 06:00:40 EDT

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the University of Siegen have explained the mechanism of single-photon generation in diamond diodes. Their findings, published in Physical Review Applied, offer new avenues for the development of high-speed single-photon sources for quantum communication networks and quantum computers of the future.



Optical and electrical bistability study sheds light on next-gen high speed data transfer

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:36 EDT

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. However, the bandwidth of these electronic computers is limited by the signal delay of time constants important to electronic logic operations. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, scientists have considered the development of an optical digital computer, and one team has gone so far as to demonstrate the optical and electrical bistability for switching in a single transistor.



New approach boosts performance in thermoelectric materials

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 15:57:16 EDT

Thermoelectric materials are considered a key resource for the future - able to produce electricity from sources of heat that would otherwise go to waste, from power plants, vehicle tailpipes and elsewhere, without generating additional greenhouse gases. Although a number of materials with thermoelectric properties have been discovered, most produce too little power for practical applications.



A new approach to ultrafast light pulses

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 12:26:49 EDT

Two-dimensional materials called molecular aggregates are very effective light emitters that work on a different principle than typical organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or quantum dots. But their potential as components for new kinds of optoelectronic devices has been limited by their relatively slow response time. Now, researchers at MIT, the University of California at Berkeley, and Northeastern University have found a way to overcome that limitation, potentially opening up a variety of applications for these materials.



An original method of cooling ions could have new and interesting uses

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 11:08:17 EDT

When investigating atoms, scientists face a challenge: At room temperature, individual atoms in a gas have kinetic energy, and fly around at large velocities. Temperature is, in essence, the relative movement between atoms; thus the goal of getting the atoms to have small relative velocities involves freezing them to extremely cold temperatures. A group at the Weizmann Institute of Science has now developed new universal method for cooling ions.



Scientists demonstrated 1.3μm submilliamp threshold quantum dot micro-lasers on Si

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 10:12:36 EDT

Decades ago, the Moore's law predicted that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. This prediction was proved to be right in the past few decades, and the quest for ever smaller and more efficient semiconductor devices have been a driving force in breakthroughs in the technology.