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This New Articles Channel contents the latest articles published in Inderscience's distinguished academic, scientific and professional journals.


Groundwater quality index of Upper Athi River Basin in Kenya
Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in communities located within three sub-catchment areas of Upper Athi River Basin in Kenya. Water samples were collected from 36 different shallow wells and boreholes located in these communities and subjected to physicochemical analysis. Water quality parameters analysed included pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, nitrate, fluoride, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc. Levels (or concentrations) of these parameters were used to evaluate water quality index (WQI) of the groundwater. WQI values ranged from 115 to 778 with mean WQI of 234. Groundwater in the area is observed to be poor in quality and requires treatment before use. High WQI values were largely attributed to high concentrations of iron, manganese, turbidity, nitrate and chloride.

Cyclic injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer with extended interface
Cyclic CO2 injection is considered to be an effective method to maximise CO2 dissolution in hydrocarbon reservoirs (Reznik et al., 1984; Monger et al., 1991) and saline aquifers (Zhang and Agarwal, 2012; Dusseault et al., 2012). Gravity override and evolution of a transition zone have large effects on the development of a saturation transition zone between the pure host fluid and the injected gas. In this paper, equivalent relative permeability functions are derived to address the effect of gravity override, allowing reduction of the problem dimension from 2D to 1D. An analytical solution for saturation distribution in a cyclic drainage-imbibition process is obtained. To incorporate the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase, a one-way coupled approximation is used and a numerical solution is proposed for derivation of compositional distribution of the chemical species. Information about saturation distribution from the analytical solution provides saturation distribution over time and distance, and this is substituted in the concentration distribution equation. In contrast to previously well-studied analytical solutions (e.g., Orr, 2007), this hybrid scheme includes the effect of kinetic mass transfer and dispersion, and provides a reasonable approximation for saturation-concentration distribution during injection.

Corporate environmental responsibility: focus, orientation and salience in the natural resources sector
This article investigates the current status of studies into corporate environmental responsibility in the natural resources sector within the academic literature on management. In particular, we examine studies with a focus on industry and geography, the orientation of research methods and the salience of corporate environmental responsibility. We present empirical evidence based on publication and citation analyses of research published from 1995 to 2014. Our findings show that for the natural resources sector, the degree of salience in leading management journals seems rather weak, and that most of the corporate environmental responsibility articles are dominated geographically by developed countries. Our study also shows that the majority of research methods are qualitative and are based on secondary data. The only theory which is seen to be consistently used as a theoretical framework is stakeholder theory. The significance of the findings is important as they present clear guidance for future research into corporate environmental responsibility in the natural resources sector.

Challenges in managing the risks of chronic wasting disease
This article summarises efforts at disease surveillance and risk management of chronic wasting disease (CWD). CWD is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids and is considered to be one of the most contagious of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Evidence has demonstrated a strong species barrier to CWD for both human and farm animals other than cervids. CWD is now endemic in many US states and two Canadian provinces. Past management strategies of selective culling, herd reduction, and hunter surveillance have shown limited effectiveness. The initial strategy of disease eradication has been abandoned in favour of disease control. CWD continues to spread geographically in North American and risk management is complicated by the presence of the disease in both wild (free-ranging) and captive (farmed) cervid populations. The article concludes that further evaluation by risk managers is required for optimal, cost-effective strategies for aggressive disease control.

A novel temporal access control scheme for outsourced data in cloud with user revocation
E-governance can be implemented very effectively using the cloud computing technologies. Security and privacy of data are the major challenges in cloud-based e-governance systems. With proper access control and user revocation schemes, we can protect the privacy and security of data stored in cloud servers used for e-governance. There are a lot of techniques to achieve the controlled access in cloud computing. In some applications of e-government, the users should be allowed to access data, only for a specific period of time. In this paper, we introduce a temporal access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE), which allows users to access the data according to their access policy and for a specific time period only. Our model includes both the temporal access scheme and a time-based proxy re-encryption scheme to allow a user's access right to expire automatically.

Mapping out e-government research literature: How interdisciplinary was it for the blooming decades?
The goal of this research is to empirically map out e-government literature to gauge the progress of the domain in the blooming years of studies. Since the 1990s, studies of e-government underwent exponential growth. Given the nature of its inquiry, e-government studies cut across the multiple disciplines. This study investigates how multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary e-government studies were. This work is meaningful in two ways. First, it adds empirical analysis to existing anecdotal evidence of e-government literature as e-government studies are maturing after a decade of exponential growth. Second, it serves as a teaching and research tool to help students and new scholars, identifying important scholars and works in the study domain. The main finding of this study is that digital government studies are conducted within multiple disciplines but lack genuine inter-disciplinary works. Some key journals are identified and key research topics are coded and illustrated.

Challenges and issues in Malaysian e-government
The birth of e-government has had a major impact on the public administration realm, where information and communication technology (ICT) has gained in importance in redefining a government's agenda. As a result, many governments around the world have adopted e-government as the mantra of service efficiency, including Malaysia. Since the introduction of e-government under the flagships of the multimedia super corridor (MSC) in 1996, Malaysian e-government has improved the quality of services and information provided to citizens. A case study of Malaysian e-government initiatives was adopted in this study. The findings revealed a number of challenges that can be categorised into the broad dimensions of technical infrastructure, legislative, financial, government's role, human infrastructure and condition of the organisation. This study will assist policy makers to be alert to any problems or challenges that might be existed during the implementation process of e-government.

Transforming government service: the importance of dynamic capabilities
The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program both aiming at realising this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance of the organisational context for the level of organisational transformation, by illustrating the relevance of the dynamic capability perspective within e-government research and practice, and thereby providing a better foundation for future similar e-government programs.

Regional parties' web strategies in the age of virtual dialogue and closeness
The website continues to be one of the main axes of the political parties' communicative dimension, even though recent research prioritises analysis of the political uses on social media, especially during electoral campaigns. Setting out from this context and from the premise that regional parties tend to show a greater proximity to the society in which they are inserted, the article develops a specific qualitative and descriptive methodology focusing on the website strategies of five organisations with representatives in the Parliament of the Basque Country, an autonomous community within the Spanish State, where there is a greater interest in political affairs. As the conclusions argue, the analysed websites evidence an evolved political marketing scenario challenged by the tensions between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 political communication styles, along with the lines of a true public and social dialogue, and the current needs of politics in the age of interactivity and social media.

Teaching and learning international business through X-Culture challenge
Students learn the best when they are put in to a situation and made to be part of the process. The challenges and problems of undertaking an experiential project involving global virtual teams (GVTs) are student motivation, class size and integration of X-Culture into course activities, projects and lectures. Situational challenges include interpersonal communication, cross-cultural differences, language barriers, technological issues, distance and training, time zone differences, trust issues. The data reveals that initially students are not motivated to participate in the X-Culture project and have apprehension about working in a virtual environment and its effect on their performance in class but at the end the vast majority of students perceive that the use of virtual teams as a teaching tool facilitates cultural understanding and IB-relevant learning. This research suggests that online experiential exercises can be an effective approach in teaching IB, in developing cross cultural and virtual collaboration skills and attaining assessment of learning goals.

A practical strategy for teaching algorithms (CS1) to beginners
Learning algorithms is a challenging task faced by novice computer science students. These students are expected to become proficient in the basics of programming and logic, but the failure and dropout rates in the introduction to algorithms courses are usually high. This paper aims to present a practical strategy for teaching algorithms to beginners in computer science, addressing issues such as teaching strategy, student engagement, and institutional planning. This strategy was developed and implemented over a decade of teaching algorithms in a variety of contexts (bachelor degree, information technology, and major in computer science). During this period, a pass, failure, and dropout rate survey of 603 students was conducted by the same instructor. The analysis of these data and reflections about the teaching strategies are presented.

Why do they boycott? Withholding consumption among London's Muslim Arabs
Many studies discussed consumers boycott in various contexts but they all agreed that it constitutes an undesirable behaviour from business firms' perspective. Consumer's buying and boycotting behaviour is influenced by various factors. Limited studies focused on consumer boycott from transnational consumers prospective. The current study examines the boycotting behaviour of London Arabs and the factors that influence it. An online survey was used for data collection. Four key measures adapted from the literature were used in this research and multiple regressions were applied to examine the factors influencing boycotting behaviour. The study found that London Arabs boycotting behaviour is characterised by their demographics, religion, transnationality and social capital. This paper offers an empirically tested foundation for understanding the boycotting behaviours of this largely uncharted segment of consumers. It is the first study that examines this transnational segment's boycotting behaviour where transnationality and connectedness are proven to be powerful factors in influencing boycotting behaviour.

Post-earthquake community capacity and vulnerability reduction at the small-scale local level: collective narratives from Greece, Japan, and New Zealand
Communities are often overlooked in the course of disaster recovery planning, particularly in the area of social capital resources that can help increase the collective's resilience to risks and hazards. This research explores what collective narratives from the victims of localised earthquake events reveal about community capacity and vulnerability reduction at the small-scale local level. Study participants were recruited from populations living in three earthquake-affected areas in Japan, Greece, and New Zealand. The findings showed varied community and governmental capacity to reduce vulnerability and respond to earthquake events, differing levels of government and community capacity to provide for civil needs, and varied levels of community assistance to residents following the disasters. The implications are that planning and effort within a community can spur development of small-scale capacity to augment government efforts or mitigate government failures. Further research is required to determine applicability to other cultural paradigms and types of disasters.

Lean internationalisation of high-tech firms
This study examines the internationalisation of high-tech start-up firms (HSFs) from small and open economies (SMOPECs). It explores how HSFs may differ in their speed of internationalisation relying on information collected via interviews with the CEOs or founders of 32 HSFs that operate internationally. It uses a comparative cross-national multiple-case study research design to answer the research questions. The findings provide the basis for developing propositions for further comparative analyses of the early and fast internationalisation of HSFs based in emerging and developed markets. The study contributes to the literature on networks, internationalisation and international entrepreneurship.

Comprehensive guidelines for ABET accreditation of a computer science program: the case of the American University of Kuwait
ABET accreditation adds a real value to an educational program by meeting the essential requirements that enable it to produce ready graduates for the market. We at the Computer Science and Information Systems Department in the American University of Kuwait (CSIS-AUK) recognise this value after we have gone through restructuring and enhancing our program to meet CAC-ABET standard requirements and completing the self-study report. In this paper, we will present a complete and detailed documentation of our work in establishing our ABET compliant program. Special focus will be given to a case study of three student outcomes SOs A, B and J where, a thorough assessment process is presented including: data collection, reporting and assessment forms, analysis, justification, recommendations and finally data graphical representation for individual performance indicator (PI) trend tracking among different assessment cycles. We believe that our approach to ABET accreditation is unique from different aspects that will be very clear in the body of the paper. The CSIS-AUK department has a great confidence of the deigned, implemented and tested process and strongly believes that it will be a great source for learning, adoption and inspiration for institutions seeking ABET accreditation.

Mankham Publishing Company - dealing with doubles?
Joe, the logistics director of a large niche publishing company in the USA, has received approval to implement a freight settlement system that will save his department and the company up to $2 million per year, while saving time and improving decision making in his department. Yet, during the analysis phase and before the actual implementation, Joe is informed that an ERP system is being implemented, and he will not be allocated IT resources for the FSS project. What should he do? Continue with the project, or wait until the ERP system has been put in place, given that ERP systems do not always get implemented on time?

Born-again globals: generational change and family business internationalisation
Research on family business internationalisation has so far mainly adopted stepwise models of internationalisation. However, there is recent evidence that family businesses may also adopt more rapid internationalisation pathways, such as the born-again global pathway. Generational change has been found to be a prime trigger for this pathway, but existing findings on this relationship are limited to a small amount of case-based evidence. We therefore aim to deepen knowledge on the conditions under which generational change can trigger born-again global internationalisation pathways of family businesses. Based on a multiple-case study of 20 born-again global family businesses from German-speaking countries, we derive a total of three propositions. Our findings suggest that succeeding generations internationalise their firms due to their long-term orientation. We also find that succession is more likely to trigger a family businesses' born-again global internationalisation pathway if the succeeding generation has a higher level of education than the preceding generation, has international experience and seeks self-actualisation.

Entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurial intentions: a cross-cultural study of university students
The present study explores the link between entrepreneurial learning and students' entrepreneurial intentions, and examines the role of characteristics of national culture in this relationship. It contributes to the existing literature in the field by addressing the call for focusing on learning rather than teaching entrepreneurship and contextualisation of entrepreneurship knowledge. The hypotheses are tested using a dataset of 84,453 students from 28 countries, collected as part of the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (GUESSS) project in 2013-2014. Results reveal a positive relationship between entrepreneurial learning and students' entrepreneurial intentions. However, this relationship was found to be moderated by different dimensions of national culture, being stronger in individualistic cultures and weaker in high uncertainty avoidance societies.

HR professionals' use of influence in the effective implementation of HR practices
This study examines the use of influence tactics by HR professionals to increase the likelihood that HR practices (HRPs) are effectively implemented. We use logistic regression to test the effect of HR professionals' use of both soft and hard influence tactics on HRP implementation effectiveness in a sample of 82 successful and 74 failed implementation processes. The results show that HR professionals are more likely to see the HRPs they develop effectively implemented when they (1) involve line managers in the development of HRPs (consultation), (2) look for credible figures within the organisation that may publicly endorse and support the new practice (coalition), and (3) do not put too much pressure on HRP users with deadlines and reminders (pressure). While soft tactics such as rational persuasion, inspirational appeals or ingratiation are very much used by HR professionals, our results show that they do not have a significant impact on HR implementation effectiveness when controlling for other factors such as HRPs' level of organisational fit and CEO support. We discuss these findings in the light of the HR implementation and HR influence literatures.

HRM implementation in multinational companies: the dynamics of multifaceted scenarios
This study explores why the subsidiary line managers of multinational companies (MNCs) implement HRM practices differently than intended by headquarters. HRM implementation is understood as a process in which one has to differentiate between a range of multifaceted HRM implementation scenarios. We build on a single case study in a Dutch subsidiary of a US engineering company that we characterised as an extreme case. The analysis comprises in-depth interviews with HRM and line managers and a study of policy documents using multiple iteration cycles with the software ATLAS.ti. Line managers engage in a range of behaviours: they ignore, deviate, imitate, internalise, initiate and/or integrate the delegated practices because they fail to see the value of the content of the practice and the process of execution. The HRM implementation scenarios found, although distinctive, often overlap, evolve or coexist in a dynamic HRM implementation process. We predict a support role for HRM managers in which they facilitate line managers in deviating from intended practices, and initiating new ones, in order to increase the likelihood of successful internalisation and integration.

HRM frames of HR managers and line managers: congruence, consequences and context
In the HRM literature more and more attention is being paid to the role of HRM frames, especially in the phase of introducing new HRM sub-systems. Individual HRM frames consist of assumptions, expectations and knowledge about HRM. If individual HRM frames share common contents and structures, they are regarded as congruent. According to theory, congruent frames of different stakeholders increase the efficiency of the introduction of organisational changes. This study investigates the congruence of HRM frames between HR professionals and line managers in different European companies and industries by means of a qualitative analysis of 94 semi-structured interviews with HR professionals and line managers. The results suggest a model with four sequential domains: HRM-as-intended, HRM-as-composed, HRM-in-use and HRM-in-integration. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the importance of HRM frames during HR change, proposing a model that regards and explains HRM as a process.

The application of feedback control method in chaotic Rössler model
This paper is devoted to investigate the problem of controlling chaos in a Rössler system. Feedback control method is applied to suppress chaos to unstable equilibrium or unstable periodic orbits. Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to analyse the conditions of the asymptotic stability of the steady states of the controlled system. Some numerical simulations are provided to show these results. Finally, main conclusions are included.

Existence of solutions to periodic boundary value problems for fuzzy fractional differential equations
In this paper, we initiate to investigate the existence of solutions to periodic boundary value problems for a class of fuzzy fractional differential equations involving the Caputo's H-derivative. With the concept of switching points, some sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence of solutions are obtained. An example is provided for our new results.

Global stability analysis of an SEIR epidemic model with vertical transmission
The aim of this paper is to include general incidence function in the SEIR epidemic model with both horizontal and vertical transmission. We focus on the global stability of all possible equilibria: the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The global stability of the disease-free equilibrium is proved by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function and under some appropriate assumptions on the incidence function, the global dynamics of the endemic equilibrium is determined by the geometric approach.

Necessary and sufficient conditions for oscillation of solution of scalar difference equations
The purpose of this paper is to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the oscillation of all solutions of the difference equation. In this paper, by letting eλn be a solution of the difference equation, we obtain a fundamental proof of the result that every solution of the difference equation oscillates if and only if the characteristic equation has no real root.

Solving k-fractional shallow water wave equations via homotopy analysis transform method
In this paper, homotopy analysis transform method has been applied to obtain the approximate analytical solution of the shallow water equations with time-fractional derivatives. The interesting point is manifested in its emphatic application of k-fractional Riemann-Liouville time derivatives on the classical equations with an achievement of the highly accurate solutions by the known series solutions.

Existence of non-oscillatory solutions for second-order mixed neutral differential equations with positive and negative terms
In this paper, we discuss the existence of non-oscillatory solutions for the second-order mixed neutral differential equations. By means of Banach contraction mapping principle and inequality techniques, some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of non-oscillatory solutions are presented, which improve and extend some known results. Several examples are given to illustrate our main results.

Positive solutions for eigenvalue problem of non-linear fractional differential equations
In this paper, by using the fixed point theorem of cone expansion and compression of norm type and monotone iterative technique, we study the eigenvalue problem of non-linear fractional differential equations. The existence and iteration of positive solutions are obtained.

Central American family business groups: internationalisation and diversification strategies
Central America has been characterised by the large presence of family business groups (FBGs). The objective of this study is to gain insights about the internationalisation and diversification strategies of selected FBGs. In addition, the study examines how networking influences these strategies. Internationalisation and agency theories provide the theoretical framework for the study. The findings reveal three insights: first Central American FBGs have taken a long time to internationalise reflecting the challenges related to the economical and historical development of the region. Second, the diversification of the FBGs into various sectors of the domestic economies is a key determinant of the internationalisation strategy. Third, the ownership structure and family networking linkages also determine internationalisation strategies.

Accountability and third mission in Italian universities
This paper aims to give an overview of accountability systems in Italian universities with specific regard to universities 'Third mission'. After a sketch on non-financial communication towards stakeholders, the work deals with social reporting in Italian universities, its potential developments and the first results reached in the light of 'Third mission' issues. The research methodology used is based on observed cases analysis and content analysis, providing us with an interesting overview about the phenomenon. 'Third mission' is officially evaluated in Italian academic system, like the traditional research and teaching fields. With such a complex evaluation system, the Italian university system is at the forefront at European level to stimulate the commitment to research and teaching to society. However, social reporting in Italian universities do not seem to grasp the significance, and are rare cases in which the 'Third mission' is stated in the documents.

The EMH and the market anomalies: an empirical analysis on Italian stock market
This paper describes the contrast between traditional economic theories that assume the absolute rationality of individuals (Fama, 1965) and behavioural finance, which considers the irrationality of the decision maker. Beginning from previous studies (Agrawal and Tandon, 1994; Chen and Singal, 2003; and particularly Barone, 1990), the study attempted to verify the existence of anomalies in the Italian stock market (MIB). The study was directed towards the exploration of the major calendar effects in the period 1/3/2005-12/30/2015.

An examination of the relationship between the disposition effect and stock return, volatility, and trading volume: the evidence in US stock markets
The disposition effect in stock markets is one of the most robust behavioural regularities documented in studies of trading behaviour. The aim of this study was to seek a direct link between the disposition effect and asset price dynamics. We connect our work to the theoretical literature on the implications of the disposition effect on stock return and test the relationship between the disposition effect and the volatility, trading volume and turnover. Using daily data of 432 stocks traded on the NYSE and NASDAQ during the 2006-2015 periods, we found a negative and significant correlation, as the theory requires. The regressions results show that the disposition proxy is associated with lower returns, less volatility and smaller trading volume at the stock level. These findings are coherent with the presence of a common disposition effect-related factor. The exposure of a stock to this factor is related to lower ex post returns.

Firm-specific characteristics, corporate governance and voluntary disclosure in annual reports of listed companies in Bangladesh
The aim of the study is to examine the factors influences voluntary disclosures of information in the annual reports of listed companies in Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) over the period of 2007 to 2011. A sample of 106 non-financial companies listed on DSE was selected by judgemental sampling. The results of the disclosure index indicate that four highest disclosure scorer listed companies in DSE are from the industrial categories of 'Fuel and Power' and 'Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals' and four lowest disclosure scorer listed companies in DSE are from the industrial category of 'Food and Allied'. Secondly, the results indicate that the total assets, the percentage of female directors, board leadership structure of a firm are positively associated with the level of voluntary disclosure. The result also indicates that the percentage of equity owned by the insiders of a firm is negatively associated with the level of voluntary disclosures.

How are discretionary accruals priced? Evidence from the Canadian stock market
This paper examines the pricing of discretionary accruals of a sample of 159 Canadian listed firms. According to previous literature, firms' accounting manipulations are explained by the opportunism of managers. As a result, discretionary accruals are negatively priced by an efficient capital market. However, another stream of literature argues that discretionary accruals are positively priced by financial markets as they reduce information asymmetry and capture information not reflected by non-discretionary earnings. As a consequence, discretionary accruals enhance the capacity of reported earnings to reflect firm real performance. The evidence of our study is consistent with the latter scenario. Our findings are robust to alternative models of discretionary accruals, to income increasing vs. income decreasing manipulations, to the level of financial performance and finally to financial market proxies.

An investigation of the relationship between firm growth factors, business structure and profitability for a developing non-life insurance market: evidence from the Taiwan
This study investigates the factors of firm growth and analyses profitability by sourcing panel data of the non-life insurance industry in Taiwan. I initially utilise logistic regression to examine the insurer's growth factors. Further, I examine the effect of the relationship between firm growth and business structure on the insurer's profitability. The findings reveal that reinsurance, input costs, return on investment (ROI), and firm age have significant impact on firm growth, but firm size and firm growth are independent of each other. I also find that underwriting risk, input costs, ROI, and financial holding group influence the insurer's profitability. Furthermore, firm growth and business structure have different significant impact on firms profitability in the profit ratio model and the operating ratio model, respectively. My results have practical implications for the insurance industry and competent authorities in Taiwan.

Structural uncertainty and policy making for a mega public project in communist China: the case of Three Gorges Dam
As an alternative to the cost and benefit analysis adopted by scholars in neoclassical economics, this paper utilises an evolutionary approach to understand the policy making of the Three Gorges Dam project. We argue that the decision on constructing the Three Gorges project and its implementation are largely the result of the interactions of different levels of public agents and special interest groups who attempt to pursue their self-interest in the policy making process. This paper focuses on three levels of governmental interaction, namely central leadership, provincial officials and local cadres. Under uncertainty, the construction of the world's largest dam is the result of clashes in private interests, bargaining and consensus building among all levels of governments and special interest groups. The policy making process often produces an unintended consequence in which the players do not know in advance. This paper concludes that the outcome of the Three Gorges Dam today could not be known in advance.

Crude oil price and bank credit to the private sector in Saudi Arabia
This study examines the influence of crude oil price on banking sector credit to the private sector in the Saudi Arabian economy using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration analysis extended to incorporate the presence of a structural break in the data series over the period 1972-2013. The results highlight the dual effects of crude oil price on the volume of banking sector credit to the private sector in the economy. A positive and significant long-run relationship between banking sector credit to the private sector and the international crude oil price coexists with a negative short-run relationship in the economy. A well-articulated policy framework that will lessen the exposure of banks to movement in crude oil prices and strengthen the level of credit creation by deposit money banks is therefore required in the Saudi Arabian economy.

A project-pursuit-based technique for modelling behavioural banking transactions
Uncovering previously unknown information in business data is a core element of business intelligence applications. For instance, modelling banking transactions is widely used to not only enhance business performance but also as a security measure. Quite often potential information arises in the form of data clusters. However, challenges and opportunities appear to home in onto the determination of exactly which clusters contain 'interesting' information. Cluster optimisation still remains a major challenge within the data science community. We propose a two-phase algorithm that starts with cluster identification and optimises clusters by testing cluster parameters. To attain optimisation, dimensional reduction methods are carried out iteratively, measuring and testing each pattern for significance. Using transactional banking data, the algorithm sets cluster optimisation as a basis for identifying banking transactional behaviour. The novel method presents potential extensions into forensic investigations in fields such as accounting, criminology, engineering and many others.

Examining the impact of public investment and private investment on economic growth: empirical evidence from BRICS nations
This paper examines the factors impacting economic growth and the interlinkages of public investment, foreign direct investment (FDI), and private domestic investment using a panel data sample of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) group of nations covering the time period of 1990 to 2014. We have made use of economic growth models suggested by Vu Le and Suruga (2005) in order to estimate economic growth and the individual impact of public investment on FDI and private domestic investment, respectively. The empirical results indicate that the private domestic investment along with FDI play a significant role in contributing towards economic growth. Further, analysing the impact of public investment on FDI and private domestic investment suggests that an increase in public investment in BRICS nations reduces the positive impact of FDI and private domestic investment on economic growth (crowding-out effect) when exceeding certain extent levels. Hence, we can conclude that from an overall prospective, public investment in BRICS nations has a substitutable effect on FDI and private domestic investment.

Investigating source change of economic development in Malaysia: total input cost approach
The paper examines compositional structure changes in the Malaysian economy, over 1980-2015, when nine plans were implemented and five I-O tables were published by Department of Statistics Malaysia. Input side is utilised to evaluate changes in economic efficiency. The study focuses on changes in economic structure with different levels of development over time. As results indicate, the source of economic development in the Malaysian economy is final demand for 1983-1987, 1991-2000, 2000-2005 and 2005-2010 periods and for the whole period of the study. A rise in efficiency over time for the 1983-1987, 1987-1991 and 1991-2000 periods was revealed. Furthermore, the efficiency degree between the above sub periods increased over time but remains weak over the study period. There is also vital change in value added structure in recent years. The economy has not moved fast enough forward, and is not geared by the type of exports that sustains a dynamic industrial development. Overall, there is need of implementation of various effective policies regarding R&D, innovation and human capital to meet future challenges.

Short- and long-run effects of remittance outflow shocks on the Saudi Arabian economy
This paper investigates the short- and long-run relationship between remittance outflows and the macroeconomic aggregates including non-oil GDP, investment, and inflation in Saudi Arabia for the period 1970-2014. Using a common trends model, the macroeconomic effects of remittances are decomposed into transitory (short-run effect) and permanent (long-run effect) components. The paper finds evidence of one cointegrating vector and the common trends model is identified to three permanent shocks, interpreted as one real external shock (remittance shock), one domestic real shock (non-oil GDP shock) and one domestic nominal shock (the inflation shock) and one transitory shock identified as investment shock. The impulse response functions show that the remittances shocks have short-run negative effects on non-oil GDP and negative long-run effects on inflation. Regarding to the effects of remittances on investment, the results show that there has been a shorter positive response of investment to remittance shocks, while in the long run, the remittances affect investment negatively. Results demonstrate that more incentives are required to overcome the negative effects of remittances outflows on non-oil GDP, inflation and investment Thus, increasing the propensity to save and invest in Saudi Arabia, by foreign workers, is a pressing concern to consider.

New coral reefs-based approaches for the model type selection problem: a novel method to predict a nation's future energy demand
In this paper, we describe two new methods to address the model type selection problem (MTSP) based on modifications of the coral reefs optimisation algorithm (CRO). The effectiveness of these novel approaches is subsequently illustrated in a problem of energy demand estimation in Spain. First, we describe how coral species can be defined in the CRO algorithm, so each specie defines a competing model for the MTSP. Second, we propose another method to solve MTSPs by modifying the original CRO with a substrate layer, so that the different models considered can be encoded similarly. This second method to solve the MTSP simplifies the application of the CRO operators. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the two CRO-based algorithms by solving a MTSP consisting of the prediction of future energy demand from macro-economic data in Spain as a case study.

Stock index return forecasting: semantics-based genetic programming with local search optimiser
Making accurate stock price predictions is the pillar of effective decisions in high-velocity environments since the successful prediction of future prices could yield significant profit and reduce operational costs. Generally, solutions for this task are based on trend predictions and are driven by various factors. To add to the existing body of knowledge, we propose a semantics-based genetic programming framework. The proposed framework blends a recently developed version of genetic programming that uses semantic genetic operators with a local search method. To analyse the appropriateness of the proposed computational method for stock market price prediction, we analysed data related to the Dow Jones index and to the Istanbul Stock Index. Experimental results confirm the suitability of the proposed method for predicting stock market prices. In fact, the system produces lower errors with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques, such as neural networks and support vector machines. forecasting; financial markets; genetic programming; semantics; local search.

Genetic algorithm-based feature selection for classification of land cover changes using combined LANDSAT and ENVISAT images
Recent monsoon failures and reduced rain falls urge the environmental and ecology researchers to concentrate on the land cover changes. Significant and efficient way to monitor the land cover changes is satellite image classification. This work describes the combination of remotely sensed data, LANDSAT and ENVISAT images, to improve the classification accuracy. Instead of predictor space, embedding space is considered in the proposed KNNES and SVMES methods and applied for the classification of combined LANDSAT and ENVISAT datasets. Genetic algorithm-based (GA) feature selection is adopted to enhance the proposed classification methods. Classification of land cover changes of the study area are identified as used land, unused land, forest and vegetation. Proposed methods are evaluated by an accuracy analysis which follows good practice recommendations. Accuracy is quantified by reporting standard errors, i.e., producer accuracy, user accuracy, omission error and commission error. Performance of the proposed SVM and KNN-based methods using GA-based feature selection for combined dataset is improved significantly and provide overall accuracy 80% and 76% respectively.

Grid connected photovoltaic systems power quality improvement using adaptive control strategy
In this paper, an innovative adaptive technique for power quality (PQ) improvement in grid linked photovoltaic (PV) mechanism is launched. The novel adaptive technique constitutes the integrated accomplishment of the mighty artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and the proportional integral derivational (PID) controller. The major objective of the proposed method is to forecast the adaptive gain parameters for the usual and anomalous scenarios in the grid side. In the proposed method, the ABC optimises the gain parameters of the PID controller for diverse grid power variations by employing the objective function, which is devised in accordance with the error minimisation between the actual grid parameters and set point grid parameters. According to the optimised gain parameters of the PID controller, the PQ of the grid side has been augmented. Thereafter, the proposed method is executed in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and the efficiency in execution is evaluated by means of analysis a contrast with the conventional approaches.

Fast-FFA: a fast online scheduling approach for big data stream computing with future features-aware
Awareness of future features is more important than that of historical features for online scheduling in a big data stream computing environment. In this paper, a fast future feature-aware online scheduling approach fast-FFA is put forward, exhibiting the following contributions; 1) Modelling the online resource scheduling from viewpoints of user and data centre, considering multi-dimensional features of online data stream and quantitating preferences and utilities of each dimension. 2) Obtaining future features from historical features of multidimensional data stream with a hybrid particle swarm optimisation, back propagation (PSO-BP) algorithm and optimising online scheduling with an immune clonal algorithm. 3) Evaluating fast-FFA and balancing both fast future feature awareness and acceptable accuracy objectives. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed fast-FFA approach has high potential as the approach provides significant system efficiency enhancements in online big data environments.

Mathematical model of security approaches on cloud computing
Over the years, there is a significant advance in cloud computing technology. It has grown from being a promising business concept to one of the fast growing sector of the information technology organisations. However, customers are still reluctant to deploy their business in the cloud. Security is one of the key factor which hampers the growth of cloud computing. The exponential growth of the internet users has also lead to a significant growth of threats. Mathematical modelling plays as an important tool in analysing and mitigating possible threats or attacks on cloud computing. This paper focuses on mathematical models on security issues arising from the usage of cloud services. We propose a model for detecting possible threats on cloud system using probability process.

A scalable resource provisioning scheme for the cloud using peer to peer resource discovery and multi-attribute utility theory
Serving large number of users without compromising service availability and performance is key to the success of the cloud. A fundamental challenge in building such services is incorporating scalability and fail safe techniques for discovering and provisioning of resources. As peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures are invincible to these setbacks, the work proposes a P2P-based resource discovery and provisioning method for the cloud. It first addresses the multi attribute data publishing and the range querying inability of existing distributed hash table (DHT)-based P2P schemes and proposes an attribute hub-based discovery of provisioning information. Focused on that, a decentralised resource provisioning model is proposed using multi-attribute utility theory methods. The simulation shows that the proposed approach is 44.24% and 45.81% faster than the centralised and DHT-based approaches respectively in case of multidimensional range querying. It also shows the lesser number of service level objective (SLO) violations and migrations which are about 24.11% and 33.43% respectively.

Cloud computing resource allocation taxonomies
Cloud computing datacentres dynamically provide millions of virtual machines in actual cloud computing markets. Several challenging problems have to be addressed towards an efficient resource management of these cloud-computing infrastructures. In the context of resource allocation, virtual machine placement (VMP) is one of the most studied problems with several possible formulations and a large number of existing optimisation criteria, considering solutions with high economical and ecological impact. Based on systematic reviews of the VMP literature, this work presents novel taxonomies in order to: 1) understand different possible environments where a VMP problem could be studied from both provider and broker perspectives in different deployment architectures; 2) identify existing approaches for the formulation and resolution of the VMP as an optimisation problem; 3) present a detailed view of the VMP problem, identifying research opportunities to further advance in this area.

Design and implementation of a framework for provisioning algorithms as a service
Designing, implementing and executing algorithms have become a relevant and important element in various fields. Public users and data researchers are interested in analysing and interpreting data with shorter execution time and higher performance. Cloud computing is an environment that provides scalable and high-end virtual resources to achieve high quality services. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a framework for provisioning algorithms as a service in the cloud. This framework introduces solutions to help clients overcome different concerns and difficulties, such as looking for an appropriate algorithm, understanding algorithm source code, installing and configuring specific libraries, and achieving high algorithmic performance. The framework provides clients the possibility to discover available algorithms and/or deploy new algorithms over multiple scalable platforms. It also allows clients to analyse data, compare results, and measure algorithm's performance. A prototype implementation of the framework has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the solution. Evaluating results demonstrate that providing multiple scalability models and high-end web servers will improve algorithm performance and achieve availability and reliability using the framework.