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This New Articles Channel contents the latest articles published in Inderscience's distinguished academic, scientific and professional journals.


Impact of urban green space attribute on visitors' satisfaction in Putrajaya: Malaysia
Systematic distribution and management strategy of urban green spaces has proved to have positive impact (positively influenced) on aesthetic features of urban environment. This translated into greater neighbourhood and visitors' improved overall satisfaction. However, on the contrary, this manifests to affect the natural features of the urban environment, leading to non-negligible dissatisfaction. Careful consideration of green space is judged based on their particular necessity in terms of quality and service provision towards the desirable development of Putrajaya. In this study, 386 samples are considered based on Krejcie and Morgan 1970 sample size formula. The results obtained indicated a strong positive relationship between urban green space attributes and satisfaction. Whereas, results of regression analysis shows that the entire predicting variables have significant unique contribution in determining satisfaction to urban green spaces visitors' in Putrajaya.

Inclusive wealth accounting for South Asia: measuring towards sustainability
Inclusive wealth is a key measuring indicator of sustainable development. Long-term development is a process of accumulation and sound management of a portfolio of assets-manufactured capital, natural capital, human and social capital. Existing indicators for measuring economic progress have many limitations such as GDP and HDI and does not focus on sustainability of the nation. Previous indicators are missing true values from the natural resource. The new indicators such as green GDP, index of sustainable and economic welfare, and genuine progress indicators are concern about sustainability. The major objective of this paper is to estimate the inclusive wealth for South Asia from the period of 1990-2010. This study has used wealth accounting methodology and aggregates the value of produced capital, human capital, forest resources and exhaustible resources. Inclusive wealth is an important instrument for human well-being. The main implication of the paper is inclusive wealth make better decisions for achieving sustainable development for South Asia. Accounting for natural capital strength also is useful for educating decision makers and assessing the relative importance of non-market benefits relative to market benefits.

Converging political ecology and environmental justice disciplines for more effective civil society actions against macro-economic risks: the case of South Africa
This paper explores the potential to converge the theory of political ecology with the environmental justice discipline as means to promote more effective civil society actions against macro-economic risks, whilst analysing the case of South Africa. Such a convergence could result in mutual benefit for both arenas that already share a commitment towards justice. Whilst political ecology has focused on theoretical perspectives, which are mostly applied in rural areas, and examined justice in a larger macro-economic framework, environmental justice has been confined to an empirical focus at a local urban level, which is unable to link local struggles to larger political economic frameworks. Additionally, both arenas generally view civil society as coherent entities that act against the state and industry. Both disciplines should re-evaluate geographic scales and reconfigure romanticised understandings of civil society actions in order to attain justice.

A comparative study on the effect of polyethylene plastic waste on sandy soils
Plastic pollution is one of the major global issues. Engineering measures are being undertaken to harness the non-biodegradability of plastic by converting it to a vital part of built environment. A comparative study is undertaken to evaluate the effects of the waste plastic (polyethylene) on the geotechnical properties of two locally available sands viz. Brahmaputra sand and Kulsi sand by conducting a series of direct shear tests on the two sand samples reinforced with polyethylene plastic strips. The effect of varying concentration of plastics (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, 0.70% and 0.75% by weight of the sand) using different dimensions of the plastic strips is investigated. The polyethylene plastic strips' length varied from 15 mm to 45 mm and width varied from 5 mm to 15 mm. The shear strength parameters which are obtained ultimately for the composite specimens on which analysis have been done, positively reflect soil improvement due to the inclusion of polyethylene plastic waste.

Unravelling coastal people's adaptation to salinity: evidence from Bangladesh
Salinity as a slow onset climate change induced disaster is affecting coastal agriculture in multifarious ways. This study intends to explore various adaptation strategies that coastal people adopt to cope with the increasing saline water intrusion. To serve this purpose, the study conducted a survey with 318 landless people, 195 women and 123 men, selected purposively from two southwest coastal villages of Bangladesh. A five-point ordinal level Likert scale has been used to analyse data. Change in land use pattern, use of modern technology in agriculture, diversification of crops and income sources, using savings and harvesting rainwater were some of the adaptation strategies common in the study areas. The study found that women's ability to adapt is seriously compromised by their limited access to capital. So it is vital that the government take up specific programmes to enhance their adaptation capacity through increasing income generating activities and credit opportunities.

Sustainable wastewater management for underdeveloped communities - a hands-on method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of greywater
The quantity of greywater produced in urban areas of Dhaka city in Bangladesh is around 96-112 litres per capita per day which is 60%-70% of the average water supplied. This huge amount of greywater could be recycled via a separate distribution system to meet water demand for greywater toilet systems, gardening and irrigation. The quality parameters of collected greywater samples ranged for pH between 6.67 to 7.92, conductivity between 548 to 999 μS-cm−1, turbidity between 54 to 435 NTU, colour between 28 to 367 (Pt-Co Unit), BOD5 between 60 to 299 mg-L−1 and COD between 135 to 751 mg-L−1. It is estimated that an annual savings of 59 million Taka (about 728,300 USD based on $1 = 81 Taka as of 4/13/2017) could be achieved in a chemical and purification process if greywater is recycled for this community. This practice of recycling greywater is a step toward sustainable wastewater management for underdeveloped communities struggling with capital and dwindling freshwater sources.

Appropriate environmental-friendly energy technologies for sustainable rehabilitation and cross-border development
Today with billions of tonnes of carbon emissions into the atmosphere, global temperature rise and great obstacles to further development of conventional energy sources, it is a must that due attention be given to a range of environmental-friendly energy technologies, too relevant in the Adriatic coastal regions. Implementation of energy efficiency and maximum use of renewable, are more appropriate options to resolve problem relevant to both the basic sectors (buildings, transports, energy production and urban systems) and improve/strengthen sustainable development capabilities. It is in this context that a brief description of some environmental-friendly energy technologies that can easily be replicated in the Adriatic coastal regions, will be presented. In addition, real-time strategies, working simultaneously, able to reduce traffic congestion, vehicle emissions, benefitting both users and non-users of the transport network in social, environmental and economic terms, will be another salient feature of present communication.

Sustainable development as a driver for innovation and employment
Sustainability is the key to market recovery and future economic growth. Climate change and other natural disasters present an opportunity to save lives, and property. Efficiency and innovation are job creators spawning new technologies, use of building materials, and methods of building. Individuals like William Kamkwamba, "the boy who harnessed the wind" found solutions, surviving drought and famine, through innovation and perseverance during trying times. Sustainability reduces impact on the environment, benefits people, and grows wealth. This paper will discuss how to quantify sustainability with case studies the author has conducted.

Production vs. consumption management for sustainable agricultural resources
At 35%, world food production wastage is jeopardising the sustainability of global resources and the future of food security, especially considering that agriculture uses 60% and 37% of the world water and land resources. Ironically, rural populations are most exposed to poverty and hunger when they feed the world. Through a literature review, this paper will demonstrate that supply management, based on consumption, is a solution to food wastage and can in parallel, improve rural wealth, introduce sustainable agricultural practices, resolve major urban pressures and bring about global climate change adaptation. The concepts presented in this paper confront modern world agricultural policies as production management systems are being abolished throughout the world, including Canada.

What are the preferences in the development process of a sustainable urban mobility plan? New methodology for experts involvement
Sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMP) have been trying to solve mobility issues by identifying suitable measures to be implemented according to citizen's behaviour and their expected impact. With the aim of improving the actual process of urban mobility development, here it is presented a new methodology, the mutual learning workshop (MLW). This methodology is specially designed to facilitate the joint work of experts advising SUMPs development. A total of 4 MLW were organised and 12 different urban mobility topics were approached. Discussion processes were moderated by experts in urban mobility from nine countries, who were leading the worktables and role playing activities. Using such methodology, the results of the 36 topics discussion and 12 role play activities are presented as important topics detected in the development of SUMPs and best practices found throughout Europe.

Universities as role models for sustainability: a case study on implementation of University of Gothenburg climate strategy, results and experiences from 2011 to 2015
This paper undertakes the concept of universities as role models for sustainability, regenerative sustainability and universities as living laboratories through a case study from University of Gothenburg and the implementation of the climate strategy. The climate strategy is a comprehensive university-wide strategy, including collaboration between faculty, administration and management, as well as with external stakeholders. With the support of its environmental management system (EMS), the University of Gothenburg manages climate action with a systematic approach, both in implementation and follow-up. This creates opportunities for technical solutions and social learning processes, and allows the University of Gothenburg to serve as a living laboratory and a role model for sustainability. The climate strategy was initiated 2011 and by the end of 2015 the target to reduce total carbon emissions by 20% was almost reached with a reduction of 18.5% compared with the baseline year 2008. The total energy use was reduced by 19%. These results were achieved even though the university revenues, staff/employees as well as students has increased from the year 2008 to 2015.

Turkey's energy system development: linking an energy supply model with an industrial simulation model and solving it iteratively
Turkey is in the progress to include nuclear energy to its electricity generation capacity. The energy modelling studies for Turkey mainly focus on usage of renewable energy and local fossil fuels and include nuclear power plants (NPP) only with their electricity generation capacities without taking into consideration the front- and back-ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study takes into consideration the life cycle assessment (LCA) of nuclear energy based on optimisation of energy system costs and usage of energy resources under atmospheric CO2 and SO2 emission constraints using MESSAGE iteratively with an industrial simulation model. This iterative modelling calculates the marginal costs of final energy generation and energy demands for domestic production. The results of this study are assessed using economic, environmental and social indicators. The study concludes that both environmental and nuclear energy scenarios are viable options to set national atmospheric CO2 and SO2 emission targets for Turkey.

Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) Index for policy learning in cities
Policy learning between cities is a vital process to enable the diffusion of more sustainable practices. The Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) Index provides a composite indicator to benchmark city performance based on 7 dimensions and 35 main indicators. In this research work, the SDEWES Index is applied to 25 cities. Data are collected, normalised, and aggregated to obtain the results. Stockholm (3.29), Espoo (3.25) and Sevilla (2.98) are the top three cities. An average city in the sample receives an index score of 2.75. The paper further develops a benchmarking tool to trigger policy learning based on the index performance. Two typologies of policy learning are discussed to stimulate an exploratory process for catching-up or finding solutions to common needs. On the basis of the total of 56 cities to which the index is applied to date, a search algorithm is developed to match cities in which 10 common patterns are identified. The paper concludes with the prospect of using the SDEWES Index to stimulate innovation for more sustainable cities.

Lack of commitment of Brazilian federal institutions to ethanol competitiveness
Brazil is regarded as pioneer in developing a market for sugarcane ethanol, to a large extent due to initiatives of federal government in setting up this sector in the past by a heavy use of public policies to provide a fair environment for the development of a complete production chain of ethanol. The aim of this paper is to present the level of commitment of Brazilian federal institutions to ethanol market by means of public policies, especially those related to second-generation technology which is a crucial ingredient for the long-term development in the ethanol industry because of its technological impacts. For this purpose, this paper assesses the actions taken and decisions made by Brazilian federal institutions aiming the production and competitiveness of sugarcane ethanol based on the concept of sectorial system of innovation and production (SSIP).

Time series analysis of Earth's Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstructions using non-linear tools and statistical tests
This paper presents results concerning the non-linear analysis of the Earth's Northern Hemisphere mean annual land temperature reconstructions for the time period of 713-2004. The non-linear analysis consists of the application of several filtering methods, the estimation of geometrical and dynamical characteristics in the reconstructed phase space, techniques of discrimination between non-linear low-dimensional and linear high-dimensional (stochastic) dynamics and tests for serial dependence and non-linear structure. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the filtering methods in revealing non-linear structures and correlations in short noisy time series, such as Earth's Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstructions. No low-dimensional chaotic behaviour evidence was found from the analysis.

A new education model in sustainable energy
The European Institute for Innovation and Technology (EIT) has selected knowledge and innovation community (KIC) InnoEnergy as the leading engine for innovation and entrepreneurship in sustainable energy in Europe. Since 2010, KIC InnoEnergy Master School has offered Master's degree programs, which are directed at a new type of education in the energy field, aimed at mobilising the innovative and entrepreneurial spirit of the students. Seven Master's programs, accredited by top technical universities in Europe, offer a combination of engineering and entrepreneurship courses. This paper describes a new mechanism for the development of a teaching environment, which creates strong links between education, technology, business and entrepreneurship. The paper also emphasises the main distinguishing features of KIC InnoEnergy education and gives examples of the application of new pedagogical methods.

Sustainability and ethics as attraction factor and talent retaining, the case of the companies in Brazil
An ancient paradigm considered people as simple production factors. Nowadays, we know that human capital is fundamental for business success, and the challenge of attracting and retaining talents in competitive markets encourage companies to search for elements to differentiate themselves from competitors. Another paradigm says that the company's responsibility towards society is to limit themselves into producing a profit. Advances in debates about sustainability and ethics made us comprehend that companies cannot ignore that they have an important part in the matter that extrapolates operation limits. But how do sustainability and ethics contribute to attract and retain talents? Through this revision of literature and data from researches done with Brazilian companies, this essay intends to evaluate sustainable practices and how can they interfere in attraction capacity and retention of talents.

Compromising innovative behaviour with work shame
While the consideration of negative affect as an influence of innovative behaviour has yielded conflicting results in the organisational science literature, the current study sought to consider the influence of the discrete emotion of shame on innovative behaviour. Research outside of the domain of organisations suggests that shame enacts withdrawal behaviour, the negative form of engagement. Based in Kahn's (1990) suggestion that engagement is comprised of psychological availability, psychological safety and psychological meaningfulness, this study aimed to investigate work shame as a compromise to innovative behaviour, while considering the pathways acting as the mediating mechanism. Employees and managers from two organisations in different industries were surveyed. Through the use of path analysis, findings suggest that work shame exerts an indirect effect on innovative behaviour through psychological availability. Implications for both emotions and innovative behaviour research are considered.

Military leadership and emotion regulation in acute situations that contain moral dilemmas
The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of individual emotion-focused coping strategies and institutionalised norms as regards emotion regulation in a short-and long-term perspective in relation to acute stressful situations that contain moral dilemmas. 15 participants at different hierarchical levels in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) were interviewed. Several individual emotion regulation strategies and organisational norms for emotional expressiveness were identified. These were integrated into a theoretical model. The study contributes by explicating a context-specific emotion culture that gives limited space for emotional expression as it is necessary to remain firm and cold in acute situations that include moral dilemmas. Leaders must be able to minimise emotional displays in order to contribute to operational efficiency (termed emotional containing capacity). Potential conflicts between a well-developed emotional containing capacity in acute situations and long-term adaptation to organisational norms in daily life after missions and practical implications are discussed.

Resistance is futile: do vivid images of the future diminish resistance to change?
Partly because employees often seem to resist changes, many workplace changes do not generate the benefits that managers anticipated. To offset this impediment, this study invoked expectancy theory to uncover and then to examine, three antecedents to this apparent resistance that can be modified while implementing changes: future clarity, future self-continuity and meaning in life. Specifically, 207 participants completed a questionnaire that comprised a validated measure of resistance to change and these three antecedents. As hypothesised, future clarity and meaning in life were inversely associated with resistance to change. However, future self-continuity, or the extent to which individuals feel their identity will persist in the future, was positively associated with resistance to change. Thus, practices or procedures that increase the extent to which the workplace vision is vivid to employees should contain resistance to change.

Emotional intelligence as mediator between burnout and organisational outcomes
Burnout is a syndrome caused by prolonged responses to chronic stressors derived from interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Burnout has been associated with important negative organisational outcomes: job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, neglect, intention to leave the job. Numerous studies have tested the inverse relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout. The aim of this study is to verify the mediation role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between burnout and some organisational outcomes (turnover intention, exit and neglect, performance and absenteeism). Research participants are 354 helping professions' workers aged between 29 and 66 years. The scales used are: link burnout questionnaire; self report emotional intelligence test; turnover intentions scale; exit and neglect scales; performance scale; absenteeism was detected through the number of days of absence in the last 12 months. The results have highlighted that emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between burnout and organisational outcomes, providing interesting suggestions for intervention in organisations.

Conceptual design and development of pneumatically controlled flexible fixture and pallets
Fixture performance influences the product manufacturing quality, productivity and cost. Flexible fixtures (FF) provide solution to the problem of costly redesign of fixtures due to changes in dimensions/geometry of parts to be manufactured. Various areas related to design of FFs have already been very well described by various renowned authors. This paper carries out the conceptual designing of pneumatically controlled FF and pallets for machining (drilling and milling) operations. Pneumatic cylinders and electric motors were used as actuators. The first part considers introduction and literature review with significant researches and requirements of fixtures over time. After that, different aspects related to fixture design have been presented to give a deep and quick understanding of fixture design and its criteria for drilling and milling heads. Then, conceptual designing of pneumatically controlled FF and pallets has been discussed. The shortcomings of the existing studies are stated and future directions are proposed.

Robust cooperative maximal covering location problem: a case study of the locating Tele-Taxi stations in Tabriz, Iran
Today, maximising the number of steady customers and consistency in meeting their needs are two important factors affecting the profitability of companies. Therefore, researchers are trying to model, study and analyse factors affecting the businesses. To this end and with regard to covering problem applications, this problem is inclusively studied in the operations research (OR) literature. This article proposes a novel maximal covering location problem (MCLP) in which different factors (capacity of facilities, budget, number of available facilities in different types) have been considered. To provide a real case problem, locating Tele-Taxi stations in Tabriz, Iran have been studied. Moreover, to analyse the effects of uncertainty in the rate of demand in each demand point and capacity of facilities as undeniable facts of real-world, the robust counterpart of the proposed model is developed. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on the constant perturbation for uncertain parameters has been conducted.

Modelling of barriers and initiatives of continuous improvement approach for enhancing the performance of SMEs of Northern India
Continuous improvement is a management approach of enhancing processes using small incremental improvements. This study attempts to access the significant barriers and benefits using interpretive structural modelling, options field methodology (OFM), options profile methodology (OPM), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy set theory (FST) and impact of independent initiatives on dependent initiatives using structural equation modelling. Result indicates that barriers including lack of management commitment, lack of continuous training and education to employees, lack of employee trust in senior management and inadequate knowledge of continuous improvement approach have high driving power and low dependency power. Moreover, customer and supplier relations play a high significant role in improving the performance of firm.

Performance evaluation of TQM attainment in Indian manufacturing sector
Total quality management (TQM) improves product quality, expands business goodwill, provides competitive edge and increases customer-base with satisfaction. Most enterprises agree with the TQM potential and they have successfully implemented, although the stagnant urge of some effective performance evaluation mechanism is unfulfilled. With this thought, a performance evaluation model is proposed to examine the implementation performance of TQM practices in the automobile and automotive establishments in India. By this model, a company may analyse the effectiveness as a performance measure of implied TQM practices by considering attainment proportion to implement and significance proportion to fix priority in implementation. Further, the established inclusive effectiveness model is verified by statistical control chart. Also, an establishment is selected arbitrarily to check the applicability of the conceived model.

Measuring of intellectual capital indexes using FAHP technique in institutes of higher education
The main aim of this study was measuring intellectual capital indexes of institutes of higher education. The model of the study is tested on a sample of 30 experts in institutes of higher education in Iran. The main instruments used for gathering the data in this study were institutes of higher education records and questionnaires. In this study, different levels of sub-criteria used for human resources capital, organisational capital, communicative capital, and sub-criteria used for intellectual capital measuring indexes were ranked in institutes of higher education by using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results obtained from FAHP method indicate that regarding the indexes used for measuring intellectual capital, it is concluded that human resource capital is the most important factor among the other factors. According to the scales related to human resource capital, we realised that leadership ability and employee behaviour are the most important ones. According to the scales related to organisational capital, we realised that being up to date is the first priority. According to the scales related to communicative capital, we realised that customer is the first priority and market and stockholders are the next priorities.

Exploring key dimensions of e-service quality: a case of Indian banking industry
Customers become more aware of a company's performance when the service provider adopts technology. In such situations, customers demand more reliable services and greater security in financial transactions. Thus, banks need to improve the quality of e-services provided by them. The present paper seeks to identify e-service quality dimensions relevant to the banking industry. It attempts to critically analyse the relationship amongst them so that policy makers can focus on relevant parameters to improve the e-service quality in banking. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach has been applied in this study for modelling the e-service quality dimension. The major findings of this study are to prioritise the strategic dimension in reducing the risks associated with e-service quality. The hierarchical presentation of dimensions and their classification into driver and dependent categories is a unique attempt that has been made in context of e-service quality in the Indian banking industry.

A cooperative covering problem under disruption considering backup coverage
In this paper, we study the location of emergency centres considering cooperative and backup coverage while natural disasters occur which can result in facility disruption. In this regard, a reliable version of cooperative covering problem is presented considering two types of candidate sites, i.e., reliable and unreliable. To achieve a fortified system against disaster, reliable candidate sites are selected from areas which are far away from the disaster harms. Furthermore, backup coverage is considered to compensate unsatisfied coverage of the demand zones due to facility disruption. The performance of the model is investigated solving numerical examples with different approaches utilising commercial software. The results confirm accurate performance of the model. They also show that both facility failure and backup coverage considerations lead to a more efficient network by incurring some additional cost.

Provider mobility in content centric networks - issues and challenges
As the amount of data stored and retrieved in the internet increases, newer architectures that support high volumes of data become necessary. Content centric networking (CCN) architecture by PARC is an information centric architecture that focuses on the content to be retrieved, rather than the address from which it has to be retrieved. Data objects in CCN are assigned hierarchical names and requests for data are routed based on longest prefix matching. While CCN offers freedom from host addresses and improves data retrieval speeds by using in-network caching, mobility of content providers is a big challenge. In view of the rapidly growing number of mobile nodes and volume of data, we analyse the problems associated with provider mobility in CCN. We then explore the existing solutions to address these problems and compare their performance. Lastly, we discuss open issues in supporting provider mobility in CCN.

Power saving technique for controlled broadcast of query packet in MANETs
In computer communication networks, every routing-protocol makes a route-discovery to find the optimal path which involves broadcasting of the query-packet over the network. It becomes too expensive when query-packets circulate unnecessarily in the network. These undesirable packets cause the problem of congestion in the network. Time-efficient BERS (tBERS) is one of the controlled flooding techniques that lessens such expenses. From our results, we analysed that its performance in terms of query-retransmission and link-breaks degrade as route-reconstruction problem increases. In such situations, we need to lessen the retransmission of query-packets due to link breaks. In this paper, we have proposed energy-efficient BERS (eBERS) technique that reduces the retransmission of the query-packets. It reduced the retransmission between the magnitude of 15%-20% and energy exhaustion ratio between 29%-56% in tBERS. Furthermore, eBERS also reduced the number of link breaks and average latency between 9%-25% and 36%-46%, respectively.

An effective mobile malware detection framework for android security
Mobile malware is considered as one of the crucial security challenges due to its high volume and quick variety, especially on the Android platform. Many researches have been proposed to detect malware, but some of them suffer low detection accuracy or high time consumption. This research implements an effective mobile malware detection framework by proposing a new feature selection method, which is term frequency-sample frequency differentiation (TF-SFD), to reduce the features with little importance. In addition, a false positive rate (FPR) filter is proposed based on sample frequency differentiation (SFD) for reducing FPR. We investigate four machine learning methods and the experimental results show that the TF-SFD combining with random forest (RF) classifier performs best in terms of accuracy in detecting malware on Android, which obtains 92.54% testing accuracy.

A survey on procedures dealing with mobile offloading schemes
Utilising mobile facilities with less energy and memory power is a major spotted research area. One of the techniques which resolve the problem is mobile offloading scheme. Various mobile offloading mechanisms are developed and analysed with the parameters energy, throughput, latency, security and deployment of application on virtual machines (VMs). Thus, the offloading mechanisms proved that mobile applications on cloud can save energy for mobile users through partition and migration of mobile applications. This paper has done detailed survey on various schemes of mobile offloading techniques that includes POMAC, cloudlet, and software defined networks (SDNs). The survey has been done on various procedures involved in mobile offloading schemes with the common similarities such as energy and cost optimisation, dynamic offloading and VM migration. This survey and analysis show that the cloud part in mobile offloading techniques need more attention for balancing the VMs and migration of applications dynamically towards energy and cost optimisation.

My Smart BT: a Bluetooth-based android application for controlling IoT appliances using graphical analysis of sensor data
Increasing use of smartphones with control systems and wireless sensor networks is in mainstream. Among this scenario, internet of things emerges to connect real-time objects like smartphones, sensors and actuators to the internet, providing communication among them and facilitating mobility. This paper focuses on android operating system-based Bluetooth serial port profile (SPP) application - My Smart BT. It collects the real-time sensor data from connected controller interfaced with application specific sensors, displays the data on the screen and streams the data to the server simultaneously. Wireless internet connections and Bluetooth are used for real-time data transmissions between the connected devices. For testing purpose, light sensor, motion sensor and SPP Bluetooth module are interfaced with Intel Galileo Gen 2-based testbed to interpret the real-time sensor data. Besides, PHP-based central MySQL server database is used for real-time data storage and graphical analysis. Application is evaluated by different segment of users.

A novel sleep/wake protocol for target coverage based on trust evaluation for a clustered wireless sensor network
The advancement in the field of nanotechnology and its impact on processor technology has made the wireless communication more powerful and popular. Coverage and lifetime maximisation are two major challenges. The node scheduling approaches address these problems: 1) achieving the connectivity and desired coverage while keeping the optimal nodes in active state; 2) resolving conflicts while determining the nodes to keep in sleep state; 3) finding strategies that avoid waking up redundant nodes. A node scheduling protocol for target coverage as an extension of energy efficient coverage preserving protocol (EECP), which determined the set covers based on the coverage probability and trust values is proposed. The clustering mechanism based on residual energy, distance and degree of the nodes is used for the dynamic selection of cluster heads. The simulation results show that the proposed enhancement achieves the improvement in the network performance than the disjoint set cover (DSC) approach.

A dynamic key authentication protocol for RFID system
RFID system faces a number of security problems with its pervasive using in all kinds of fields, such as the internet of things. According to the computing and storage limitation of the tag, we propose a mutual authentication protocol based on random numbers which can help determine the new keys with their fixed key seeds. The protocol mainly applies hash function and XOR operation which can be affordable for resource-constrained tags. As to the performance of the protocol, we discuss the security as well as its storage and computation overhead. Analysis shows that our protocol can resist common attacks with good effectiveness.

Research of a low-cost localised fault algorithm for wireless sensor networks
Because of its small, flexibility, low cost and unattended, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely used in environmental monitor, healthcare, smart home, military fields, and so on. The faults are common due to the bad environment and unattended. In order to ensure WSNs' service is normal, it is necessary to detect the faults and locate the faulty sensors. In this paper, the basic method of fault localisation using active probing is studied, the key problems of active probing are analysed, and some effective solutions to these problems are provided. Firstly, based on adjacent matrix, probe stations are selected, and designed a maximal greedy algorithm to minimise probe sets. Secondly, binary search method is used to locate the faulty sensor quickly. Lastly, an algorithm to identify the faulty sensors is proposed and evaluated. Fault detection precision is very high, and the implementation complexity of the algorithm is very low, easily implemented in hardware.

Performance analysis of received signal power-based Sybil detection in MANET using spline curve
Detection of Sybil attack in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) has been a serious issue. A legitimate node, in general, varies its transmission power within a threshold limit. A Sybil attacker can create multiple forged identities having transmission power higher than that of the legitimate nodes. This article focuses on the performance analysis of the Sybil detection technique based on received signal power. Here, we propose the concept of a Sybil detection method for a specific category of Sybil attack where the attacker changes its transmission power along with IDs time to time. To distinguish between a legitimate node and a Sybil node, we calculate received signal power (RSP) of some initially suspected nodes for a number of time instances and draw cubic Bezier curve with these values. By using tangent properties of Bezier curve, we finally trace out Sybil nodes from the suspected nodes and represent them both graphically and mathematically. We analyse the result of each step of the proposed method through simulation and the result shows up to 90% detection rate with only 10% false positive.

Comparative performance analysis of different resource scheduler and characterising the impact of proportional fair under different TTI feedback delay in EUTRA network
Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network (EUTRAN) offers high uplink and downlink throughput. In this paper, we investigate the performance of five different schedulers of media access control for resource allocation, such as round robin (RB), proportional fair (PF), best channel quality indicator (CQI), max transmission point (TP) and resource fair (RF). On comparing the performance of resource allocation schedulers in the indistinguishable arrangement, we found the proportional fair (PF) offers balance in terms of individual metrics. Furthermore, we analyse the effect of feedback transmission time interval (TTI) delay on two typical EUTRAN networks referred to as long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advance (LTE-A). We evaluate the performance of the PF scheduler for both networks under varying feedback delay in TTI. Simulated results show that the delay in TTI affects the performance of resource allocation. Feedback delay improves network performance by compensating effect of imperfect channel.

Topology-aware overlay network in mobile IP environment
An overlay network is a computer network which is built on the top of an underlying physical network. With the mobile internet access becoming the leading tool, overlay must be changing with different IP addresses, which may incur a large number of unnecessary update messages to overlay network. In recent years, mobile IP is being spread widely as one of fundamental protocols of mobile internet, which can guarantee overlay network unchangeable. However, the overlay efficiency may be affected negatively due to the mismatch between overlay and mobile IP network. In this paper, we present a topology-aware overlay network model. In the model, we proposed near-home principle applied in the joining procedure in mobile IPv4 environment and near-ROSP principle in mobile IPv6 environment. In our simulation, our proposed near-home principle and near-ROSP principle could do better to alleviate the mismatch between overlay and mobile IP network.

A novel optimal path selection strategy in MANET using energy awareness
Today, most ad hoc mobile devices operate on batteries. To maximise the lifetime of mobile networks, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed, and the overall transmission power for each connection request must be minimised. But many proposed routing protocols do not consider energy as an important factor for selecting routes. This causes earliest exhaustion of nodes and network in trouble. Here, a new approach for path selection strategy is introduced by using energy factor is known as energy aware ad-hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (EA-AOMDV) routing protocol. The proposed scheme attempts to solve the above-mentioned problems in the way of selecting energy aware nodes on the path. During the route selection process, the node is considered only when the node is having above the minimum energy threshold value. The proposed model is tested with the NS2 simulator and the result we obtained is significant.

Optimal fuzzy min-max neural network for medical data classification using group search optimiser algorithm
Several techniques were applied to healthcare datasets for the prediction of future healthcare utilisation such as predicting individual expenditures and disease risks for patients. In order to achieve promising results in medical data classification, we have planned to utilise orthogonal local preserving projection and optimal classifier. Initially, the pre-processing will be applied to extract useful data and to convert suitable samples from raw medical datasets. Feature dimension reduction method will be applied to reduce the features' space without losing the accuracy of prediction. Here, orthogonal local preserving projection (OLPP) will be used. Once the feature reduction is formed, the prediction will be carried out based on the optimal classifier. In the optimal classifier, group search optimiser algorithm will be used for fuzzy min-max neural network. Here, the experimentation is done by using various datasets from UCI machine learning repository.

Does the assumption of exponential arrival distributions in wireless sensor networks hold?
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have seen a tremendous growth in various application areas despite prominent performance and availability challenges. Although researchers continue to address these challenges, the type of distributions for arrivals at the cluster head and intermediary routing nodes is still an interesting area of investigation. The general practice in published works is to compare an empirical exponential arrival distribution of WSNs with a theoretical exponential distribution in a Q-Q plot diagram. In this paper, we show that such comparisons based on simple eye checks are not sufficient since, in many cases, incorrect conclusions may be drawn from such plots. After estimating the maximum likelihood parameters of empirical distributions, we generate theoretical distributions based on the estimated parameters. By conducting Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistics for each generated inter-arrival time distributions, we find out, if it is possible to represent the traffic into the cluster head by using theoretical distribution. Empirical exponential arrival distribution assumption of WSNs holds only for a few cases. The work is further extended to understand the effect of delay on inter-arrival time distributions based on the type of medium access control (MAC) used in WSNs.

An energy-efficient routing scheme by using GPS information for wireless sensor networks
A wireless sensor network (WSN) (or IoT network) is a collection of distributed nodes. These nodes gather data from various sensors and relay that information to a central point through a wireless network. Therefore, the data can be aggregated and have something useful done with it. These types of networks deal primarily with the transmission of small amounts of data that needs to be sent very efficiently. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient routing algorithm based on the global positioning system (GPS) information. Proposed scheme track the destination's location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through the experiments, proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as energy-efficient ant-based routing algorithm (EEABR) and ladder diffusion.

On reliable data delivery in stochastic energy harvesting wireless sensor networks
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), sensor nodes with energy harvesting components have motivation to expend additional energy in conditions of excess, since the surplus energy would be wasted due to energy buffer overflow. In this paper, we focus on using such surplus energy to adjust the redundancy level of erasure codes, so that the data delivery reliability can be improved while the network lifetime is still well conserved. For a single flow, we formulate the problem as the maximisation of end-to-end packet delivery probability under energy constraints. Considering the energy profile as a stochastic process, we propose a Lyapunov optimisation based algorithm called the erasure coding scheduling algorithm (ECSA) to solve the problem. Through a combination of both theoretical analysis and simulation, we show the effectiveness of ESCA in yielding a near-optimal data delivery reliability.

Study on the surface micro-topography in pre-stressed dry grinding process
To study the surface micro-topography in pre-stressed dry grinding process, the single grain cutting simulations were carried out in DEFORM-3D, besides, dry grinding experiments were conducted. The residual stress, groove depth and pile-up height were analysed in the simulations. The surface roughness was measured, and micro-surface topography was observed by SEM in the experiments. The results indicated that the application of pre-stress is beneficial to generate more compressive stress, which is beneficial to restrain the generation of surface micro-cracks. Pre-stress can reduce the pile-up height. When pre-stress is within a lower range, the groove depth decreases with pre-stress increasing, however, once pre-stress overcomes a certain value, surface fold appears and surface roughness increases instead. The influence rules of the cutting depth and feeding speed on surface micro-topography in pre-stressed dry grinding process are consistent with them in the traditional grinding process.

Wheel lift-off in creep-feed grinding: thermal damage, power surge, chip thickness and optimisation
An investigation is made into the phenomenon of early lift-off in creep-feed grinding, where the wheel lifts away from the workpiece before reaching the end of cut. In single-pass operations, early lift-off can result in thermal damage. In multi-pass operations, there is a surge in material-removal rate just before lift-off, which can result in thermal damage and excess wheel wear. This study examines the current inadequate methods of dealing with lift-off. It then develops a geometric and kinematic model for analysing the lift-off phenomenon. It finally proposes a thermal-model-based optimisation method for achieving a constant maximum surface temperature, resulting in shorter cycle times and less risk of thermal damage. The power-surge model is validated experimentally in diamond grinding of tungsten-carbide rotary tools.

Effects of grinding process parameters on the surface topography of PCBN cutting inserts
PCBN as a cutting tool material is a proper choice for machining difficult-to-cut materials. This is due to its hardness, chemical stability and toughness. The surface quality of PCBN tools, which are commonly ground with diamond wheels, strongly depends on the grinding parameters. The cutting forces, temperature, loading and wear of the grinding wheel influence the quality of the ground PCBN surface. The effects of cutting parameters on the cutting forces, roughness and loading of the grinding wheel during plunge face grinding of PCBN inserts are studied in this work. It was found that increasing the cutting speed from 20 to 40 m/s can decrease the cutting forces and surface roughness up to 20% and 30%, respectively. Additionally, the amount of oversize in roughing and the roughing parameters have a significant influence on the induced cutting forces in the finishing stage and the surface quality of the ground PCBN inserts.

The effects of temperature curves on the diamond/Ni-Cr interfacial properties in high-frequency induction brazing
The present study alters the temperature characteristics during high-frequency induction brazing of diamond grits and investigates their effects on the properties of the diamond/brazing alloy interface. The high-frequency induction brazing was conducted in a vacuum using Ni-Cr as active filler alloy. An active temperature range was identified for the brazing of high-quality diamond tools. This temperature range, coupled with long heating time, favours the wetting of filler alloy to diamonds, and the chemical reactions and element diffusion at the diamond/alloy interface, but reduces the static compressive strength of the diamonds. If the temperature is slowly raised, the protrusion height and location of brazed diamonds can be more precisely controlled. Brazed diamonds with 30%-50% protrusion are optimal for cutting.

An experimental study of the particle velocities in abrasive waterjets
An experimental study using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques is presented to examine the particle flow characteristics inside the high velocity abrasive waterjet (AWJ) and assess the capability of this measurement technique. Although the particle velocity is found to increase with an increase in water pressure, the velocity of particles on the jet centreline decreases while that at the jet edge increases as the jet flows downstream within 40 mm distance from the nozzle exit considered in this study. It is also shown that particles rotate while moving downstream from the nozzle exit. While these particle flow characteristics may be anticipated from theoretical understanding, it confirms that the capability of this technique is not only able to measure the particle velocities, but also observe the particle trajectory in high velocity flows. The measured particle velocity data are then used to assess the applicability of a previously developed particle velocity model for low water pressures. It is found that the model can equally give adequate predictions of particles velocities in AWJ for relatively low water pressures of within 20 MPa.

Modelling of the micro-grinding process considering the grinding tool topography
The micro topography of the grinding tool has a considerable influence on the cutting forces and temperature as well as the tool wear. This paper addresses an analytical modelling of the micro-grinding process based on the real tool topography and kinematic modelling of the cutting-edgeworkpiece interactions. An approximate shape of the abrasive grains and their distribution is obtained from the confocal images, which are taken from the tool surface - determining the grain height protrusion and the probability density function of the grains. To determine the grinding forces, a transient kinematic approach is developed. In this method, the individual grit interaction with the workpiece is extended to the whole cutting zone in the peripheral flank grinding operation. Hence a predictive model of cutting forces and surface roughness in micro grinding of titanium grade 5 is developed. Finally, the simulated forces and surface roughness are validated by the experimental results.