Subscribe: Journal of Experimental Botany - current issue
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
atg atg  atg  autophagic  autophagy  cell death  cell  death  degradation  mutants  pathway  plant  plants  proteins  stress 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: Journal of Experimental Botany - current issue

Journal of Experimental Botany Current Issue

Published: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 05:49:04 GMT


Plant autophagy: mechanisms and functions

Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagyembryogenesisbiotechnologylipidslipid dropletsmembrane-trafficking pathwaysplant–pathogen interactionproteasesseed developmentsenescence

Autophagy-related approaches for improving nutrient use efficiency and crop yield protection

Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway essential for growth and development. In plants, it is activated in response to environmental cues or developmental stimuli. However, in contrast to other eukaryotic systems, we know relatively little regarding the molecular players involved in autophagy and the regulation of this complex pathway. In the framework of the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) action TRANSAUTOPHAGY (2016–2020), we decided to review our current knowledge of autophagy responses in higher plants, with emphasis on knowledge gaps. We also assess here the potential of translating the acquired knowledge to improve crop plant growth and development in a context of growing social and environmental challenges for agriculture in the near future.

Autophagy controls resource allocation and protein storage accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is essential for nutrient recycling and plays a fundamental role in seed production and grain filling in plants. Autophagy participates in nitrogen remobilization at the whole-plant level, and the seeds of autophagy mutants present abnormal C and N contents relative to wild-type (WT) plants. It is well known that autophagy (ATG) genes are induced in leaves during senescence; however, expression of such genes in seeds has not yet been reported. In this study we show that most of the ATG genes are induced during seed maturation in Arabidopsis siliques. Promoter–ATG8f::UIDA and promoter–ATG8f::GFP fusions showed the strong expression of ATG8f in the phloem companion cells of pericarps and the funiculus, and in the embryo. Expression was especially strong at the late stages of development. The presence of many GFP-ATG8 pre-autophagosomal structures and autophagosomes confirmed the presence of autophagic activity in WT seed embryos. Seeds of atg5 and WT plants grown under low- or high-nitrate conditions were analysed. Nitrate-independent phenotypes were found with higher seed abortion in atg5 and early browing, higher total protein concentrations in the viable seeds of this mutant as compared to the WT. The higher total protein accumulation in atg5 viable seeds was significant from early developmental stages onwards. In addition, relatively low and early accumulation of 12S globulins were found in atg5 seeds. These features led us to the conclusion that atg5 seed development is accelerated and that the protein storage deposition pathway is somehow abnormal or incomplete.

Increases in activity of proteasome and papain-like cysteine protease in Arabidopsis autophagy mutants: back-up compensatory effect or cell-death promoting effect?

Sat, 27 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is essential for protein degradation, nutrient recycling, and nitrogen remobilization. Autophagy is induced during leaf ageing and in response to nitrogen starvation, and is known to play a fundamental role in nutrient recycling for remobilization and seed filling. Accordingly, ageing leaves of Arabidopsis autophagy mutants (atg) have been shown to over-accumulate proteins and peptides, possibly because of a reduced protein degradation capacity. Surprisingly, atg leaves also displayed higher protease activities. The work reported here aimed at identifying the nature of the proteases and protease activities that accumulated differentially (higher or lower) in the atg mutants. Protease identification was performed using shotgun LC-MS/MS proteome analyses and activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). The results showed that the chloroplast FTSH (FILAMENTATION TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE H) and DEG (DEGRADATION OF PERIPLASMIC PROTEINS) proteases and several extracellular serine proteases [subtilases (SBTs) and serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteases] were less abundant in atg5 mutants. By contrast, proteasome-related proteins and cytosolic or vacuole cysteine proteases were more abundant in atg5 mutants. Rubisco degradation assays and ABPP showed that the activities of proteasome and papain-like cysteine protease were increased in atg5 mutants. Whether these proteases play a back-up role in nutrient recycling and remobilization in atg mutants or act to promote cell death is discussed in relation to their accumulation patterns in the atg5 mutant compared with the salicylic acid-depleted atg5/sid2 double-mutant, and in low nitrate compared with high nitrate conditions. Several of the proteins identified are indeed known as senescence- and stress-related proteases or as spontaneous cell-death triggering factors.

Transcriptional stimulation of rate-limiting components of the autophagic pathway improves plant fitness

Sat, 20 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is a major catabolic process whereby autophagosomes deliver cytoplasmic content to the lytic compartment for recycling. Autophagosome formation requires two ubiquitin-like systems conjugating Atg12 with Atg5, and Atg8 with lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), respectively. Genetic suppression of these systems causes autophagy-deficient phenotypes with reduced fitness and longevity. We show that Atg5 and the E1-like enzyme, Atg7, are rate-limiting components of Atg8–PE conjugation in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of ATG5 or ATG7 stimulates Atg8 lipidation, autophagosome formation, and autophagic flux. It also induces transcriptional changes opposite to those observed in atg5 and atg7 mutants, favoring stress resistance and growth. As a result, ATG5- or ATG7-overexpressing plants exhibit increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and oxidative stress, delayed aging and enhanced growth, seed set, and seed oil content. This work provides an experimental paradigm and mechanistic insight into genetic stimulation of autophagy in planta and shows its efficiency for improving plant productivity.

Autophagy is activated and involved in cell death with participation of cathepsins during stress-induced microspore embryogenesis in barley

Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Microspores are reprogrammed towards embryogenesis by stress. Many microspores die after this stress, limiting the efficiency of microspore embryogenesis. Autophagy is a degradation pathway that plays critical roles in stress response and cell death. In animals, cathepsins have an integral role in autophagy by degrading autophagic material; less is known in plants. Plant cathepsins are papain-like C1A cysteine proteases involved in many physiological processes, including programmed cell death. We have analysed the involvement of autophagy in cell death, in relation to cathepsin activation, during stress-induced microspore embryogenesis in Hordeum vulgare. After stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death increased and autophagy was activated, including HvATG5 and HvATG6 up-regulation and increase of ATG5, ATG8, and autophagosomes. Concomitantly, cathepsin L/F-, B-, and H-like activities were induced, cathepsin-like genes HvPap-1 and HvPap-6 were up-regulated, and HvPap-1, HvPap-6, and HvPap-19 proteins increased and localized in the cytoplasm, resembling autophagy structures. Inhibitors of autophagy and cysteine proteases reduced cell death and promoted embryogenesis. The findings reveal a role for autophagy in stress-induced cell death during microspore embryogenesis, and the participation of cathepsins. Similar patterns of activation, expression, and localization suggest a possible connection between cathepsins and autophagy. The results open up new possibilities to enhance microspore embryogenesis efficiency with autophagy and/or cysteine protease modulators.

Autophagy in turnover of lipid stores: trans-kingdom comparison

Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Lipids and their cellular utilization are essential for life. Not only are lipids energy storage molecules, but their diverse structural and physical properties underlie various aspects of eukaryotic biology, such as membrane structure, signalling, and trafficking. In the ever-changing environment of cells, lipids, like other cellular components, are regularly recycled to uphold the housekeeping processes required for cell survival and organism longevity. The ways in which lipids are recycled, however, vary between different phyla. For example, animals and plants have evolved distinct lipid degradation pathways. The major cell recycling system, autophagy, has been shown to be instrumental for both differentiation of specialized fat storing-cells, adipocytes, and fat degradation in animals. Does plant autophagy play a similar role in storage and degradation of lipids? In this review, we discuss and compare implications of bulk autophagy and its selective route, lipophagy, in the turnover of lipid stores in animals, fungi, and plants.

Modulation of plant autophagy during pathogen attack

Sat, 23 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

In plants, the highly conserved catabolic process of autophagy has long been known as a means of maintaining cellular homeostasis and coping with abiotic stress conditions. Accumulating evidence has linked autophagy to immunity against invading pathogens, regulating plant cell death, and antimicrobial defences. In turn, it appears that phytopathogens have evolved ways not only to evade autophagic clearance but also to modulate and co-opt autophagy for their own benefit. In this review, we summarize and discuss the emerging discoveries concerning how pathogens modulate both host and self-autophagy machineries to colonize their host plants, delving into the arms race that determines the fate of interorganismal interaction.

All roads lead to the vacuole—autophagic transport as part of the endomembrane trafficking network in plants

Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Plants regulate their development and response to the changing environment by sensing and interpreting environmental signals. Intracellular trafficking pathways including endocytic-, vacuolar-, and autophagic trafficking are important for the various aspects of responses in plants. Studies in the last decade have shown that the autophagic transport pathway uses common key components of endomembrane trafficking as well as specific regulators. A number of factors previously described for their function in endosomal trafficking have been discovered to be involved in the regulation of autophagy in plants. These include conserved endocytic machineries, such as the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), subunits of the HOPS and exocyst complexes, SNAREs, and RAB GTPases as well as plant-specific proteins. Defects in these factors have been shown to cause impairment of autophagosome formation, transport, fusion, and degradation, suggesting crosstalk between autophagy and other intracellular trafficking processes. In this review, we focus mainly on possible functions of endosomal trafficking components in autophagy.

Lipids in membrane dynamics during autophagy in plants

Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is a critical pathway for plant adaptation to stress. Macroautophagy relies on the biogenesis of a specialized membrane named the phagophore that maturates into a double membrane vesicle. Proteins and lipids act synergistically to promote membrane structure and functions, yet research on autophagy has mostly focused on autophagy-related proteins while knowledge of supporting lipids in the formation of autophagic membranes remains scarce. This review expands on studies in plants with examples from other organisms to present and discuss our current understanding of lipids in membrane dynamics associated with the autophagy pathway in plants.

Autophagic flux is required for the synthesis of triacylglycerols and ribosomal protein turnover in Chlamydomonas

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that allows cells to recycle unneeded or damaged material to maintain cellular homeostasis. This highly dynamic process is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which engulf and deliver the cargo to the vacuole. Flow of material through the autophagy pathway and its degradation in the vacuole is known as autophagic flux, and reflects the autophagic degradation activity. A number of assays have been developed to determine autophagic flux in yeasts, mammals, and plants, but it has not been examined yet in algae. Here we analyzed autophagic flux in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. By monitoring specific autophagy markers such as ATG8 lipidation and using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy techniques, we show that concanamycin A, a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, blocks autophagic flux in Chlamydomonas. Our results revealed that vacuolar lytic function is needed for the synthesis of triacylglycerols and the formation of lipid bodies in nitrogen- or phosphate-starved cells. Moreover, we found that concanamycin A treatment prevented the degradation of ribosomal proteins RPS6 and RPL37 under nitrogen or phosphate deprivation. These results indicate that autophagy might play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the recycling of ribosomal proteins under nutrient limitation in Chlamydomonas.