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Preview: Forestry - Advance Access

Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research Advance Access





Published: Sat, 21 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Sat, 21 Apr 2018 03:48:09 GMT

 



Effect of climate and ENSO events on Prosopis pallida forests along a climatic gradient

Sat, 21 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Extreme rainfall events, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), are responsible to a large extent for the processes of tree establishment and tree growth in the North Peruvian dryland forest. Prosopis pallida (algarrobo) is the dominant species of the dryland forest on the Peruvian Pacific coast. Dendrochronological data from living populations have shown its response to climatic events. The aim of this work was to study local differences in P. pallida growth responses to ENSO events through dendrochronological data. To do so, three algarrobo populations within a gradient of increasing temperature and precipitation from West to East were selected. Tree-ring data were correlated with the monthly temperature and precipitation from each location and with the 3.4 and 1 + 2 ENSO indices. Inland populations showed the highest correlation with the climatic conditions. The summer rainfall (January), spring temperature of the previous year, and summer temperature of the current year were significantly correlated with growth. All populations showed a significant increase in the tree-ring index during ENSO events. However, growth in no-ENSO years was also high in populations closer to the coast. Our results indicate that the proximity to the Andes Mountains, distance to the Pacific coast and distribution of algarrobo in this area make marginal inland populations more sensitive to climatic variations and ENSO events. We conclude that the P. pallida response to the climate in Northern Peru is the result of both strong climatic events and local conditions, which are estimated most accurately with the 1 + 2 ENSO index.



Instructions for optimal any-aged forestry

Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
In this study, any-aged forestry (AAF) refers to forest management in which no explicit choice is made between even- and uneven-aged management, or between rotation forest management and continuous cover forestry. Optimal AAF is more profitable than optimal even- or uneven-aged management because AAF has fewer constraints. This study developed management instructions for optimal AAF. The instructions consist of four models, the first indicating the probability that an immediate cutting in the stand is the optimal decision. In case of cutting, the second model gives the probability that partial cutting (thinning) is optimal. If thinning is selected, the remaining two models indicate how many trees should be removed from different diameter classes. The models for optimal management were based on optimized cutting schedules of 2095 stands, located in different parts of Finland. The use of the model requires that discount rate is specified, and site fertility and temperature sum of the stand are known. The required growing stock characteristics are stand basal area, mean tree diameter and the basal area of pulpwood-sized trees (dbh 8–18 cm). High stand basal area and large mean tree size increase the probability that cutting is the optimal decision. High basal area of pulpwood-sized trees increases the probability that partial cutting is optimal. Thinning from above is the optimal type of cutting in most cases. The models were tested by comparing the model-driven stand management schedules with stand-level optimizations. Schedules based on the models resulted in equally good net present values as schedules based on optimizations. When the discount rate was 3 per cent or more, the models led to similar profitability as stand-level optimization.