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Genomics study in Africa: Demographic history and deleterious mutations

Fri, 20 Apr 18 00:07:50 -0700

Scientists from the Institut Pasteur set out to understand how the demographic changes associated with the Neolithic transition also influenced the efficacy of natural selection. By comparing the genome diversity of more than 300 individuals from groups of forest hunter-gatherers (pygmies) and farmers (Bantu-speaking peoples), from western and eastern Central Africa, they discovered that the reason pygmies did not suffer from excessive deleterious mutations was because of their genetic diversity and their admixture with the Bantu peoples.



Grassland plants react unexpectedly to high levels of carbon dioxide

Fri, 20 Apr 18 00:10:20 -0700

Plants are responding in unexpected ways to increased carbon dioxide in the air, according to a 20-year study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota.



Policy driver of soil organic carbon accumulation in Chinese croplands identified

Thu, 19 Apr 18 00:00:00 -0700

Scientists from the Institute of Soil Science and collaborators conducted a comprehensive study that determined changes in SOC over the last three decades and identified the dominant agronomic, economic and policy drivers behind these changes and their implications for future carbon sequestration in Chinese croplands.



Small changes in rainforests cause big damage to fish ecosystems

Thu, 19 Apr 18 00:06:50 -0700

Using lasers, researchers have connected, arranged and merged artificial cells, paving the way for networks of artificial cells acting as tissues.



New device to help patients with rare disease access life-saving treatment

Thu, 19 Apr 18 00:04:10 -0700

Patients with a rare medical condition can receive life-saving treatment at the touch of a button thanks to a new device developed by scientists.



Study: How to calculate pricing and resources for cloud computing

Wed, 18 Apr 18 00:09:40 -0700

Researchers in the University at Buffalo School of Management have developed a new algorithm that cloud computing service providers can use to establish pricing and allocate resources.



Cities and communities in the US losing 36 million trees a year

Wed, 18 Apr 18 00:10:20 -0700

Nationally, urban/community tree cover declined from 42.9 percent to 42.2 percent between 2009-2014. This translates to losing an estimated 36 million trees or approximately 175,000 acres of tree cover annually.



Management of mitral regurgitation in a patient contemplating pregnancy

Wed, 18 Apr 18 00:10:00 -0700

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Volume 2, Number 4, 2018, pp 439-446(8); DOI: https://doi.org/10.15212/CVIA.2017.0027, researchers Yee-Ping Sun and Patrick T. O'Gara, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA present a case study of management of rheumatic mitral regurgitation in a woman contemplating pregnancy.



Scientists reveal trends in carbon storage and sequestration across Chinese ecosystems

Tue, 17 Apr 18 00:13:30 -0700

Led by Professor FANG Jingyun from the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with collaborators, the ecosystem carbon sequestration project team was set up, the team aims to quantify the magnitude and distribution of ecosystem carbon pools and sequestration in China's terrestrial ecosystems.



New research predicts which trees are at greatest risk of beetle invasion

Mon, 16 Apr 18 00:03:20 -0700

This study shows that the composition of forests is more important than other factors when predicting where the destructive pest will strike next.



Climate change mitigation project threatens local ecosystem resilience in Ethiopia

Mon, 16 Apr 18 00:13:10 -0700

To increase forest cover in the Global South in order to mitigate climate change does not always have positive effects, as shown in a new study undertaken by Stockholm University in southern Ethiopia. It can also threaten biodiversity and the survival of unique alpine plants.



Logging in tropical forests jeopardizing drinking water

Mon, 16 Apr 18 00:01:20 -0700

A team of researchers from The University of Queensland (UQ), Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and other groups have found that increasing land clearing for logging in Solomon Islands-even with best management strategies in place -- will lead to unsustainable levels of soil erosion and significant impacts to downstream water quality.



When three months from now feels right around the corner

Mon, 16 Apr 18 00:05:00 -0700

If you've ever noticed yourself thinking about the timing of a plan in two opposing ways - something that feels longer off than your actual time calculation -- you're on to something. New research shows our different ways of estimating time don't necessarily move in lock-step.



Warming climate could speed forest regrowth in eastern US

Mon, 16 Apr 18 00:05:50 -0700

Warming climate could speed the natural regrowth of forests on undeveloped or abandoned land in the eastern United States, according to a new study. Previous research has shown that the succession from field to forest can happen decades sooner in the southeastern US than in the Northeast. But it wasn't obvious why. A new study points to temperature as the major factor influencing the pace of reforestation.



Study suggests ways to close CEO pay gap

Thu, 12 Apr 18 00:09:50 -0700

Recent research from UT Dallas' Naveen Jindal School of Management examines how cultural perceptions affect the compensation of female CEOs in China, where women CEOs earn significantly less than their male counterparts.



Animal images used in marketing may skew public perception about their survival risks

Thu, 12 Apr 18 00:01:20 -0700

Many of the world's most charismatic animal species -- those that attract the largest interest and deepest empathy from the public -- are at high risk of extinction in part because many people believe their iconic stature guarantees their survival.



Large wildfires bring increases in annual river flow

Thu, 12 Apr 18 00:07:10 -0700

Large wildfires cause increases in stream flow that can last for years or even decades, according to a new analysis of 30 years of data from across the continental United States.



Biodiversity: All the colors of the rainbow

Wed, 11 Apr 18 00:01:00 -0700

Madagascar is a chameleon paradise. A team of researchers has now discovered three new species, among them a beautifully colored rainbow chameleon. These species are all restricted to very small ranges, and are probably highly threatened.



Road salt pollutes drinking water wells in suburban New York state

Wed, 11 Apr 18 00:10:50 -0700

Road salt applied during the winter lingers in the environment, where it can pollute drinking water supplies. In a recent study in the Journal of Environmental Quality, researchers identify landscape and geological characteristics linked to elevated well water salinity in a suburban township in Southeastern New York.



New study shows invasive Chinese privet can be well controlled with lower concentrations of herbicide

Tue, 10 Apr 18 00:05:20 -0700

Chinese privet is one of the most invasive shrubs in the southeastern United States -- frequently growing in dense thickets along roadsides, on rights of way and in forests. Now the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management has good news for land managers battling the shrub. Researchers say you can achieve great control with much less herbicide than typically used.



Delivery system considerations for inhaled medications undermined in patients with COPD

Tue, 10 Apr 18 00:02:30 -0700

Researchers from the American College of Chest Physicians conducted the Delivery Makes a Difference (DMaD) project to obtain a better understanding of health care provider and patient perspectives about the role of inhalation delivery devices in COPD.



Corn hybrids with high yields come with more variability

Mon, 09 Apr 18 00:00:10 -0700

The agriculture industry is in a tough spot; it's simultaneously tasked with feeding a growing population and minimizing its environmental footprint. For corn breeders, that means improving nitrogen-use efficiency and crowding tolerance, all while maximizing yield. The first step, according to a new study from the University of Illinois, is understanding the genetic yield potential of current hybrids.



New recommendations for endoscopic eradication therapy in Barrett's esophagus

Fri, 06 Apr 18 00:07:00 -0700

A new guideline by the ASGE Standards of Practice Committee offers evidence-based recommendations and clinical guidelines addressing key issues related to Endoscopic Eradication Therapy (EET) in the management of Barrett's esophagus (BE)-related lesions.



Nemours study highlights psychological and social barriers to treating childhood obesity

Thu, 05 Apr 18 00:16:00 -0700

Children whose families have elevated psychological and social risks, including child behavior problems, parent mental health issues, and family financial difficulties, were more likely to drop out of weight management treatment and less likely to have an improvement in weight status.



Bonobos share and share alike

Thu, 05 Apr 18 00:05:00 -0700

Bonobos are willing to share meat with animals outside their own family groups. This behavior was observed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is documented in a new study in Springer's journal Human Nature.



Rare coastal martens under high risk of extinction in coming decades

Wed, 04 Apr 18 00:14:10 -0700

The coastal marten, a small but fierce forest predator, is at a high risk for extinction in Oregon and northern California in the next 30 years due to threats from human activities.



Personal outreach to landowners is vital to conservation program success

Wed, 04 Apr 18 00:14:00 -0700

Research published in PLOS ONE shows that private landowners trust conservation agencies more and have better views of program outcomes when they accompany conservation biologists who are monitoring habitat management on their land.



Study: To prevent collapse of tropical forests, protect their shape

Fri, 30 Mar 18 00:16:10 -0700

Scientists have made a fundamental discovery about how fires on the edges of tropical forests control their shape and stability. The study implies that when patches of tropical forest lose their natural shape it could contribute to the catastrophic transformation of that land from trees to grass.



Self-managed health care technology should consider chronic disease patients' values

Thu, 29 Mar 18 00:13:30 -0700

Helping patients better manage their own health is a crucial goal -- both medically and economically -- but achieving that goal will require health care technologies that are sensitive to patients' values, researchers at Washington State University are finding.



Scientists penalized by motherhood

Thu, 29 Mar 18 00:16:10 -0700

Despite gender balance at lower levels of academia, challenges still exist for women progressing to more senior roles. This research challenges to what extent a motherhood penalty could be at play.



Fossils highlight Canada-Russia connection 53 million years ago

Wed, 28 Mar 18 00:15:30 -0700

A new 53 million-year-old insect fossil called a scorpionfly discovered at B.C.'s McAbee fossil bed site bears a striking resemblance to fossils of the same age from Pacific-coastal Russia, giving further evidence of an ancient Canada-Russia connection.



Salvage logging is often a pretext for harvesting wood

Tue, 27 Mar 18 00:15:40 -0700

An increasing proportion of the world's protected forests are subject to extensive logging activities. The practice is called 'salvage logging' and allegedly aims to protect, e.g. areas of windthrow against bark beetle infestation. However, a Würzburg study has found that this instrument is used far too often.



Montana State researchers find that beetle odor could help tackle tamarisk

Tue, 27 Mar 18 00:08:00 -0700

The Montana State University team found that a synthetic version of a pheromone produced by northern tamarisk beetles could be used to double the effectiveness of the beetles in controlling the invasive shrub.



Prosthetic memory system successful in humans, study finds

Tue, 27 Mar 18 00:13:20 -0700

Scientists at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center and the University of Southern California have demonstrated the successful implementation of a prosthetic system that uses a person's own memory patterns to facilitate the brain's ability to encode and recall memory.



Cancer patients' pain eased by simple bedside chart, study shows

Mon, 26 Mar 18 00:09:50 -0700

Patients with cancer could benefit from a simple bedside system to manage their pain, a study suggests.



Themed issue lays foundation for emerging field of collective movement ecology

Mon, 26 Mar 18 00:16:30 -0700

Collective movement is one of the great natural wonders on Earth and has long captured our imaginations. But there's a lot we don't understand about how collective movement drives -- and is driven by -- broader ecological and evolutionary processes. A special themed issue gathers contributions from a range of researchers working in the emerging field of collective movement ecology, which is poised to dive into some of these outstanding questions.



Alberta's boreal forest could be dramatically altered by 2100 due to climate change, study says

Mon, 26 Mar 18 00:02:10 -0700

Half of Alberta's upland boreal forest is likely to disappear over the next century due to climate change, a new study shows. The upland forest will be replaced after wildfire by open woodland or grassland, according to research from University of Alberta biologists, conducted in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada researchers.



Searching for long-term success in weight management? Forget dieting and eat regularly

Fri, 23 Mar 18 00:03:20 -0700

Early adulthood is particularly critical for putting on weight. According to a recent study conducted at the University of Helsinki, common factors among young women and men who succeeded in managing their weight in the long term included eating regularly rather than dieting.



Sagging confidence can lead to more self-interested behaviour -- or less.

Thu, 22 Mar 18 00:03:00 -0700

New research says that experiencing low confidence in one area can lead to attempts to boost our status in another, even if it means engaging in fraud. If we seek better financial status, we may behave more selfishly, or cheat. We may go in the opposite direction though, choosing altruism as the best way to restore our confidence.



Wood pellets: Renewable, but not carbon neutral

Thu, 22 Mar 18 00:09:20 -0700

A return to firewood is bad for forests and the climate. So reports William Schlesinger, President Emeritus of the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, in an Insights article published today in the journal Science.



How trees coexist. New findings from biodiversity research published in Nature Communications

Wed, 21 Mar 18 00:13:10 -0700

One of the most fascinating topics in ecology is the exploration of interactions between plants, specifically in long-lived organisms, such as trees. In this context, it is generally assumed that tree-tree interactions are dominated by competition for resources such as light, water or nutrients.



Drought-induced changes in forest composition amplify effects of climate change

Wed, 21 Mar 18 00:06:00 -0700

The face of American forests is changing, thanks to climate change-induced shifts in rainfall and temperature that are causing shifts in the abundance of numerous tree species, according to a new paper by University of Florida researchers.



Study identifies effective parenting strategies to reduce disruptive behavior in children

Tue, 20 Mar 18 00:03:40 -0700

Most parenting programs aim to teach parents how to reduce their children's disruptive behavior. New research looked at more than 150 studies of these programs, finding differences in what works best according to whether or not children already showed behavior problems.



Can acupuncture help alleviate menopausal symptoms?

Tue, 20 Mar 18 00:15:20 -0700

An umbrella review from Duke Clinical Research Institute that was a comprehensive assessment of previous systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials has found that women who received acupuncture had less frequent and less severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause than women who did not have acupuncture.



Amazon deforestation is close to tipping point

Mon, 19 Mar 18 00:12:50 -0700

Scientists considered climate change and indiscriminate use of fire to calculate that deforestation rates ranging from 20 percent to 25 percent could turn Amazon's hydrological cycle unable to support its ecosystem.



Long-term monitoring is essential to effective environmental policy

Fri, 16 Mar 18 00:01:30 -0700

Environmental policy guided by science saves lives, money, and ecosystems. So reports a team of eleven senior researchers in Environmental Science and Policy. Using air pollution in the United States as a case study, they highlight the success of cleanup strategies backed by long-term environmental monitoring.



Soil fungi may help determine the resilience of forests to environmental change

Fri, 16 Mar 18 00:05:50 -0700

A major new study reveals that soil fungi could play a significant role in the ability of forests to adapt to environmental change.



Rutgers student on front lines of orangutan conservation, research

Thu, 15 Mar 18 00:10:20 -0700

Didik Prasetyo's passion is learning more about the endangered apes and trying to conserve their habitats and populations, which face enormous pressure from deforestation from logging, palm oil and paper pulp production and hunting. He co-authored an alarming recent study in Current Biology on the estimated loss of more than 100,000 Bornean orangutans between 1999 and 2015.



Growing need for urban forests as urban land expands

Wed, 14 Mar 18 00:01:20 -0700

New research projecting urban land growth and updating urban forest values suggests that urbanization and urban forests are likely to be one the most important forest influences and influential forests of the 21st Century.



A lesson from Darwin

Wed, 14 Mar 18 00:05:10 -0700

When British naturalist Charles Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands in 1835, he took notice of the giant kelp forests ringing the islands. He believed that if those forests were destroyed, a significant number of species would be lost. These underwater ecosystems, Darwin believed, could be even more important than forests on land.