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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: Pathology News

Pathology Current Events and Pathology News from Brightsurf

Pathology Current Events and Pathology News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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Smart software can diagnose prostate cancer as well as a pathologist

Fri, 16 Mar 18 00:16:00 -0700

Chinese scientists and clinicians have developed a learning artificial intelligence system which can diagnose and identify cancerous prostate samples as accurately as any pathologist. This holds out the possibility of streamlining and eliminating variation in the process of cancer diagnosis. It may also help overcome any local shortage of trained pathologists. In the longer term it may lead to automated or partially automated prostate cancer diagnosis.

Blood vessels also affected by Alzheimer's disease

Fri, 16 Mar 18 00:02:00 -0700

A research conducted by the UAB demonstrates that mice suffering from this disease also have substantial malfunctions in small blood vessels, important in nourishing different organs and tissues and in regulating blood pressure, and which mainly affects females. The study also demonstrates a correlation between the state of peripheral blood vessels and different levels of anxious behaviour, both in normal ageing and in those suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

Potential RNA Markers of abnormal heart rhythms identified in circulating blood

Thu, 15 Mar 18 00:01:40 -0700

The irregular heart rhythm atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke and heart failure, but is often undiagnosed because of a lack of symptoms. Now, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers have identified four short lengths of RNA (miRNAs) that show increased expression in the circulating blood of AF patients. These miRNAs could be used as potential biomarkers to predict the onset of AF disease.

New imaging approach offers unprecedented views of staph infection

Wed, 14 Mar 18 00:09:10 -0700

Eric Skaar, Ph.D., M.P.H., and colleagues at Vanderbilt have combined multiple types of molecular imaging to probe an invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection in the mouse. Their integrated imaging approach, reported this week in Science Translational Medicine, revealed new insights about staph infections and can be broadly applied to any health or disease state.

Men and women have opposite genetic alterations in depression

Tue, 13 Mar 18 00:04:30 -0700

Men and women with major depressive disorder (MDD) have opposite changes in the expression of the same genes, according to a new postmortem brain study by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada. The findings, published in Biological Psychiatry, indicate distinct pathology, and suggest that men and women may need different types of treatment for depression.

New treatment for aggressive breast cancer

Mon, 12 Mar 18 00:03:00 -0700

Approximately 10-15 percent of breast cancer cases do not respond to treatment with hormone therapy, which means that they are more aggressive and often recur. An international research team led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden has uncovered a way to treat these aggressive tumors through manipulation of the connective tissue cells of the tumor. The researchers are now developing a new drug that transforms aggressive breast cancer so that it becomes responsive to standard hormone therapy.

Blood stored longer may be less safe for patients with massive blood loss and shock

Fri, 09 Mar 18 00:01:20 -0800

In a collaborative study using a mouse model, researchers have found mechanistic links between older stored red blood cell transfusions and subsequent bacterial pneumonia. This may reveal new approaches to improve safety of stored red blood cell transfusions. The key player is free heme, a breakdown product from degraded red blood cells

Deeper look at biopsy exposes mutation ready to ambush drug combination

Fri, 02 Mar 18 00:06:30 -0800

A powerful resistance mutation that appeared to emerge in melanoma after a patient received a targeted therapy combination, instead was lurking in the tumor all along, primed to thwart treatment before it began, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report online at Cancer Discovery.

Familial breast cancer not only inherited genetically, finds new study

Wed, 28 Feb 18 00:14:00 -0800

Doctors will be better able to predict breast cancer risk thanks to pioneering work led by University of Melbourne researchers, who have identified heritable but non-genetic markers for breast cancer susceptibility.

Evaluation of tau phosphorylation related targets for Alzheimer's disease treatment

Tue, 27 Feb 18 00:03:20 -0800

InSysBio continues to investigate the mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling approach. The part of QSP model describing tau protein was published in the PLOS ONE journal. This is one of more than dozen InSysBio publications in AD area during last seven years.

AMP publishes recommendations for clinical CYP2C19 genotyping allele selection

Tue, 27 Feb 18 00:02:40 -0800

AMP has published consensus, evidence-based recommendations to aid clinical laboratory professionals when designing and validating clinical CYP2C19 assays, promote standardization of testing across different laboratories and complement existing clinical guidelines.

Insights into familial middle-age dementia suggest new avenues for treatment

Fri, 23 Feb 18 00:02:20 -0800

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a common cause of hereditary dementia, but the molecular events driving the disease are poorly understood. Researchers centered at Tokyo Medical and Dental University(TMDU) developed a mouse model to study a form of FTLD linked to mutations in the PGRN gene (FTLD-TDP). The team discovered that tau protein phosphorylation is a key early event in the pathology of FTLD-TDP, and identified key players in tau phosphorylation that represent potential therapeutic targets.

Amyloid protein transmission through neurosurgery

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:13:10 -0800

Amyloid beta pathology -- protein deposits in the brain - might have been transmitted by contaminated neurosurgical instruments, suggests a new UCL-led study. For the paper, published in Acta Neuropathologica, researchers studied the medical records of four people who had brain bleeds caused by amyloid beta build-up in brain blood vessels. All four people had undergone neurosurgery two or three decades earlier as children or teenagers, raising the possibility that amyloid beta deposition may be transmissible.

Gene expression patterns may help determine time of death

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:06:40 -0800

International team of scientists led by Roderic Guigó at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona shows that changes in gene expression in different tissues can be used to predict the time of death of individuals. Their results, which are published in Nature Communications this week, may have implications for forensic analyses.

Harnessing the power of genomic sequencing augments diagnosis and treatment of lymphoid cancer

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:12:50 -0800

A new study published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics has established that hybrid-capture sequencing is the method of choice for sequencing 'actionable' gene mutations across the most common forms of lymphoid cancer. Due to its applicability in routinely acquired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, this assay can be implemented by clinical laboratories into routine diagnostic workflows. It reliably identifies potentially actionable gene mutations in 91 percent of patients, bringing the benefits of precision diagnosis and individualized therapy to patients with lymphoid cancer.

Ebola virus infects reproductive organs in monkeys

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:03:30 -0800

Ebola virus can infect reproductive organs of male and female macaques, according to a new study, suggesting humans could be similarly infected. Prior studies have revealed sexual transmission of Ebola virus, and viral RNA persisting in semen following recovery. While little is known about viral persistence in female reproductive tissues, pregnant women with Ebola virus disease have a maternal death rate of more than 80 percent and a fetal death rate of nearly 100 percent.

UCLA study sheds light on genetic overlap between major psychiatric disorders

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:11:30 -0800

Most medical conditions are largely defined by their physical symptoms. Psychiatric illnesses, however, are largely defined by a person's behavior. A UCLA-led study challenges that distinction, identifying many shared -- and distinct -- patterns of gene expression in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The data hint at potential targets that may one day lead to new treatment approaches.

Immune system dysfunction may occur early in Alzheimer's disease

Tue, 06 Feb 18 00:04:40 -0800

An association between inflammation biomarkers in both blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated pathology, has been found by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus working with the University of Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center.

Expert panel issues new guidelines for lung cancer molecular testing

Tue, 30 Jan 18 00:00:00 -0800

Guidelines add ROS1 to list of tests matching lung cancer with targeted treatments, among other updated recommendations.

Uncovering the early origins of Huntington's disease

Mon, 29 Jan 18 00:10:20 -0800

The symptoms of Huntington's disease typically appear in middle age, but new research shows that neural abnormalities are evident much earlier, in the first steps of embryonic development. The findings suggest that treating the disease earlier may be beneficial.

Protein YAP in early life influences adult spinocerebellar ataxia pathology

Wed, 24 Jan 18 00:01:40 -0800

YAP and its neuronal isoform YAPdeltaC are involved in expression and regulation of genes. A team of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU)-centered researchers found expression of YAPdeltaC during development, but not adulthood, stopped neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) in mice. Notably, YAPdeltaC supplementation overcame the toxic effect of mutant Atxn1 protein in SCA1. The findings serve as valuable information for potential manipulation of late-onset cell death of SCA1.

Updated guideline for molecular testing and targeted therapies in lung cancer

Tue, 23 Jan 18 00:03:30 -0800

A panel of leading experts in molecular pathology has issued new recommendations and updates to guidelines for molecular diagnostic testing of patients with lung cancer. They are intended to help guide the treatment of patients around the world, and help oncologists and pathologists match patients with the most effective therapies.

Leading medical organizations update lung cancer guideline

Tue, 23 Jan 18 00:08:40 -0800

Rapid advancements in the molecular diagnostic testing of lung cancer have led to new treatments and greater hope for patients battling lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. To ensure that clinicians stay apace and provide optimal patient care, three leading medical societies-- the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP)--have updated their 2013 evidence-based guideline.

New HSS study finds hope in understanding and better treating scleroderma

Wed, 10 Jan 18 00:13:40 -0800

Researchers at HSS find a potential cause and treatment lead for scleroderma.

Cellular traffic jam seen in ALS/FTD -- Supports drug strategy

Mon, 08 Jan 18 00:04:50 -0800

A cellular traffic jam appears to affect neurons in most forms of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Emory/Mayo researchers have shown. The findings suggest that a drug strategy aimed at easing the traffic jam may be generalizable to sporadic and at least some familial types of ALS and FTD (frontotemporal dementia).

Inflammation drives progression of Alzheimer's

Wed, 20 Dec 17 00:02:30 -0800

According to a study by scientists of the DZNE and the University of Bonn now published in the journal

Ludwig researchers uncover mechanism behind metabolic vulnerability of some breast cancers

Tue, 19 Dec 17 00:05:40 -0800

Many cancer cells are relatively sensitive to the deprivation of an essential amino acid known as methionine. Now, a Ludwig Cancer Research study published in the journal Science Signaling and led by Alex Toker, an investigator in the Ludwig Center at Harvard, has elucidated one mechanism behind that dependency.

Researchers repurpose immune-activating cytokine to fight breast cancer

Mon, 18 Dec 17 00:11:10 -0800

The most lethal form of breast cancer could have a new treatment option, according to new research out of the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In PNAS, researchers showed triple-negative breast cancer cells are highly vulnerable to interferon-β -- a potent antimicrobial that also activates the immune system. The new study shows interferon-β impairs breast cancer cells' ability to migrate and form tumors. The study also suggests interferon-β treatment could improve outcomes for certain breast cancer patients.

BIDMC researchers use artificial intelligence to identify bacteria quickly and accurately

Fri, 15 Dec 17 00:01:30 -0800

Microscopes enhanced with artificial intelligence (AI) could help clinical microbiologists diagnose potentially deadly blood infections and improve patients' odds of survival, according to microbiologists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC).

Mild traumatic brain injury causes long-term damage in mice

Thu, 14 Dec 17 00:10:30 -0800

A new Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology study in mice found that mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) can precipitate not only acute damage but also a lifelong degenerative process.

Testing the accuracy of FDA-approved and lab-developed cancer genetics tests

Thu, 14 Dec 17 00:13:10 -0800

Amid the debate about how much these tests should be regulated by the FDA, one question has gone unanswered: how well do LDTs and FDA-CDs perform? A new study published this week in JAMA Oncology, which analyzed data from almost 7,000 tests, finds that the answer is: very well and very comparably.

Researchers develop mouse model to study Pteroptine ortheovirus

Thu, 14 Dec 17 00:01:30 -0800

In the past decade, the first cases of respiratory tract infection caused by bat-borne Pteropine ortheovirus (PRV) have been reporting in humans. To help shed light on the clinical course of PRV infection, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have now used a mouse model of the infection to study its virulence, pathology and pathogenesis.

Findings show potential use of artificial intelligence in detecting spread of breast cancer

Tue, 12 Dec 17 00:08:50 -0800

Computer algorithms detected the spread of cancer to lymph nodes in women with breast cancer as well as or better than pathologists.

Using computers to detect breast cancer

Tue, 12 Dec 17 00:08:00 -0800

Jeffrey Golden, MD, comments on new research exploring the use of computer algorithms in detecting the spread of breast cancer to lymph nodes.

New assay may help predict which pancreatic lesions may become cancerous

Fri, 08 Dec 17 00:12:10 -0800

A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, describes a new simple molecular test to detect chromosomal abnormalities -- biomarkers known as telomere fusions -- in pancreatic tumor specimens and pancreatic cyst fluids. This assay may help predict the presence of high-grade or invasive pancreatic cancers requiring surgical intervention.

Unique pattern of brain inflammation may explain neurocognitive impairment in HIV patients on antiretroviral drugs

Fri, 08 Dec 17 00:12:00 -0800

Almost half of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV patients experience some degree of neurocognitive impairment (neuroHIV). To search for underlying pathology, scientists analyzed the brains of monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) then treated with cART. As reported in a new study in The American Journal of Pathology, the majority of the SIV-infected macaque brains showed signs of unusual lymphocyte-dominant inflammation, suggesting that persistent neuroinflammation may underlie cognitive problems in cART-treated HIV patients.

PET tracer gauges effectiveness of promising Alzheimer's treatment

Wed, 06 Dec 17 00:09:50 -0800

In the December featured basic science article in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Belgian researchers report on the first large-scale longitudinal imaging study to evaluate BACE1 inhibition with micro-PET in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. PET imaging has been established as an excellent identifier of the amyloid plaque and tau tangles that characterize Alzheimer's disease. Now it is proving to be an effective way to gauge treatment effectiveness.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may alleviate symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease

Tue, 05 Dec 17 00:07:10 -0800

A new Tel Aviv University study reveals that hyperbaric oxygen treatments may alleviate symptoms experienced by patients with Alzheimer's disease.

New Alzheimer's animal model more closely mimics human disease

Mon, 04 Dec 17 00:02:50 -0800

Making an AD mouse model that incorporates both Aβ and tau pathologies in a more AD-relevant context has been greatly sought after but difficult to accomplish. Now, researchers have done that and it's a big step for AD research, which will allow for new therapies to be tested in a more realistic context.

Microscope using UV instead of visible light emerging as diagnostic tool

Mon, 04 Dec 17 00:08:00 -0800

New MUSE technology obtains high-resolution images of fresh biopsies for analysis within minutes, eliminating need for conventional slides and preserving original tissue sample.

High levels of natural immune suppressor correlate with poor survival in the most common leukemia

Mon, 27 Nov 17 00:11:40 -0800

Patients diagnosed with the most common form of leukemia who also have high levels of an enzyme known to suppress the immune system are most likely to die early, researchers say.

Alzheimer's Tau protein forms toxic complexes with cell membranes

Wed, 22 Nov 17 00:08:10 -0800

Alzheimer's disease is caused by tangles in the brain made up of malfunctioning aggregated Tau proteins. Scientists at EPFL have discovered a new toxic form of Tau that forms as a result of its interaction with cell membranes. The research is published in Nature Communications and provides novel insights into possible mechanisms by which this protein moves in the brain and kills neurons.

Researchers find infectious prions in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patient skin

Wed, 22 Nov 17 00:05:20 -0800

In a Science Translational Medicine study published today, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers found that CJD patients also harbor infectious prions in their skin, albeit at lower levels.

Researchers reveal new details on aged brain, Alzheimer's and dementia

Tue, 21 Nov 17 00:04:10 -0800

In a comprehensive analysis of samples from 107 aged human brains, researchers at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, UW Medicine and Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute have discovered details that will help researchers better understand the biological bases for Alzheimer's disease and dementia in older populations.

Revolutionary imaging technique uses CRISPR to map DNA mutations

Tue, 21 Nov 17 00:04:30 -0800

A new nanomapping technology could transform the way disease-causing genetic mutations are diagnosed and discovered.

AMP Iissues consensus guideline recommendations for NGS bioinformatics pipelines

Thu, 16 Nov 17 00:01:40 -0800

The Association for Molecular Pathology, the premier global, non-profit molecular diagnostics professional society, today published 17 consensus recommendations to help clinical laboratory professionals achieve high-quality sequencing results and deliver better patient care. The report, 'Standards and Guidelines for Validating Next Generation Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipelines: A Joint Recommendation of the Association for Molecular Pathology and College of American Pathologists,' was released online ahead of publication in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics.

Research reveals biological mechanism of a leading cause of childhood blindness

Thu, 16 Nov 17 00:16:30 -0800

Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute (VTCRI) have revealed the pathology of cells and structures stricken by optic nerve hypoplasia, a leading cause of childhood blindness in developed nations.

Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?

Thu, 16 Nov 17 00:02:00 -0800

The buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries is an unfortunate part of aging. But by studying the genetic makeup of people who maintain clear arteries into old age, researchers led by UNC's Jonathan Schisler, PhD, have identified a possible genetic basis for coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as potential new opportunities to prevent it.

Linking heart attack damage to the spleen and kidney, an integrated study of heart failure

Wed, 15 Nov 17 00:10:50 -0800

Ganesh Halade, who uses a mouse heart attack model to research ways to prevent heart failure, has published a functional and structural compendium of the simultaneous changes taking place in the heart, spleen and kidneys in mice during the period of acute heart failure immediately following a heart attack and during the longer period of chronic heart failure that comes next.

New player in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis identified

Tue, 14 Nov 17 00:13:00 -0800

Scientists have shown that a protein called membralin is critical for keeping Alzheimer's disease pathology in check. The study, published in Nature Communications, shows that membralin regulates the cell's machinery for producing beta-amyloid (or amyloid beta, Aβ), the protein that causes neurons to die in Alzheimer's disease.