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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: Spectroscopy News

Spectroscopy Current Events and Spectroscopy News from Brightsurf

Spectroscopy Current Events and Spectroscopy News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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New quantum spin liquid predicted by Nobel Laureate prepared for the first time

Thu, 15 Mar 18 00:00:40 -0700

This achievement is an important step towards building so-called topological quantum computers.

'Frequency combs' ID chemicals within the mid-infrared spectral region

Thu, 15 Mar 18 00:02:30 -0700

Chemical compounds carry distinctive absorption

Researchers develop spectroscopic thermometer for nanomaterials

Tue, 13 Mar 18 00:02:10 -0700

A scientific team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has found a new way to take the local temperature of a material from an area about a billionth of a meter wide, or approximately 100,000 times thinner than a human hair. This discovery, published in Physical Review Letters, promises to improve the understanding of useful yet unusual physical and chemical behaviors that arise in materials and structures at the nanoscale.

Near infrared chemical imaging can help maintain the safety of pharmaceutical tablets

Mon, 12 Mar 18 00:13:40 -0700

The final step in pharmaceutical production is often tableting. Near infrared chemical imaging can be used to monitor inconsistencies in the powder that will become the tablet, which have been introduced by mechanical processes in the tableting equipment and can lead to out of specification tablets.

A milestone in petahertz electronics

Mon, 12 Mar 18 00:06:20 -0700

In a semiconductor, electrons can be excited by absorbing laser light. Advances during the past decade enabled measuring this fundamental physical mechanism on timescales below a femtosecond (10^-15 s). Now physicists at ETH Zurich for the first time resolved the response of electrons in gallium arsenide at the attosecond (10^-18 s) timescale, and gained unexpected insights for future ultrafast opto-electronic devices with operation frequencies in the petahertz regime.

Multiple optical measurements reveal the single cell activation without contrast agent

Thu, 08 Mar 18 00:07:10 -0800

Osaka University researchers developed a label-free multimodal microscopy platform that allows the non-invasive study of cellular preparations without the need of any additional chemicals or contrast agent. The parameters extracted from these measurements, coupled with machine algorithms, enable the study of fine cellular processes such as macrophage cells activation upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The authors demonstrate that activation, as well as partial activation inhibition, can be observed at single-cell level through phenotypic and molecular characterization purely through non-invasive optical means.

Producing handy gels from a protein found in human blood

Mon, 05 Mar 18 00:00:30 -0800

From blood to the lab: the protein albumin is responsible for many vital processes in the human body. In nature it only appears as a solution when dissolved in water. Chemists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have developed a method of producing various albumin-based gels. Their findings may one day help to develop innovative drug carrier systems that more easily reach the bloodstream.

JILA team invents new way to 'see' the quantum world

Mon, 05 Mar 18 00:02:40 -0800

JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art.

Dual frequency comb generated on a single chip using a single laser

Fri, 02 Mar 18 00:10:30 -0800

Columbia Engineers are the first to miniaturize dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized silicon-based chip. This could lead to low-cost, portable sensing and spectroscopy in the field in real-time. 'This is the first time a dual comb has been generated on a single chip using a single laser,' says Electrical Engineering Prof. Michal Lipson who led the team with Applied Physics Prof. Alexander Gaeta. (Science Advances)

Scientists confirm century-old speculation on the chemistry of a high-performance battery

Wed, 28 Feb 18 00:00:50 -0800

Scientists have discovered a novel chemical state, first proposed about 90 years ago, that enables a high-performance, low-cost sodium-ion battery. The battery could quickly and efficiently store and distribute energy produced by solar panels and wind turbines across the electrical grid.

Optical emission of two-dimensional arsenic sulfide prepared in plasma

Tue, 27 Feb 18 00:01:30 -0800

Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, there has been a rapidly growing interest among scientists in the study of 2-D materials 'beyond graphene'. In the family of chalcogenide materials, 2-D-layered transition-metal dichalcogenides demonstrate excellent electronic and optical properties, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and exceptional catalytic performance. At the same time, chalcogenides like As2S3, As2Se3, etc., have never been considered as materials capable of forming structures of this type.

Simulating molecular spectroscopy with circuit quantum electrodynamics

Tue, 27 Feb 18 00:16:20 -0800

In a normal laboratory, molecular spectra are generated through the absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation shined on the molecules. Recently, a team led by M.-H. Yung at SUSTech and L. Sun at Tsinghua University has performed an experimental demonstration on how these spectra can be simulated through circuit quantum electrodynamics in a superconducting device, providing a new tool for studying chemical processes using superconducting qubits.

Attosecond physics: A keen sense for molecules

Fri, 23 Feb 18 00:04:30 -0800

Munich based Laser physicists have developed an extremely powerful broadband infrared light source. This light source opens up a whole new range of opportunities in medicine, life science, and material analysis.

Bacteria produce more substances than hitherto assumed

Wed, 21 Feb 18 00:12:30 -0800

The bacterium Streptomyces chartreusis is an antibiotic-producing bacterium that releases more metabolites into the surrounding medium than scientists assumed based on the analysis of the genome. Many of the substances are likely released to mediate interactions with its environment. They might also include molecules that are of interest as potential pharmaceutical agents. A research team analysed a broad spectrum of the bacterium's metabolic products under various culture conditions.

New interaction mechanism of proteins discovered

Wed, 21 Feb 18 00:02:10 -0800

UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. This new mechanism involves two fully unstructured proteins forming an ultra-high-affinity complex due to their opposite net charge. Proteins usually bind one another as a result of perfectly matching shapes in their three-dimensional structures.

A quadrillionth of a second in slow motion

Tue, 20 Feb 18 00:03:50 -0800

Many chemical processes run so fast that they are only roughly understood. To clarify these processes, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now developed a methodology with a resolution of quintillionths of a second. The new technology stands to help better understand processes like photosynthesis and develop faster computer chips.

Light-activated cancer drugs without toxic side effects: Fresh insight

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:00:00 -0800

Future cancer drugs that are activated by light and don't cause the toxic side-effects of current chemotherapy treatments are closer to becoming a reality, thanks to new research made possible by the Monash Warwick Alliance, an intercontinental collaboration between the University of Warwick (UK) and Monash University (Australia).

IU-led study finds neurotransmitter may play a role in alcohol relapse, addiction

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:06:50 -0800

Indiana University researchers scanned the brains of individuals with alcohol abuse disorder and found that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play a role in some addition cravings.

A super resolution view of chemical reactions

Fri, 09 Feb 18 00:04:40 -0800

Researchers from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences have demonstrated, using a super resolution microscopic technique, how to follow chemical reactions taking place in very small volumes. The method of analysis developed by the Warsaw physicists in collaboration with PicoQuant GmbH is the first to make it potentially possible to observe reactions not only inside living cells, but even within individual organelles, such as cell nuclei.

Tracking oxygen saturation, plus vital signs, to identify vulnerable preemies

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:10:10 -0800

While near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) long has been used to monitor oxygenation in conditions in which blood flow is altered, such as bleeding in the brain, how NIRS values relate to other vital sign measures in NICU babies was unknown.

HKU scientist makes key discoveries in the search for life on Mars

Tue, 06 Feb 18 00:10:10 -0800

Dr. Joseph Michalski and his colleagues have published papers recently that cast increased doubt on the idea of surface life evolving on Mars.

40-year controversy in solid-state physics resolved

Tue, 06 Feb 18 00:14:50 -0800

An international team at BESSY II headed by Prof. Oliver Rader has shown that the puzzling properties of samarium hexaboride do not stem from the material being a topological insulator, as it had been proposed to be. Theoretical and initial experimental work had previously indicated that this material, which becomes a Kondo insulator at very low temperatures, also possessed the properties of a topological insulator. The team has now published a compelling alternative explanation in Nature Communications, however.

Oxidation behavior of crude oil and SARA fractions

Mon, 05 Feb 18 00:09:00 -0800

During the last several months, the Lab has managed to conduct tests of oxidation of SARA fractions (saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes). Differential scanning calorimetry, adiabatic calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have been among the used methods.

North American ice sheet decay decreased climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere

Mon, 05 Feb 18 00:13:00 -0800

The changing topography of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere during the last Ice Age forced changes in the climate of Antarctica, a previously undocumented inter-polar climate change mechanism.

Baby, it's cold outside: understanding conditions for star formation

Mon, 05 Feb 18 00:15:10 -0800

Researchers demonstrate how a gas escapes ice at an extremely cold temperature, providing insight about how stars form in interstellar clouds.

Monitoring positive charges in solar materials

Fri, 02 Feb 18 00:10:10 -0800

EPFL, PSI and APS scientists have implemented a novel way of detecting positive charges (holes) and their trapping in solar materials.

Measuring the temperature of two-dimensional materials at the atomic level

Fri, 02 Feb 18 00:02:10 -0800

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago describe a new technique for precisely measuring the temperature and behavior of new two-dimensional materials that will allow engineers to design smaller and faster microprocessors.

New technique can capture images of ultrafast energy-time entangled photon pairs

Thu, 01 Feb 18 00:09:40 -0800

Scientists at the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo have captured the first images of ultrafast photons that are energy-time entangled. The new technique will have direct applications for quantum cryptography and communication protocols, including the possibility for establishing highly secure communication channels over long distances.

Electro-mechano-optical NMR detection

Thu, 01 Feb 18 00:13:20 -0800

Researchers develop an NMR system which converts radio-frequency signals into optical ones, promises higher sensitivity for MRIs.

IAC astronomers find one of the first stars formed in the Milky Way

Wed, 31 Jan 18 00:11:10 -0800

Researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) have identified, using the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) a star which is a key to the formation of the first chemical elements in the Galaxy. The results of this research are published today in the scientific journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Galaxies that feed on other galaxies

Wed, 31 Jan 18 00:11:50 -0800

An international team of astronomers led by Giuseppina Battaglia, researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), finds signs that the outer halo of the Milky Way contains stellar remains of massive dwarf galaxies that were devoured by our own.

How smelly is your rubbish?

Wed, 24 Jan 18 00:03:00 -0800

A new method is being developed to assess the odorous impact of composting.

CCNY IUSL scientists study optical biopsy tool that detects disease in seconds

Wed, 24 Jan 18 00:10:30 -0800

A recent IUSL paper published in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology reports how Resonance Raman spectroscopy, a tool previously used to provide molecular information in science, is now being used in medicine and biomedicine to provide an optical biopsy that offers more detailed, faster detection.

Flexibility and arrangement -- the interaction of ribonucleic acid and water

Tue, 23 Jan 18 00:03:50 -0800

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) plays a key role in biochemical processes which occur at the cellular level in a water environment. Mechanisms and dynamics of the interaction between RNA and water were now revealed by vibrational spectroscopy on ultrashort time scales and analyzed by in-depth theory.

How plants see light

Tue, 23 Jan 18 00:09:30 -0800

The proteins PCH1 and PCHL help plants adapt to their surroundings.

Adaptive immune response: New cofactor of roquin identified

Fri, 19 Jan 18 00:01:40 -0800

Roquin has a key role in the adaptive immune response. It controls the activation and differentiation of T cells and thus helps to make the decisions whether or not and which type of immune response will be mounted. Now, a team of scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München in cooperation have identified NUFIP2, a protein with a previously unknown function, as cofactor of Roquin and discovered that NUFIP2 enhances Roquin's regulatory function.

A Russian scientist improved nanofluids for solar power plants

Thu, 18 Jan 18 00:14:40 -0800

An associate of Siberian Federal University (SFU) teamed up with his foreign colleagues to increase the efficiency of the heat transfer medium used in solar power plants. The results of the study were published in Renewable Energy journal.