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Healthy cities: key to a healthy future in China.
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Healthy cities: key to a healthy future in China.

Lancet. 2018 Apr 17;:

Authors: Summerskill W, Wang HH, Horton R

PMID: 29678343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015.
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Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015.

Lancet. 2018 Apr 17;:

Authors: Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries.
METHODS: We collected published data on domestic health spending, from 1995 to 2015, from a diverse set of international agencies. We tracked development assistance for health from 1990 to 2017. We also extracted 5385 datapoints about HIV/AIDS spending, between 2000 and 2015, from online databases, country reports, and proposals submitted to multilateral organisations. We used spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to generate complete and comparable estimates for health and HIV/AIDS spending. We report most estimates in 2017 purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars and adjust all estimates for the effect of inflation.
FINDINGS: Between 1995 and 2015, global health spending per capita grew at an annualised rate of 3·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1 to 3·2), with growth being largest in upper-middle-income countries (5·4% per capita [UI 5·3-5·5]) and lower-middle-income countries (4·2% per capita [4·2-4·3]). In 2015, $9·7 trillion (9·7 trillion to 9·8 trillion) was spent on health worldwide. High-income countries spent $6·5 trillion (6·4 trillion to 6·5 trillion) or 66·3% (66·0 to 66·5) of the total in 2015, whereas low-income countries spent $70·3 billion (69·3 billion to 71·3 billion) or 0·7% (0·7 to 0·7). Between 1990 and 2017, development assistance for health increased by 394·7% ($29·9 billion), with an estimated $37·4 billion of development assistance being disbursed for health in 2017, of which $9·1 billion (24·2%) targeted HIV/AIDS. Between 2000 and 2015, $562·6 billion (531·1 billion to 621·9 billion) was spent on HIV/AIDS worldwide. Governments financed 57·6% (52·0 to 60·8) of that total. Global HIV/AIDS spending peaked at 49·7 billion (46·2-54·7) in 2013, decreasing to $48·9 billion (45·2 billion to 54·2 billion) in 2015. That year, low-income and lower-middle-income countries represented 74·6% of all HIV/AIDS disability-adjusted life-years, but just 36·6% (34·4 to 38·7) of total HIV/AIDS spending. In 2015, $9·3 billion (8·5 billion to 10·4 billion) or 19·0% (17·6 to 20·6) of HIV/AIDS financing was spent on prevention, and $27·3 billion (24·5 billion to 31·1 billion) or 55·8% (53·3 to 57·9) was dedicated to care and treatment.
INTERPRETATION: From 1995 to 2015, total health spending increased worldwide, with the fastest per capita growth in middle-income countries. While these national disparities are relatively well known, low-income countries spent less per person on health and HIV/AIDS than did high-income and middle-income countries. Furthermore, declines in development assistance for health continue, including for HIV/AIDS. Additional cuts to development assistance could hasten this decline, and risk slowing progress towards global and national goals.
FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID: 29678342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016-40.
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Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016-40.

Lancet. 2018 Apr 17;:

Authors: Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040.
METHODS: We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario. These estimates were generated using an ensemble of models that varied key demographic and socioeconomic determinants. We generated better and worse alternative future scenarios based on the global distribution of historic health spending growth rates. Last, we used stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the association between pooled health resources and UHC index, a measure of a country's UHC service coverage. Finally, we estimated future UHC performance and the number of people covered under the three future scenarios.
FINDINGS: In the reference scenario, global health spending was projected to increase from US$10 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 10 trillion to 10 trillion) in 2015 to $20 trillion (18 trillion to 22 trillion) in 2040. Per capita health spending was projected to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 4·2% (3·4-5·1) per year, followed by lower-middle-income countries (4·0%, 3·6-4·5) and low-income countries (2·2%, 1·7-2·8). Despite global growth, per capita health spending was projected to range from only $40 (24-65) to $413 (263-668) in 2040 in low-income countries, and from $140 (90-200) to $1699 (711-3423) in lower-middle-income countries. Globally, the share of health spending covered by pooled resources would range widely, from 19·8% (10·3-38·6) in Nigeria to 97·9% (96·4-98·5) in Seychelles. Historical performance on the UHC index was significantly associated with pooled resources per capita. Across the alternative scenarios, we estimate UHC reaching between 5·1 billion (4·9 billion to 5·3 billion) and 5·6 billion (5·3 billion to 5·8 billion) lives in 2030.
INTERPRETATION: We chart future scenarios for health spending and its relationship with UHC. Ensuring that all countries have sustainable pooled health resources is crucial to the achievement of UHC.
FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID: 29678341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]




The Tsinghua-Lancet Commission on Healthy Cities in China: unlocking the power of cities for a healthy China.
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The Tsinghua-Lancet Commission on Healthy Cities in China: unlocking the power of cities for a healthy China.

Lancet. 2018 Apr 17;:

Authors: Yang J, Siri JG, Remais JV, Cheng Q, Zhang H, Chan KKY, Sun Z, Zhao Y, Cong N, Li X, Zhang W, Bai Y, Bi J, Cai W, Chan EYY, Chen W, Fan W, Fu H, He J, Huang H, Ji JS, Jia P, Jiang X, Kwan MP, Li T, Li X, Liang S, Liang X, Liang L, Liu Q, Lu Y, Luo Y, Ma X, Schwartländer B, Shen Z, Shi P, Su J, Wu T, Yang C, Yin Y, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Xu B, Gong P

PMID: 29678340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]