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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: Gene Expression News

Gene Expression Current Events and Gene Expression News from Brightsurf

Gene Expression Current Events and Gene Expression News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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Study sheds light on how plants get their nitrogen fix

Fri, 16 Feb 18 00:13:50 -0800

Legumes are widely-consumed plants that use soil bacteria to obtain nitrogen through root nodulation. The process is energetically costly, and so legumes inhibit nodulation when soil nitrate is available. However, the mechanism that drives this inhibition is unknown. Researchers at the University of Tsukuba found that NRSYM1 is responsible for inhibiting nodulation in the presence of nitrate, and acts by directly regulating gene expression. The findings may aid agricultural efforts to improve the crop efficiency of legumes.

Chinese research advances highlighted in special issue of Human Gene Therapy

Fri, 16 Feb 18 00:15:10 -0800

China is helping to advance gene and cell therapy and genome editing research and clinical development by creating novel viral and nonviral vectors for gene delivery and innovative applications of CRISPR technology in a broad range of disease areas.

New approaches in neuroscience show it's not all in your head

Fri, 16 Feb 18 00:00:10 -0800

Our own unique experiences shape how we view the world and respond to the events in our lives. But experience is highly subjective. These differences can matter, especially as a growing body of research shows that our thoughts about and interpretations of our experiences can have physical consequences in our brains and bodies, says University of Wisconsin-Madison Center for Healthy Minds founder and director Richard Davidson, in a talk titled: How the Mind Informs the Brain: Depression and Well-Being.

Cells communicate in a dynamic code

Fri, 16 Feb 18 00:02:30 -0800

Caltech scientists discover an unexpectedly dynamic vocabulary for the language of cellular communication.

Can our genes help predict how women respond to ovarian cancer treatment?

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:14:00 -0800

New research, led by Professor Anna deFazio from the Westmead Institute and Westmead Hospital, has shown that the genes we inherit can have a significant impact on how the body processes chemotherapy drugs, which may lead to different clinical outcomes for ovarian cancer patients.

Gene taxi with turbo drive

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:16:30 -0800

Scientists at the German Primate Center improve DNA transfer in gene therapy.

First comparison of common breast cancer tests finds varied accuracy of predictions

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:01:50 -0800

Commercially available prognostic breast cancer tests show significant variation in their abilities to predict disease recurrence, according to a study led by Queen Mary University of London of nearly 800 postmenopausal women.

Working in harmony: New insights into how packages of DNA orchestrate development

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:03:30 -0800

New research from Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah illuminates aspects of how an early embryo, the product of fertilization of a female egg cell by a male sperm cell, can give rise to all the many cell types of the adult animal.

Antioxidant treatment prevents sexual transmission of Zika in mice

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:09:50 -0800

The antioxidant drug ebselen can prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus from male to female mice, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Yogy Simanjuntak and colleagues at Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. The results hint at a potential role for ebselen in preventing Zika spread among humans.

Research compares mouse and human kidney development

Thu, 15 Feb 18 00:11:40 -0800

Three new research articles compare human and mouse kidney development to identify shared and novel features. The studies provide new detailed molecular data to guide future research. The studies revealed deep conservation of certain processes, but also significant differences in gene expression during kidney development, as well as in the timing, scale, organization, and molecular profile of key cell types and cell structures.

Target of rapamycin: Linking cytosolic and chloroplast ribosome biogenesis in plants

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:13:40 -0800

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have found that eukaryotic and bacterial growth regulation systems of independent origins are connected to the control of chloroplast rRNA transcription in a primitive red alga.

Study links fox domestication to gene activity in the pituitary gland

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:02:10 -0800

A study of foxes offers new insights into the brain changes that occur in wild canids as they become more tame, researchers report. The study links fox domestication to changes in gene activity in the pituitary gland, a brain center that kicks out hormones to regulate various bodily functions, including the stress response.

A gene that increases the risk of pancreatic cancer controls inflammation in normal tissue

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:06:50 -0800

A group of researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre has now discovered an unexpected link between the two processes: in the pancreas, one of the genes that increases the risk of developing pancreatic cancer also controls inflammation. This finding offers 'a major conceptual change,' explains Paco Real, from the CNIO, which, as well as helping to understand the origin of tumors, suggests new strategies to improve the prevention of pancreatic cancer.

TSRI scientists find key proteins control risk of osteoarthritis during aging

Wed, 14 Feb 18 00:10:00 -0800

A study from scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) explains why the risk of osteoarthritis increases as we age and offers a potential avenue for developing new therapies to maintain healthy joints.

Interdisciplinary approach yields new insights into human evolution

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:02:20 -0800

The evolution of human biology should be considered part and parcel with the evolution of humanity itself, proposes Nicole Creanza, assistant professor of biological sciences. She is the guest editor of a new themed issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that takes an interdisciplinary approach to human evolution.

Study maps molecular mechanisms crucial for new approach to heart disease therapy

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:05:30 -0800

In this study, published in Cell Reports, two labs at UNC and a group at Princeton University reprogrammed ordinary cells called fibroblasts into new and healthy heart muscle cells, and recorded changes that appear to be necessary for this reprogramming.

Plants feel the heat

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:05:20 -0800

Sainsbury Laboratory scientists have solved a 79-year-old mystery by discovering how plants vary their response to heat stress depending on the time of day. This understanding could help with breeding commercial crops able to produce higher yields in hotter climates as predicted under climate change.

Gene expression patterns may help determine time of death

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:06:40 -0800

International team of scientists led by Roderic Guigó at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona shows that changes in gene expression in different tissues can be used to predict the time of death of individuals. Their results, which are published in Nature Communications this week, may have implications for forensic analyses.

UCLA scientists develop low-cost way to build gene sequences

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:07:20 -0800

A new method pioneered by UCLA researchers enables an average biochemistry laboratory to make its own gene sequences for only about $2 per gene, a process that previously would require its researchers to pay a commercial vendor $50 to $100 per gene. The approach, described in the journal Science, will make it possible for scientists to mass produce thousands of genes screen for their roles in diseases.

Newly discovered gene may protect against heart disease

Tue, 13 Feb 18 00:11:10 -0800

Scientists have identified a gene that may play a protective role in preventing heart disease. Their research revealed that the gene, called MeXis, acts within key cells inside clogged arteries to help remove excess cholesterol from blood vessels.

Huntington's disease provides new cancer weapon

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:10:50 -0800

Patients with Huntington's disease, a fatal genetic illness that causes the breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, have up to 80 percent less cancer than the general population. Scientists have discovered why Huntington's is so toxic to cancer cells and harnessed it for a novel approach to treat cancer, a new study reports.

The Scanpy software processes huge amounts of single-cell data

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:14:00 -0800

Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed a program that is able to help manage enormous datasets. The software, named Scanpy, is a candidate for analyzing the Human Cell Atlas, and has recently been published in Genome Biology.

Research offers new insight into workings of building blocks of life

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:13:20 -0800

Pioneering new research could offer a fascinating new insight into how genomic information is read.

Study suggests way to attack deadly, untreatable nerve tumors

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:01:20 -0800

Genomic profiling of mostly untreatable and deadly nerve sheath tumors led scientists to test a possible therapeutic strategy that inhibited tumor growth in lab tests on human tumor cells and mouse models, according to research in the journal Cancer Cell. When the international team of researchers analyzed complete screens of genes and genetic material in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), it revealed previously unknown genetic information about the disease.

Global warming could cause key culinary crops to release seeds prematurely

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:01:10 -0800

Climate change is threatening crop yields worldwide, yet little is known about how global warming will confuse normal plant physiology. Researchers in the UK now show that higher temperatures accelerate seed dispersal in crop species belonging to the cabbage and mustard plant family, limiting reproductive success, and this effect is mediated by a gene called INDEHISCENT. The findings appear Feb. 12 in the journal Molecular Plant.

Study sheds new light on mechanism of breast cancer treatment resistance

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:01:00 -0800

A study by researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute has illuminated a specific mechanism by which estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers can become resistant to standard therapies and metastasize.

Researchers raise a 170-million-year question over mysterious moss gene

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:02:30 -0800

A surprise discovery provides insight into how cells build their external walls and raises questions about a one-of-a-kind, fused gene.

Researchers inhibit cancer metastases via novel steps

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:05:10 -0800

In one of the first successes of its kind, researchers have inhibited the spreading of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. In doing so, they relied on a new model of how cancer metastasizes that emphasizes epigenetics, which examines how genes are turned on and off.

Researchers discover brain pathway that dissociates opioid addiction from analgesia

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:08:20 -0800

Study results may provide mechanism to make opioids safer and more efficient.

Mutation in single rice gene cancels interspecific hybrid sterility

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:08:10 -0800

Scientists successfully employed mutagenesis to identify the gene that causes hybrid sterility in rice, which is a major reproductive barrier between species.

New machine learning algorithm uncovers time-delayed interactions in cells

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:09:20 -0800

A new algorithm uses time-series data to show the cause-and-effect interactions that take place inside of living cells.

Science self-corrects: Cancer gene does not pass reproducibility test

Mon, 12 Feb 18 00:10:20 -0800

About 10 years ago, several labs discovered that a gene called MELK is overexpressed, or turned on to a high degree, in many cancer cell types. This evidence has prompted multiple ongoing clinical trials to test whether drugs that inhibit MELK can treat cancer in patients. Now, CSHL researchers report that MELK is not actually involved in cancer. It's a story about how science self-corrects.

Direct link between glands and implanting embryos critical to pregnancy

Fri, 09 Feb 18 00:00:50 -0800

Researchers used 3-D imaging with molecular testing to uncover new insight into the earliest stages of mammalian pregnancy -- offering clues to unsolved questions in pregnancy. Reporting Feb. 9 in Nature Communications, the scientists demonstrate in mice that glands in the uterus must link and communicate directly with the embryo so it will implant and begin pregnancy.

Acoustic nanomotors

Fri, 09 Feb 18 00:01:50 -0800

In cancer research, the 'Cas-9-sgRNA' complex is an effective genomic editing tool, but its delivery across the cell membrane to the target (tumor) genome has not yet been satisfactorily solved. American and Danish scientists have now developed an active nanomotor for the efficient transport, delivery, and release of this gene scissoring system. As detailed in their paper in the journal Angewandte Chemie, their nanovehicle is propelled towards its target by ultrasound.

Clock protein controls daily cycle of gene expression by regulating chromosome loops

Fri, 09 Feb 18 00:06:40 -0800

It's well known that the human body functions on a 24-hour schedule. The up-and-down daily cycles of a long-studied clock protein called Rev-erb coordinates the ebb and flow of gene expression by tightening and loosening loops in chromosomes, according to new research.

Harnessing the power of genomic sequencing augments diagnosis and treatment of lymphoid cancer

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:12:50 -0800

A new study published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics has established that hybrid-capture sequencing is the method of choice for sequencing 'actionable' gene mutations across the most common forms of lymphoid cancer. Due to its applicability in routinely acquired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, this assay can be implemented by clinical laboratories into routine diagnostic workflows. It reliably identifies potentially actionable gene mutations in 91 percent of patients, bringing the benefits of precision diagnosis and individualized therapy to patients with lymphoid cancer.

When it comes to genes, lichens embrace sharing economy

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:04:10 -0800

University of Colorado Boulder researchers have discovered the first known molecular evidence of obligate symbiosis in lichens, a distinctive co-evolutionary relationship that could shed new light on how and why some multicellular organisms consolidate their genomes in order to co-exist.

Nature, meet nurture

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:04:50 -0800

Is it nature or nurture that ultimately shapes an organism? A new study reveals a dramatic landscape of gene expression changes across all cell types in the mouse visual cortex after a sensory experience, many linked to neural connectivity and the brain's ability to rewire itself to learn and adapt.

Study reveals molecular mechanisms of memory formation

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:07:30 -0800

MIT neuroscientists have uncovered a cellular pathway that allows specific synapses to become stronger during memory formation. The findings provide the first glimpse of the molecular mechanism by which long term memories are encoded in a region of the hippocampus called CA3.

UCLA study sheds light on genetic overlap between major psychiatric disorders

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:11:30 -0800

Most medical conditions are largely defined by their physical symptoms. Psychiatric illnesses, however, are largely defined by a person's behavior. A UCLA-led study challenges that distinction, identifying many shared -- and distinct -- patterns of gene expression in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The data hint at potential targets that may one day lead to new treatment approaches.

Timing is everything, to our genes

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:11:10 -0800

Salk scientists discover critical gene activity follows a biological clock, affecting diseases of the brain and body.

Undergraduate student uncovers genes associated with aggressive form of brain cancer

Thu, 08 Feb 18 00:14:00 -0800

Using publicly available data and novel computer software called KINC, an undergraduate researcher in genetics and biochemistry at Clemson University was able to uncover a group of 22 genes that are implicated together as having involvement in glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer.

Scientists crack structure of enzyme complex linked to cancer

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:01:30 -0800

A research team led by a biochemist at the University of California, Riverside has solved the crystal structure for an enzyme that plays a key role in DNA methylation, the process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. The breakthrough reveals how the enzyme recognizes and methylates its substrates. In humans, errors in methylation have been associated with various diseases, including cancer. DNA methylation also critically influences plant and animal development.

Older adults with positive views on aging may have a reduced risk for dementia

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:06:10 -0800

Older adults who have acquired positive beliefs about old age from their surrounding culture are less likely to develop dementia, according to a study published Feb. 7, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Becca Levy from the Yale School of Public Health, USA, and colleagues.

Positive attitudes about aging reduce risk of dementia in older adults

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:05:10 -0800

Research has shown that older persons who have acquired positive beliefs about old age from their surrounding culture are less likely to develop dementia. This protective effect was found for all participants, as well as among those carrying a gene that puts them at higher risk of developing dementia, a new study led by the Yale School of Public Health has found.

Insight into chromatin therapies for breast cancer could aid personalized medicine

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:03:30 -0800

Most traditional chemotherapy for cancer has dangerous side effects, but new research is finding ways to develop 'targeted agents' that reduce the side effects and are better tailored to individual patient needs. While these innovations are exciting, a new study shows how certain cancer inhibitors need to be examined more carefully to better understand fine-grained effects and counter-effects, which could yield more effective and safer therapies.

A pair of RNA scissors with many functions

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:06:50 -0800

Arming CRISPR/Cas systems with an enzyme that also controls the translation of genetic information into protein.

Sweet route to greater yields

Wed, 07 Feb 18 00:08:30 -0800

Three years ago, biotechnologists demonstrated in field trials that they could increase the productivity of maize by introducing a rice gene into the plant that regulated the accumulation of sucrose in kernels and led to more kernels per maize plant. They have now unravelled the intimate details of the relationships governing the increased productivity and hope to transfer the biotechnology to other cereals, such as wheat and rice.

Active genetics technology opens new horizons

Tue, 06 Feb 18 00:10:00 -0800

Employing CRISPR/Cas9 advancements, UC San Diego researchers are using new active genetics technology to reveal new fundamental mechanisms that control gene activity. The authors also provide experimental validation for using active genetics as an efficient means for targeted gene insertion, or 'transgenesis,' and single-step replacement of genetic control elements.

Scientists make it possible to rank the risk of resistance genes

Tue, 06 Feb 18 00:12:10 -0800

A new study published in Nature Communications will help to predict antibiotic resistance evolution and thus guide future drug development.