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Cultures Current Events and Cultures News from Brightsurf

Cultures Current Events and Cultures News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

Thu, 16 Nov 17 00:10:10 -0800

A discovery might help designers of miniature 'lab-on-a-chip' technologies to grow three-dimensional colonies of cancer cells inside a chip's tiny chambers, rather than the merely two-dimensional colonies that they generally can culture now. Chips with 3-D cell arrays could furnish more realistic biological environments for drug testing.

Study documents ethnic and gender differences in youths' developing gender identity

Tue, 14 Nov 17 00:10:40 -0800

The extent to which youths feel typical of their gender and the pressure they feel to conform to traditional gender roles are related to adolescents' well-being. Because many gender-related expectations are culturally based, a new longitudinal study examined how French middle school adolescents' feelings about the development of gender identity differed across groups of teens from different ethnicities, cultures, and genders.

'Muscles and money': What photos of men taken on the Tube say about modern day attraction

Tue, 14 Nov 17 00:16:00 -0800

People still desire the traditional masculine values of muscles and money in the men they find attractive, according to new research.

'Mini liver tumors' created in a dish for the first time

Mon, 13 Nov 17 00:14:00 -0800

Scientists have created mini biological models of human primary liver cancers, known as organoids, in the lab for the first time. In a paper published today in Nature Medicine, the tiny laboratory models of tumors were used to identify a new drug that could potentially treat certain types of liver cancer.

Inner ear stem cells may someday restore hearing

Tue, 07 Nov 17 00:03:10 -0800

Want to restore hearing by injecting stem cells into the inner ear? Well, that can be a double-edged sword. Inner ear stem cells can be converted to auditory neurons that could reverse deafness, but the process can also make those cells divide too quickly, posing a cancer risk, according to a study led by Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists.

New research targets cancer's 'Achilles' Heel'

Mon, 06 Nov 17 00:13:20 -0800

Northwestern Engineering's Vadim Backman has developed an effective new strategy for treating cancer that prevents cancer from evolving to withstand treatment, making the disease an easier target for existing drugs. If the cells cannot evolve to resist chemotherapy, for example, they die.

Learning a mother tongue: A universal process?

Thu, 02 Nov 17 00:13:10 -0700

Specialists in language development in children have studied a traditional population in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane. They show that, on average, less than one minute per hour is spent talking to children under the age of four. This is up to ten times less than for children of the same age in industrialized countries. This observation should prompt us to conduct more studies of this kind in various cultures.

In vitro tissue microarrays for quick and efficient spheroid characterization

Wed, 01 Nov 17 00:10:00 -0700

A new SLAS Discovery article available for free ahead-of-print enables researchers to derive more clinically-relevant information from 3-D cell culture models.

Does population size affect rates of violence?

Thu, 26 Oct 17 00:12:30 -0700

A new article in Current Anthropology argues small-scale societies are likely to be victims, rather than perpetrators, of violence

Global trade entrenches poverty traps

Thu, 26 Oct 17 00:13:00 -0700

A theorem published this week suggests that greater engagement in the international exchange can actually reinforce productivity-impeding practices that keep countries in poverty.

Study highlights value of acknowledging adolescents' perspectives

Tue, 24 Oct 17 00:09:00 -0700

Across very different cultures -- Ghana and the United States -- when parents acknowledge the perspectives of their adolescent children and encourage them to express themselves, the youths have a stronger sense of self-worth, intrinsic motivation, and engagement, and also have less depression. Yet having the latitude to make decisions appears to function differently in the two cultures, with positive outcomes for youths in the United States but not in Ghana.

Pilot project provides findings and advice on data sharing in development research

Tue, 24 Oct 17 00:01:00 -0700

Having worked with seven volunteering IDRC-funded development research projects for sixteen months, a pilot data sharing project led by Prof. Cameron Neylon and also funded by IDRC, has published its final report in the dedicated collection in the innovative open science journal Research Ideas and Outcomes (RIO). From the grant proposal, through data management plans and the final research article, the collection describes how funder policies can help, and hinder, culture change towards data sharing.

B3 vitamin component fights carcinogen action in human cells, says research

Mon, 23 Oct 17 00:15:20 -0700

Brazilian scientists investigate tumoral development caused by benzo[a]pyrene, a hydrocarbon present in cigarette smoke, automotive exhaust, burnt wood fumes and barbecued meat. Culture of human lung cells was exposed to the agent for a week; the preventive role of nicotinamide riboside halted the damaging effects derived from alterations in genetic expression and cell metabolism.

Newly discovered viral marker could help predict flu severity in infected patients

Thu, 19 Oct 17 00:04:20 -0700

Flu viruses contain defective genetic material that may activate the immune system in infected patients, and new research published in PLOS Pathogens suggests that lower levels of these molecules could increase flu severity.

The ghosts of HeLa: How cell line misidentification contaminates the scientific literature

Thu, 12 Oct 17 00:13:50 -0700

For decades, immortal cells such as the famous HeLa cells have been contaminating other cell cultures in the lab. As a result, scientific studies about certain cells are actually discussing other cells. Willem Halffman and Serge Horbach, researchers at Radboud University, found more than 30,000 publications on the wrong cells. Scientific journal PLOS ONE will publish the results on Oct. 12.

Women seen as younger when eyes, lips and eyebrows stand out

Wed, 11 Oct 17 00:04:00 -0700

Researchers in France and America find that aspects of facial contrast, a measure of how much facial features stand out in the face, decrease with age in women across a variety of ethnic groups. The researchers also find that observers perceive women with increased facial contrast as younger, regardless of the ethnic background of the women or the observers. This suggests that facial contrast is a cross-cultural cue to age perception.

Research letter examines evolving standards of beauty

Wed, 11 Oct 17 00:05:00 -0700

A new research letter published by JAMA Dermatology analyzes People magazine's World's Most Beautiful list to compare standards of beauty in 1990 with the present day.

The making of medieval bling

Wed, 11 Oct 17 00:04:30 -0700

Gold has long been valued for its luxurious glitter and hue, and threads of the gleaming metal have graced clothing and tapestries for centuries. Determining how artisans accomplished these adornments in the distant past can help scientists restore, preserve and date artifacts, but solutions to these puzzles have been elusive. Now scientists, reporting in ACS' journal Analytical Chemistry, have revealed that medieval artisans used a gilding technology that has endured for centuries.

Can you hear me now? Ensuring good cellular connections in the brain

Wed, 11 Oct 17 00:04:10 -0700

Salk scientists reveal how brain cells called astrocytes help neurons form successful connections, offering potential therapeutic target for autism, ADHD, schizophrenia.

The female brain reacts more strongly to prosocial behavior than the male brain

Mon, 09 Oct 17 00:14:00 -0700

Behavioral Experiments show that women are more generous than men. Now, researchers at the UZH have been able to demonstrate that female and male brains process prosocial and selfish behavior differently. For women, prosocial behavior triggers a stronger reward signal, while male reward systems respond more strongly to selfish behavior.

Second grade handwashing experiment leads to big decrease in bacteria, illness

Thu, 05 Oct 17 00:14:00 -0700

An experiment with Petri dishes and black lights helped second graders observe the value of hand hygiene, according to an IDWeek 2017 study.

Do mothers favor daughters and fathers favor sons?

Tue, 03 Oct 17 00:11:40 -0700

New research shows that mothers are more likely to spend money on daughters and fathers are more likely to spend on sons -- despite the fact that parents think they are spending equally.

Scandinavia's earliest farmers exchanged terminology with Indo-Europeans

Fri, 29 Sep 17 00:03:50 -0700

5,000 years ago, the Yamnaya culture migrated into Europe from the Caspian steppe. In addition to innovations such as the wagon and dairy production, they brought a new language -- Indo-European -- that replaced most local languages the following millennia. But local cultures also influenced the new language, particularly in southern Scandinavia, where Neolithic farmers made lasting contributions to Indo-European vocabulary before their own language went extinct, new research shows.

Fever during labor may present risk to mother

Thu, 28 Sep 17 00:04:00 -0700

A new Tel Aviv University study finds a link between the duration of fever during labor and maternal complications.

Plant substance inhibits cancer stem cells

Wed, 27 Sep 17 00:00:40 -0700

Lab experiments show that the chemical compound damsin found in the plant Ambrosia arborescens inhibits the growth and spread of cancer stem cells. The similar but synthetically produced ambrosin has the same positive effect, according to researchers at Lund University and University Major of San Andrés in La Paz, Bolivia.

Earliest evidence for a native African cultigen discovered in Eastern Sudan

Wed, 27 Sep 17 00:12:50 -0700

Archaeologists examining plant impressions within broken pottery have discovered the earliest evidence for domesticated sorghum in Africa.

New class of molecules may protect brain from stroke, neurodegenerative diseases

Wed, 27 Sep 17 00:12:40 -0700

Research led by Nicolas Bazan, MD, PhD, Boyd Professor and Director of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence at LSU Health New Orleans, has discovered a new class of molecules in the brain that synchronize cell-to-cell communication and neuroinflammation/immune activity in response to injury or diseases. Elovanoids (ELVs) are bioactive chemical messengers made from omega-3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs,n-3). They are released on demand when cells are damaged or stressed.

'Hypermutators' drive pathogenic fungi to evolve more rapidly

Tue, 26 Sep 17 00:05:50 -0700

For nearly two decades, a rare but potentially deadly fungus called Cryptococcus deuterogattii has gained a foothold in the Pacific Northwest and Vancouver Island. Duke researchers recently showed that lineages of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii house a specific mutation in their DNA that increases their mutation rate. These hypermutators, as they are called, rapidly develop resistance to the antifungal drugs FK506 and rapamycin.

Ancient textiles reveal differences in Mediterranean fabrics in the 1st millennium BC

Fri, 22 Sep 17 00:02:40 -0700

Analysis of Iron Age textiles indicates that during c. 1000-400 BC Italy shared the textile culture of Central Europe, while Greece was largely influenced by the traditions of ancient Near East.

Whole food diet may help prevent colon cancer, other chronic conditions

Thu, 21 Sep 17 00:01:50 -0700

A diet that includes plenty of colorful vegetables and fruits may contain compounds that can stop colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases in pigs, according to an international team of researchers. Understanding how these compounds work on a molecular level could be an initial step toward finding treatments for people with cancer, they added.

A rapid alternative to standard safety tests for lentiviral vectors

Thu, 21 Sep 17 00:08:50 -0700

A new, publicly available test to assess the safety of cell therapy products altered by lentivirus generates results within a few hours, potentially hastening the pace at which viral immunotherapies move into clinical trial. Current assays required by the US Food and Drug Administration take about six weeks to complete. The rapid test, which does not have a significant risk of false positives, is also a fraction of the cost of the standard approach.

What will become of English in a post-Brexit European Union?

Wed, 20 Sep 17 00:10:20 -0700

How might the Brexit process affect the status of the English language within the European Union? Without Britain, will English even cease to be a language of the Union? A new article in World Englishes explores these questions.

Fluorescence microscopy on a chip -- no lenses required

Tue, 19 Sep 17 00:16:20 -0700

Fluorescence microscopy gives researchers power to illuminate the tiniest structures and capture the real-time activities of cells by tagging biological molecules with a rainbow of fluorescent dyes. Researchers have developed a system that enables scientists to rapidly image fluorescent cells grown inside the chip using a CMOS image sensor, the same technology found in the camera of a smartphone. The new system, described this week in AIP Advances, has numerous potential uses in biomedical research.

Churches, places of reference, integration and socialization for the immigrant population

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:00:30 -0700

A research carried out by the UPV/EHU's Department of Sociology II analyses the role of religion and church leaders in the everyday life of African migrants. Besides being places of worship, the church offers a space for cultural accommodation and socialization, and pastors, as great references for migrant worshippers, help the community in the negotiation of values from the place of origin and those of destination.

Cell surface protein may offer big target in treating high-risk childhood cancers

Mon, 11 Sep 17 00:04:20 -0700

Oncology researchers studying high-risk children's cancers have identified a protein that offers a likely target for immunotherapy -- harnessing the immune system in medical treatments. In cell cultures and animal models, a potent drug attached to an antibody selectively zeroes in on cancer cells without harming healthy cells.

Scientist finds secret to thriving

Fri, 08 Sep 17 00:11:00 -0700

What it takes to thrive, rather than merely survive, could be as simple as feeling good about life and yourself and being good at something, according to new research.

Lung cancer: Scientists find answer to resistance

Fri, 08 Sep 17 00:11:30 -0700

Scientists at the University of Southern Denmark have found a new strategy for overcoming the resistance, which many lung cancer patients develop towards a recent drug, which can arrest the growth of tumors.

Link between positive emotions and health depends on culture

Thu, 07 Sep 17 00:01:00 -0700

Positive emotions are often seen as critical aspects of healthy living, but new research suggests that the link between emotion and health outcomes may vary by cultural context. The findings, published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, show that experiencing positive emotions is linked with better cardiovascular health in the US but not in Japan.

Indigenous storytelling is a new asset for biocultural conservation

Mon, 04 Sep 17 00:14:50 -0700

Storytelling can help to guide better conservation actions in areas inhabited by indigenous communities worldwide, new research claims.

Study shows nurses' scrubs become contaminated with bacteria in hospitals
Clothing worn by healthcare providers can become contaminated with bacteria, however having nurses wear scrubs with antimicrobial properties did not prevent this bacterial contamination from occurring, according to a study published online today in Infection Control