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XMM-Newton Current Events and XMM-Newton News from Brightsurf

XMM-Newton Current Events and XMM-Newton News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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North, east, south, west: The many faces of Abell 1758

Thu, 18 Jan 18 00:01:50 -0800

Resembling a swarm of flickering fireflies, this beautiful galaxy cluster glows intensely in the dark cosmos, accompanied by the myriad bright lights of foreground stars and swirling spiral galaxies. A1758N is a sub-cluster of Abell 1758, a massive cluster containing hundreds of galaxies. Although it may appear serene in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, the sub-cluster actually comprises two even smaller structures currently in the turbulent process of merging.

Drones confirm importance of Costa Rican waters for sea turtles

Tue, 16 Jan 18 00:05:00 -0800

A new drone-enabled population survey -- the first ever on sea turtles -- shows that larger-than-anticipated numbers of turtles aggregate in waters off Costa Rica's Ostional National Wildlife Refuge. Scientists from Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill estimate turtle densities may reach up to 2,086 animals per square kilometer. The study underscores the importance of the Ostional habitat; it also confirms that drones are a reliable tool for surveying sea turtle abundance.

Molecular imaging technique identifies lung nodules for resection in osteosarcoma patient

Fri, 05 Jan 18 00:14:40 -0800

Utility of near-infrared molecular imaging in a patient undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for osteosarcoma has been reported by researchers from Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Purdue University. The work is reported in an article in the Journal of Biomedical Optics published this week by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics.

New study finds 'winking' star may be devouring wrecked planets

Thu, 21 Dec 17 00:08:40 -0800

A team of US astronomers studying the star RZ Piscium has found evidence suggesting its strange, unpredictable dimming may be caused by vast orbiting clouds of gas and dust, the remains of one or more destroyed planets.

IU astronomer helps discover that a star in the constellation Pisces is 'eating' planets

Thu, 21 Dec 17 00:09:00 -0800

An Indiana University astronomer and colleagues have discovered that a distant star called RZ Picseum in the constellation Pisces is crushing one or more planets into its orbit into a vast cloud of gas and dust.

'Winking' star 550 light-years away may be devouring wrecked planets

Thu, 21 Dec 17 00:13:00 -0800

A team of US astronomers studying the star RZ Piscium -- located about 550 light-years away in the constellation Pisces -- has found evidence suggesting its strange, unpredictable dimming episodes may be caused by vast orbiting clouds of gas and dust -- the remains of one or more destroyed planets.

Johns Hopkins scientists chart how brain signals connect to neurons

Thu, 14 Dec 17 00:13:30 -0800

Scientists at Johns Hopkins have used supercomputers to create an atomic scale map that tracks how the signaling chemical glutamate binds to a neuron in the brain. The findings, say the scientists, shed light on the dynamic physics of the chemical's pathway, as well as the speed of nerve cell communications.

A better way to weigh millions of solitary stars

Thu, 14 Dec 17 00:07:40 -0800

Astronomers have come up with a new and improved method for measuring the masses of millions of solitary stars, especially those with planetary systems.

A new law to tackle contract cheating and Essay Mills?

Wed, 06 Dec 17 00:11:30 -0800

Swansea University academics have designed a new law to specifically target the inappropriate activities of companies who offer to write student assignments for a fee; also known as 'Essay Mills'.

The WHT measures the size of a stellar-mass black hole jet

Tue, 28 Nov 17 00:02:30 -0800

Researchers of the IAC participate in a study, in which they have measured the delay between the X-rays and the visible light of a jet emitted by a black hole. Observations, carried out from the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, combined with NASA's NuSTAR satellite, shed light about the nature of its formation

Dark matter and dark energy: Do they really exist?

Wed, 22 Nov 17 00:13:20 -0800

Researchers have hypothesized that the universe contains a 'dark matter.' They have also posited the existence of a 'dark energy.' These two hypotheses account for the movement of stars in galaxies and for the accelerating expansion of the universe. But -- according to a researcher at UNIGE -- these concepts may be no longer valid: the phenomena can be demonstrated without them. This research exploits a new theoretical model based on the scale invariance of the empty space.

New physical model explains the origin of Earth's water

Thu, 16 Nov 17 00:12:20 -0800

Objects scattered to the inner region of the Solar System by Jupiter's growth brought most of the water now found on Earth. Authors of an journal Icarus article describe a computational model which simulates the gravitational interaction between celestial bodies during the era of planet formation, also providing basis for the hypothesis of the dragging of water-rich

Fully integrated circuits printed directly onto fabric

Wed, 08 Nov 17 00:09:50 -0800

Researchers have successfully incorporated washable, stretchable and breathable electronic circuits into fabric, opening up new possibilities for smart textiles and wearable electronics. The circuits were made with cheap, safe and environmentally friendly inks, and printed using conventional inkjet printing techniques.

Coloring the heartbeat

Sun, 05 Nov 17 00:03:30 -0700

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Finding easy early ways to screen for good drugs is vital

How convincing is a Y-chromosome profile match between suspect and crime scene?

Fri, 03 Nov 17 00:06:20 -0700

David Balding of the University of Melbourne, Australia and Mikkel Andersen of Aalborg University in Denmark have developed new, open-source software that can help understand how many people in a population will match a single Y-chromosome profile detected at a crime scene, which they describe in a new study in PLOS Genetics.

Jupiter's X-ray auroras pulse independently

Mon, 30 Oct 17 00:00:50 -0700

Jupiter's intense northern and southern lights pulse independently of each other according to new UCL-led research using ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra X-ray observatories.

How much does life weigh?

Thu, 26 Oct 17 00:16:20 -0700

ETH researchers have developed a scale for measuring cells. It allows the weight of individual living cells, and any changes in this weight, to be determined quickly and accurately for the first time. The invention has also aroused significant interest both in and outside the field of biology.

Russian scientists have found flaws in popular theories of gravity

Thu, 26 Oct 17 00:08:00 -0700

Taking black holes (as a real object) as a test material, scientists from the Ural Federal university (UrFU, Yekaterinburg) found out that a popular theory of gravity which had seemed to work perfectly at the cosmological level (a subclass of Horndeski theory) is hardly applicable to the real world. They presented their study in the Classical and Quantum Gravity journal.

Stephen Hawking's PhD thesis goes online for the first time

Mon, 23 Oct 17 00:02:10 -0700

Stephen Hawking's PhD thesis, 'Properties of expanding universes', has been made freely available to anyone, anywhere in the world, after being made accessible via the University of Cambridge's Open Access repository, Apollo.

Using optical chaos to control the momentum of light

Thu, 19 Oct 17 00:02:30 -0700

Controlling and moving light poses serious challenges. One major hurdle is that light travels at different speeds and in different phases in different components of an integrated circuit. For light to couple between optical components, it needs to be moving at the same momentum. Now, a team of researchers has demonstrated a new way to control the momentum of broadband light in a widely-used optical component known as a whispering gallery microcavity (WGM).

Gravitational waves + new clues from space reveal new way to make a black hole

Mon, 16 Oct 17 00:00:40 -0700

For the first time, scientists worldwide and at Penn State University have detected both gravitational waves and light shooting toward our planet from the birthplace of a new black hole created by the merger of two neutron stars. The discovery marks the beginning of a new era of

Scientists discover more than 600 new periodic orbits of the famous three body problem

Thu, 12 Oct 17 00:00:40 -0700

The famous three-body problem can be traced back to Isaac Newton in 1680s. In the 300 years since this three-body problem was first recognized, only three families of periodic orbits had been found, until 2013 when 11 new families of periodic orbits were discovered. In September 2017, more than 600 new families of periodic orbits of three-body problem were published online via SCIENCE CHINA-Physics Mechanics Astronomy.

Exposure to environmental chemicals is an important risk factor for breast cancer

Tue, 10 Oct 17 00:01:40 -0700

Exposure to environmental chemicals, especially early in life, is an important contributing factor in the development of breast cancer, according to the most comprehensive review of human studies to date. The findings could help inform prevention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of the disease, as rates continue to increase worldwide.

Astronomers reveal evidence of dynamical dark energy

Tue, 03 Oct 17 00:03:20 -0700

An international research team, including astronomers from the University of Portsmouth, has revealed evidence of dynamical dark energy.

Air quality in 'green' housing affected by toxic chemicals in building materials

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:10:50 -0700

Indoor air pollution can be a problem in many homes, even in eco-friendly buildings. Thanks to a new innovative study led by Silent Spring Institute, researchers have a better idea of where these pollutants come from -- which ones come from chemicals leaching out of building materials and which ones from the personal items people bring into their homes. The findings could inform the development of new green building standards and lead to healthier housing, especially for low-income communities.

Doctors can now predict the severity of your disease by measuring molecules

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:02:40 -0700

The simple new technique could offer vastly superior predictions of disease severity in a huge range of conditions with a genetic component, including Alzheimer's, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia and depression.

New measure of insulin-making cells could gauge diabetes progression, treatment

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:11:10 -0700

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a new measurement for the volume and activity of beta cells, the source of the sugar-regulating hormone insulin.

Study finds patients needed fewer opioid tablets than prescribed after hernia surgery

Wed, 09 Aug 17 00:05:20 -0700

A study by investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital and Newton-Wellesley Hospital found that patients prescribed opioid medications after inguinal hernia surgery used significantly fewer tablets than prescribed, even though they had received fewer than typically administered for such surgery.

Payments to rural communities offer a new opportunity to restore China's native forests

Thu, 03 Aug 17 00:01:10 -0700

Despite massive efforts at reforestation, China's native forests continue to be displaced by plantations. A new study argues that rural communities could help reverse this trend if they were given incentives to protect and restore native forests on their own land. A proposed new umbrella policy for environmental protection in China currently falls short of the measures needed, but if amended, could provide a unique opportunity to benefit rural communities and the environment.

Targeting 'Achilles' heel' could supercharge breast cancer treatment

Wed, 02 Aug 17 00:14:20 -0700

A new class of anti-cancer agents targeting cancer cells' 'Achilles' heel' could help to supercharge breast cancer treatment, improving outcomes for the most aggressive types of breast cancer. Combining anti-cancer compound S63845 with currently used cancer drugs was more effective in killing triple negative breast cancers and HER2-positive breast cancers. This is the first time the S63845 compound has been shown to be effective in breast cancer, suggesting it should be investigated in clinical trials.

New algorithm finds the optimal bond breaking point for single molecules

Tue, 01 Aug 17 00:10:50 -0700

Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. A research team from Spain and Germany has now developed a first-of-its-kind algorithm that determines the minimal force it takes to reach the optimal bond breaking point (BBP) at the molecular level to mechanically induce a chemical reaction. They report their findings this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Size matters, and so do temperature and habitat, to scavengers and the carcasses they eat

Tue, 01 Aug 17 00:13:00 -0700

Size matters in the carrion world, and so do habitat and temperature. New research has shed fresh light on the largely understudied area of vertebrate scavenging ecology.

Why Tyrannosaurus was a slow runner

Mon, 17 Jul 17 00:13:20 -0700

A beetle is slower than a mouse, which is slower than a rabbit, which is slower than a cheetah... which is slower than an elephant? No! For small to medium-sized animals, larger also means faster, but for really large animals, when it comes to speed, everything goes downhill again. For the first time, researchers have described in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution how this parabola-like relationship between body size and speed comes about.

Patients whose emergency surgery is delayed are at higher risk of death

Mon, 10 Jul 17 00:05:20 -0700

Delays for emergency surgery were associated with a higher risk of death for patients in hospital -- and higher costs -- yet these delays were largely due to lack of operating rooms and staff, and other system issues, found a new study published in CMAJ.

Saving the paintbrush lily from extinction

Wed, 05 Jul 17 00:13:10 -0700

Since the 1990s, the Duthie Reserve in Stellenbosch, South Africa, is home to the only remaining viable population of Haemanthus pumilio in the world. A major project is now underway to conserve the remaining 60 individuals.

Transfer of atomic mass with a photon solves the momentum paradox of light

Wed, 05 Jul 17 00:09:20 -0700

A novel discovery solves the centennial momentum paradox of light. In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. The optical force of the photon sets the medium atoms in motion and makes them carry 92 percent of the total momentum of light, in the case of silicon.

Hubble eyes a powerful galaxy with a password name

Fri, 30 Jun 17 00:14:20 -0700

Not all galaxies have the luxury of possessing a simple moniker or quirky nickname. This impressive galaxy imaged by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is one of the unlucky ones, and goes by a name that looks more like a password for a computer: 2XMM J143450.5+033843.

As climate stirs Arctic sea ice faster, pollution tags along

Tue, 27 Jun 17 00:07:10 -0700

A warming climate is not just melting the Arctic's sea ice; it is stirring the remaining ice faster, increasing the odds that ice-rafted pollution will foul a neighboring country's waters, says a new study.

Septic systems are a major source of emerging contaminants in drinking water

Mon, 26 Jun 17 00:02:00 -0700

A new analysis shows that septic systems in the United States routinely discharge pharmaceuticals, consumer product chemicals, and other potentially hazardous chemicals into the environment. The study is the most comprehensive assessment to date of septic systems as important sources of emerging contaminants, raising health concerns since many of these chemicals, once discharged, end up in groundwater and drinking water supplies.

Deceleration of runaway electrons paves the way for fusion power

Wed, 21 Jun 17 00:16:20 -0700

Fusion power has the potential to provide clean and safe energy that is free from carbon dioxide emissions. However, imitating the solar energy process is a difficult task to achieve. Two young plasma physicists at Chalmers University of Technology have now taken us one step closer to a functional fusion reactor. Their model could lead to better methods for decelerating the runaway electrons, which could destroy a future reactor without warning.

Chimpanzees modify grooming behavior when near higher ranking members

Wed, 21 Jun 17 00:04:00 -0700

Chimpanzees modify grooming behavior when near higher ranking members.

Scientists reveal mechanism behind mosquito-borne-disease 'blocker' used to fight viruses

Thu, 15 Jun 17 00:00:20 -0700

A new study from Indiana University may explain how a bacterium called Wolbachia prevents mosquitoes from transmitting deadly diseases such as dengue fever, West Nile virus and Zika.

Similar lipids cluster in soybean cell membrane model

Tue, 06 Jun 17 00:15:00 -0700

Researchers have developed a detailed computational model of the soybean plasma membrane that provides new structural insight at the molecular level, which may have applications for studying membrane proteins and may be useful for engineering plants to produce biochemicals, biofuels, drugs and other compounds, and in understanding how plants sense and respond to stressful conditions. The group report their findings this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics.

Breaking Newton's Law

Thu, 01 Jun 17 00:01:50 -0700

In the quantum world, our intuition for moving objects is strongly challenged and may sometimes even completely fail. Experimental physicists of the University of Innsbruck in collaboration with theorists from Munich, Paris and Cambridge have found a quantum particle which shows an intriguing oscillatory back-and-forth motion in a one-dimensional atomic gas.

Springs were critical water sources for early humans in East Africa, Rutgers study finds

Tue, 30 May 17 00:09:10 -0700

About 1 to 2 million years ago, early humans in East Africa periodically faced very dry conditions, with little or no water in sight. But they likely had access to hundreds of springs that lingered despite long dry spells, allowing our ancestors to head north and out of Africa, according to a groundbreaking study by scientists at Rutgers University-New Brunswick and other institutions.

Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect

Wed, 24 May 17 00:00:40 -0700

The origin of the granular capillary effect -- the rise of sand or other granules in a tube -- was a long-standing mystery. Only recently did an international team of physicists succeed in unveiling it. Further research may open up new ways to move materials, leading to promising new applications in trade and industry.

Are we educating educators about academic integrity?

Wed, 17 May 17 00:10:20 -0700

A study by Swansea University researchers has found that student academic integrity is not a core concept taught to academics in Higher Education.

Nano fiber feels forces and hears sounds made by cells

Mon, 15 May 17 00:05:30 -0700

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a miniature device that's sensitive enough to feel the forces generated by swimming bacteria and hear the beating of heart muscle cells. The device is a nano-sized optical fiber that detects forces down to 160 femtonewtons and sound levels down to -30 decibels. Applications include measuring bio-activity at the single cell level, or ultra-sensitive mini stethoscopes to monitor cellular acoustics in vivo.

Magnet study sees potential for MRE in measuring liver fibrosis in children

Thu, 11 May 17 00:15:50 -0700

Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with collaborators across the nation, have determined that magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) can be an accurate, non-invasive tool to identify liver fibrosis in children. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, and scarring of the liver, known as fibrosis, is a major determinant of clinical outcomes.

Learning styles -- A once hot debate redshifts

Thu, 11 May 17 00:01:20 -0700

A new study, published in Frontiers in Psychology, reveals while most higher education faculty believe Learning Styles is an important approach for teaching, they don't actually use the pedagogical tool because it is fundamentally flawed.