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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: Dark Matter News

Dark Matter Current Events and Dark Matter News from Brightsurf

Dark Matter Current Events and Dark Matter News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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Colder and colder

Mon, 18 Sep 17 00:06:50 -0700

An original method of cooling ions could have new and interesting uses.

Brain halves increase communication to compensate for aging, study finds

Fri, 15 Sep 17 00:15:50 -0700

Increased communication between distant brain regions helps older adults compensate for the negative aspects of aging, reports a new study published this week in Human Brain Mapping.

Physicists offer explanation for diverse galaxy rotations

Thu, 14 Sep 17 00:12:20 -0700

A University of California, Riverside-led team of physicists has found a simple and viable explanation for the diversity observed in galactic rotations. Hai-Bo Yu and colleagues report that diverse galactic-rotation curves, a graph of rotation speeds at different distances from the center, can be naturally explained if dark matter particles are assumed to strongly collide with one another in the inner halo, close to the galaxy's center -- a process called dark matter self-interaction.

New supernova analysis reframes dark energy debate

Wed, 13 Sep 17 00:01:10 -0700

The accelerating expansion of the Universe may not be real, but could just be an apparent effect, according to new research published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The new study -- by a group at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand -- finds the fit of Type Ia supernovae to a model universe with no dark energy to be very slightly better than the fit to the standard dark energy model.

Scientists use mismatch in telescopic data to get a handle on quasars and their 'tails'

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:15:30 -0700

Scientists compared the data on the coordinates of quasars obtained by Gaia and VLBI and suggested a method for revealing structure indirectly by means of combining the data from existing telescopes. Moreover, the precision they've got is superior to what is possible with ordinary optical telescopes and even with Hubble.

Keeping NASA's James Webb Space Telescope in the dark

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:03:00 -0700

This bunny-suited technician is performing the important task of ensuring no unwanted infrared light interferes with the optical testing of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope inside of Chamber A at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Microscope invented at marine biological laboratory illuminates chromosomal 'dark matter'

Tue, 12 Sep 17 00:08:00 -0700

Using a microscope invented at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), a collaborative team of biologists, instrument developers, and computational scientists has for the first time measured the density of a relatively inscrutable, highly condensed form of chromosomal material (heterochromatin) that appears in the cells of human beings and other eukaryotes. MBL scientists Michael Shribak (the microscope's inventor) and Tomomi Tani, together with Kazuhiro Maeshima of the National Institute of Genetics, Japan, recently reported their findings in Molecular Biology of the Cell.

Employee outsourcing hides slaves in the workforce, shows research

Mon, 11 Sep 17 00:13:00 -0700

Failure to monitor outsourced recruitment is resulting in companies inadvertently employing victims of modern slavery, according to new research led by the University of Bath's School of Management.

When electrons ride a wave

Fri, 08 Sep 17 00:11:10 -0700

Conventional electron accelerators are an indispensable tool in modern research. But even smaller versions of these super microscopes are the size of a soccer field. Laser plasma acceleration could offer an alternative with a smaller footprint and higher peak currents. So far, the challenge with laser accelerators has been to create a reliable and stable electron beam, which is the prerequisite for applications. HZDR physicists have developed a method to increase beam stability and quality.

Machine learning enabled mobile microscope for monitoring air quality

Fri, 08 Sep 17 00:14:10 -0700

Accurate on-site air-quality monitoring can be performed using lens-free microscopy on a chip coupled with machine learning. A portable system built by Aydogan Ozcan and co-workers from UCLA, generates statistics of particle size and density from microscopic images of particulate matter in air. The system can screen 6.5 liters of air in about 30 seconds and has a particle sizing accuracy of about 93 percent.

Exchanges of identity in deep space

Thu, 07 Sep 17 00:15:00 -0700

By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, they could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed

Curious properties

Thu, 07 Sep 17 00:04:40 -0700

A murmuration of starlings. The phrase reads like something from literature or the title of an arthouse film. In fact, it is meant to describe the phenomenon that results when hundreds, sometimes thousands, of these birds fly in swooping, intricately coordinated patterns through the sky.

Smooth, manmade surfaces create a 'blind spot' for bats using echolocation

Thu, 07 Sep 17 00:07:30 -0700

Bats are well known for their sophisticated use of echolocation to navigate through areas riddled with obstacles, but now a new study reveals that this useful ability is hindered in the face of smooth vertical surfaces -- those that are particularly likely to be manmade.

Unraveling a major cause of sea ice retreat in the Arctic Ocean

Wed, 06 Sep 17 00:08:20 -0700

Quantitative analysis has evidenced the acceleration system of melting ice: dark water surfaces absorb more heat than white ice surfaces, thus melting ice and making more water surfaces in the Arctic Ocean.

Common cerebral white matter abnormalities found in children with autistic traits

Wed, 06 Sep 17 00:13:10 -0700

Brain imaging study shows white matter structural changes in children correspond to severity of autistic traits.

Researchers measure the basis of color vision

Wed, 06 Sep 17 00:12:40 -0700

Dr. Wolf M. Harmening from University Eye Hospital Bonn, together with American colleagues, studied color vision by probing individual sensory cells in the human eye. The results confirm that the photoreceptor cells of the retina are especially sensitive to colors corresponding to their visual pigments, even when stimulated in isolation. A new observation is that proximity effects play a key role: sensitivity varied depending on which cell classes were located in the immediate neighborhood.

Does the organic material of comets predate our solar system?

Wed, 06 Sep 17 00:12:00 -0700

The Rosetta space probe discovered a large amount of organic material in the nucleus of comet 'Chury.' In an article published by MNRAS on Aug. 31, 2017, two French researchers advance the theory that this matter has its origin in interstellar space and predates the birth of the solar system.

Superhuman 'night' vision during the total eclipse?

Tue, 05 Sep 17 00:00:30 -0700

It was dark as night during the recent total solar eclipse, yet people and objects were easier to see than on a typical moonless night. Scientists at The Ohio State University have discovered a possible biological explanation -- the presence (or absence) of a protein in the retina known as a GABA receptor.

Molecules move faster near sticky surfaces

Fri, 01 Sep 17 00:03:30 -0700

Molecules move faster as they get closer to adhesive surfaces, but this effect is not permanent. Such is the conclusion of a study published in Physical Review Letters, carried out by Simone Napolitano andthe Laboratory of Polymers and Soft Matter Dynamics at the Université libre de Bruxelles.

UCLA physicists propose new theories of black holes from the very early universe

Fri, 01 Sep 17 00:05:50 -0700

'Primordial black holes,' believed to have formed shortly after the Big Bang, might explain how heavy elements such as gold, platinum and uranium came to be, UCLA physicists report.

Cardiac arrests in black neighborhoods less likely to get CPR, defibrillation

Wed, 30 Aug 17 00:07:40 -0700

Compared to people who live in predominantly white neighborhoods, those who live in predominantly black areas are much less likely to receive CPR or defibrillation from a bystander when their heart suddenly stops beating while they are at home or out in the community.

Researchers propose how the universe became filled with light

Wed, 30 Aug 17 00:07:00 -0700

University of Iowa researchers have a new explanation for how the universe changed from darkness to light. They propose that black holes within galaxies produce winds strong enough to fling out matter that punctures holes in galaxies, allowing light to escape.

Artificial intelligence analyzes gravitational lenses 10 million times faster

Wed, 30 Aug 17 00:11:40 -0700

Researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have for the first time shown that neural networks -- a form of artificial intelligence -- can accurately analyze the complex distortions in spacetime known as gravitational lenses 10 million times faster than traditional methods.

Dark chocolate with olive oil associated with improved cardiovascular risk profile

Tue, 29 Aug 17 00:14:20 -0700

Dark chocolate enriched with extra virgin olive oil is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile, according to research presented today at ESC Congress.

Black hole models contradicted by hands-on tests at Sandia's Z machine

Mon, 28 Aug 17 00:10:00 -0700

Models of black holes that rely upon an assumption made 20 years ago need revision.

The outsized role of soil microbes

Mon, 28 Aug 17 00:00:40 -0700

Three scientists have proposed a new approach to better understand the role of soil organic matter in long-term carbon storage and its response to changes in global climate and atmospheric chemistry.

Physicists find strange state of matter in superconducting crystal

Thu, 24 Aug 17 00:04:30 -0700

New research published this week shows a rare state of matter in which electrons in a superconducting crystal organize collectively. The findings lay the groundwork for answering one of the most compelling questions in physics: How do correlated electron systems work, and are they related to one another?

Anesthesia and surgery during infancy may impact white matter during childhood

Thu, 24 Aug 17 00:07:50 -0700

General anesthesia and surgery in otherwise healthy infants under the age of one year could be associated with decreases in the amount of white matter in the brain, as well as reductions in the remaining white matter's integrity, according to a new University of Iowa Health Care study published this week in the Online First edition of Anesthesiology, the peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists.

The breaking point

Wed, 23 Aug 17 00:01:20 -0700

What, exactly, happens right around the edge of the crack, in the area in which those large stresses are concentrated? Professor Eran Bouchbinder of the Weizmann Institute of Science's Chemical Physics Department, explains that the processes that take place in this region are universal -- they occur in the same way in different materials and under different conditions.

Root behavior changes as woody trees age

Wed, 23 Aug 17 00:00:10 -0700

Comparing nighttime and daytime root extension in several species of Serianthes leads to interesting results.

Quantum ruler for biomolecules

Tue, 22 Aug 17 00:01:00 -0700

Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. This is philosophically intriguing and of technological relevance: a research team at the University of Vienna has demonstrated that combining experimental quantum interferometry with quantum chemistry allows deriving information about optical and electronic properties of biomolecules, here exemplified with a set of vitamins. These results have been published in the journal

A silent search for dark matter

Tue, 22 Aug 17 00:06:40 -0700

Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. The sensitivity of the detector -- an underground sentinel awaiting a collision that would confirm a hypothesis - stems from both its size and its 'silence.'

The environment can become a noninvasive therapeutic approach to bolster white matter health

Tue, 22 Aug 17 00:07:40 -0700

Those parents you overhear transforming trips to the grocery store into sensory adventures -- telling babies too young to babble that broccoli is GREEN, radishes are RED and tangerines are ORANGE -- are onto something. Being exposed to a complex and stimulating environment rich with new sights, sounds and a full vocabulary can play a powerful role in strengthening infants' developing brains.

Heating quantum matter: A novel view on topology

Mon, 21 Aug 17 00:16:20 -0700

Certain quantities appear as integer multiples of fundamental and indivisible elements. This quantization of physical quantities at the heart of our description of Nature, made its way through the centuries, as evidenced by the antique concept of the atom. The discovery of quantized quantities has often been associated with a revolution in our understanding of nature's law, a striking example being the quantization of light in terms of photons, which led to our contemporary description of the microscopic world.

Army researcher's paper named 'Editor's Pick' in journal Optics Letters

Thu, 17 Aug 17 00:09:10 -0700

A recently published paper by Army Research Laboratory Scientist Dr. Fredrik Fatemi was chosen as 'Editor's Pick' in the journal Optics Letters.

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

Thu, 17 Aug 17 00:15:20 -0700

In a recent report published in Nature Microbiology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM) oceanography professor Ed DeLong and his team report the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes.

Partial eclipse of the sun visible across UK

Tue, 15 Aug 17 00:15:50 -0700

If the weather is good, viewers across the UK will be treated to a partial solar eclipse on Aug. 21, 2017, just before sunset. In a partial eclipse, a small bite out of the sun can be seen at the mid-eclipse point, as it is covered by the moon.

Now you can levitate liquids and insects at home

Tue, 15 Aug 17 00:02:50 -0700

Levitation techniques are no longer confined to the laboratory thanks to University of Bristol engineers who have developed an easier way for suspending matter in mid-air by developing a 3-D-printed acoustic levitator.

Fundamentals of water repellency revealed at VTT

Mon, 14 Aug 17 00:12:40 -0700

Principal Scientist of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Dr. Lasse Makkonen has explained the frictional mechanism that resists the motion of drops on inclined surfaces and when affected by wind drag, and developed a theory by which sliding of drops off surfaces of different materials can be predicted. This makes it possible to systematically develop hydrophobic surfaces by modifying their base material and roughness.

New 3-D simulations show how galactic centers cool their jets

Mon, 14 Aug 17 00:01:30 -0700

Scientists at Berkeley Lab and Purdue University developed new theories and 3-D simulations to explain what's at work in the mysterious jets of energy and matter beaming from the center of galaxies at nearly the speed of light.

Get them while they're young: Astronomers catch exploding supernova early

Mon, 14 Aug 17 00:04:40 -0700

Thanks to a global network of telescopes, astronomers have caught the fleeting explosion of a Type Ia supernova in unprecedented detail. Because this type of supernova is commonly used as a cosmic yardstick, a better understanding of how they form could have implications for future dark energy measurements.

Air pollution linked to cardiovascular disease; air purifiers may lessen impact

Mon, 14 Aug 17 00:09:00 -0700

Exposure to fine particulate matter via air pollution, led to increases in stress hormones and, in a study of healthy college students in China. Negative effects of pollution exposure decreased after using indoor air purifiers over a nine-day period.

International team of researchers redefines cosmic velocity web

Mon, 14 Aug 17 00:14:40 -0700

The cosmic web -- the distribution of matter on the largest scales in the universe -- has usually been defined through the distribution of galaxies. Now, a new study by a team of astronomers from France, Israel and Hawaii demonstrates a novel approach. Instead of using galaxy positions, they mapped the motions of thousands of galaxies.

Massive particles test standard quantum theory

Fri, 11 Aug 17 00:06:50 -0700

In quantum mechanics particles can behave as waves and take many paths through an experiment. It requires only combinations of pairs of paths, rather than three or more, to determine the probability for a particle to arrive somewhere. Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits.

NASA airborne mission returns to Africa to study smoke, clouds

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:07:10 -0700

NASA's P-3 research plane begins flights this month through both clouds and smoke over the South Atlantic Ocean to understand how tiny airborne particles called aerosols change the properties of clouds and how they influence the amount of incoming sunlight the clouds reflect or absorb.

Ohio Supercomputer Center helps researchers map invisible universe

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:07:40 -0700

The Ohio Supercomputer Center played a critical role in helping researchers reach a milestone mapping the growth of the universe from its infancy to present day.

How urban seasnakes lost their stripes

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:09:40 -0700

Researchers studying turtle-headed seasnakes living on coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific noticed something unusual about the snakes' color patterns: seasnakes living in more pristine parts of the reef were decorated with black-and-white bands or blotches. Those in places with more human activity -- near the city or military activity -- were black. As reported in Current Biology on Aug. 10, those color differences are explained by differences in the snakes' exposure to pollution.

New technique searches 'dark genome' for disease mutations

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:12:00 -0700

Researchers have developed a new methodology for identifying disease-causing genetic mutations in the non-coding region of the genome. This portion of the genome has remained uninterpretable until now.

Does widespread pain stem from the brain? MRI study investigates

Thu, 10 Aug 17 00:01:00 -0700

Patients with different chronic pain diagnoses recorded similar brain changes, a new study finds, suggesting a need for new treatment approaches.

Defining standards for genomes from uncultivated microorganisms

Wed, 09 Aug 17 00:07:00 -0700

As genomic data production has ramped up over the past two decades and is being generated on various platforms around the world, scientists have worked together to establish definitions for terms and data collection standards that apply across the board. In Nature Biotechnology, an international team led by DOE JGI researchers has developed standards for the minimum metadata to be supplied with single amplified genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes submitted to public databases.