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Preview: Brightsurf Science News :: Microbiology News

Microbiology Current Events and Microbiology News from Brightsurf

Microbiology Current Events and Microbiology News Events, Discoveries and Articles from Brightsurf

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Meningococcal vaccine could protect against 91 percent of targeted bacterial strains

Wed, 22 Nov 17 00:04:00 -0800

Up to 91 percent of bacterial strains causing a common type of invasive serogroup B meningococcal disease in children and young adults are likely to be covered by a four-component vaccine called MenB-4C (Bexsero), according to laboratory studies conducted by investigators at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at GlaxoSmithKline, manufacturers of the vaccine. The work was published this week in mSphere, an open-access journal from the American Society for Microbiology.

Nanosponges show promise for potentially blinding eye infections

Wed, 22 Nov 17 00:03:50 -0800

In a new study, researchers demonstrate using a mouse model that engineered nanosponges can be used to protect eyes from infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Enterococcus faecalis contain a toxin called cytolysin, which is found in roughly 50 percent of isolates that cause post-operative intraocular infections seen in the United States.

The latest poop from the turkey coop

Mon, 20 Nov 17 00:15:50 -0800

Treated excrement from turkeys, chickens and other poultry, when converted to combustible solid biomass fuel, could replace approximately 10 percent of coal used in electricity generation, reducing greenhouse gases and providing an alternative energy source, according to a new study by Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) researchers.

Zika-related nerve damage caused by immune response to the virus

Mon, 20 Nov 17 00:09:30 -0800

The immune system's response to the Zika virus, rather than the virus itself, may be responsible for nerve-related complications of infection, according to a Yale study. This insight could lead to new ways of treating patients with Zika-related complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, the researchers said.

Researchers pin down one source of a potent greenhouse gas

Mon, 20 Nov 17 00:08:00 -0800

Researchers have discovered the first known methane-producing microbe that is active in an oxygen-rich environment -- a finding that suggests today's global climate models may be misjudging the amount of methane being released into the atmosphere.

UT study IDs potential cell receptors to reduce antibiotic resistance

Wed, 15 Nov 17 00:13:50 -0800

The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The pathogen is resistant to many antibiotics so treating those infections, particularly in patients with compromised immune systems, is difficult. A new study from UT has identified certain chemical receptors in cells that could deceive the bacteria and improve patient response to drugs.

How Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer

Tue, 07 Nov 17 00:03:00 -0800

Gastric cancer is one of the five most fatal types of cancer. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization about 750,000 patients die each year after developing the disease. The main cause is thought to be the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have now identified two mechanisms through which this bacterium can cause gastric cancer. Their findings could result in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Researchers identify the yeast genes behind rose and honeyed flavors in beer and wine

Tue, 07 Nov 17 00:07:20 -0800

A flavor compound called phenylethyl acetate imparts a hint of rose or honey to wherever it's found -- a dab of perfume, a sip of wine, a slug of beer. Microbiologists in Belgium have used genetic mapping to identify, for the first time, specific yeast genes that produce higher levels of this aroma in alcoholic beverages. The new finding joins other recent work connecting genes to flavors in wines and beers, and may be used to grow yeasts that produce new flavors.

How caries-causing bacteria can survive in dental plaque

Thu, 02 Nov 17 00:16:00 -0700

Extracellular polysaccharides play a central role in the survival capabilities of caries-causing bacteria in dental plaque, report researchers from the University of Basel's Preventative Dentistry and Oral Microbiology Clinic and Department of Biomedical Engineering in the journal Plos One.

Several reasons why whole grains are healthy

Thu, 02 Nov 17 00:00:00 -0700

When overweight adults exchange refined grain products -- such as white bread and pasta -- with whole grain varieties, they eat less, they lose weight and the amount of inflammation in their bodies decreases. These are some of the findings of a large Danish study headed by the National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. The study supports the scientific basis for the Danish dietary recommendation to choose whole grains.

Investigating the collateral effects of antibiotics

Wed, 01 Nov 17 00:03:00 -0700

Antibiotics can influence the swimming and swarming ability of multidrug-resistant bacteria, according to a new study in mSphere, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. The study, conducted using multidrug-resistant Salmonella, explored how antibiotics may modulate Salmonella virulence mechanisms.

Could Squirrel trade have contributed to England's medieval leprosy outbreak?

Wed, 25 Oct 17 00:12:50 -0700

Genetic analysis of a pre-Norman skull unearthed in a garden in Suffolk has added to a growing body of evidence that East Anglia may have been the epicentre of an epidemic of leprosy that spread through medieval England. The authors of the new study suggest that an explanation for the prevalence of leprosy in medieval East Anglia may possibly be found in the sustained Scandinavian trade in squirrel fur -- an animal known to carry the disease.

How the smallest bacterial pathogens outwit host immune defences by stealth mechanisms

Fri, 20 Oct 17 00:11:00 -0700

Despite their relatively small genome, mycoplasmas can cause persistent and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. A study by Vetmeduni Vienna has shown how mycoplasmas escape the immune response. Mycoplasmas 'mask' themselves: They use their small genome in a clever way and compensate for the loss of an enzyme that is important for this process. This could be shown for the first time in vivo, thus representing a breakthrough in the research of bacterial pathogens.

Last unknown structure of HIV-1 solved, another step in efforts to disarm the AIDS virus

Thu, 19 Oct 17 00:16:00 -0700

UAB researchers have solved the last unknown protein structure of HIV-1, the retrovirus that can cause AIDS. Knowledge of this structure, called the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 protein, will further explain how the virus infects human cells and how progeny viruses are assembled and released from infected cells. The cytoplasmic tail appears to play a key role in virus assembly to help incorporate the envelope spike structures into the surface of viral particles.

Death by a thousand cuts? Not for small populations

Wed, 18 Oct 17 00:08:20 -0700

In a paper published in Nature Communications, Christoph Adami, professor of microbiology and molecular genetics, and graduate student Thomas LaBar have provided a look at how certain species survive by evolving a greater ability to weed out harmful mutations -- a new concept called 'drift robustness'.

Stress might be just as unhealthy as junk food to digestive system

Mon, 16 Oct 17 00:09:20 -0700

We all know that a poor diet is unhealthy, but a new study finds that stress may just as harmful to our bodies as a really bad diet.

The importance of asymmetry in bacteria

Mon, 16 Oct 17 00:13:10 -0700

Research reveals a protein that acts as a vacuum cleaner of the membrane and which could be a potential new target for antibiotics.

Gut fungi could play a role in obesity epidemic

Wed, 11 Oct 17 00:12:20 -0700

A high-fat diet changes fungi in the gut and may play a role in the development of obesity, according to a new study in mSphere, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. While gut microbes have previously been implicated in the development of obesity, this study shows that fungi may also play a role.

Perinatal BPA exposure induces chronic inflammation by modulating gut bacteria

Tue, 10 Oct 17 00:05:10 -0700

Emerging evidence from a research study in rabbits suggests that environmental toxicants may influence inflammation-promoted chronic disease susceptibility during early life. BPA exposure just before or after birth leads to reduced gut bacterial diversity, bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and elevated gut permeability -- three common early markers of inflammation-promoted chronic diseases.

Study identifies whale blow microbiome

Tue, 10 Oct 17 00:05:00 -0700

A new study by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and colleagues identified for the first time an extensive conserved group of bacteria within healthy humpback whales' blow -- the moist breath that whales spray out of their blowholes when they exhale.

Genetically boosting the nutritional value of corn could benefit millions

Mon, 09 Oct 17 00:15:50 -0700

Rutgers scientists have found an efficient way to enhance the nutritional value of corn -- the world's largest commodity crop -- by inserting a bacterial gene that causes it to produce a key nutrient called methionine, according to a new study.

New 'movie' technique reveals bacterial signalling in sharper resolution

Thu, 05 Oct 17 00:13:30 -0700

John Innes Centre researchers used a study of the plant-growth promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens to develop an advanced analysis method which, they hope, will increase our capacity to understand plant and human diseases.

DSI professor conducts research to combat pancreatic cancer

Thu, 05 Oct 17 00:01:10 -0700

Tal Danino, a professor at the Data Science Institute, is conducting research that could help scientists combat the most lethal of cancers: pancreatic cancer. In a recent study, working with a team of researchers, Danino demonstrated that bacteria in pancreatic tumors degrade a chemotherapy drug -- Gemcitabine -- most commonly used to treat patients who have pancreatic cancer.

Researchers find that accurately transcribing DNA overrides DNA repair

Wed, 04 Oct 17 00:08:10 -0700

Researchers found that in the model organism E. coli, the fidelity of transcribing DNA comes at the expense of DNA repair.

Preventing autoimmune disease after a viral infection

Mon, 02 Oct 17 00:06:30 -0700

Researchers used mice to study regulatory mechanisms in the immune system that prevent autoimmune disease. Using an influenza infection model in mice, they have found that a particular population of immune cells developed during the later stages of the immune response to the influenza infection. These cells, called T follicular regulatory cells, subsequently prevented the generation of self-reactive antibody responses. At the same time, they did not affect the influenza-specific immune reaction.

Risk of transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to non-farm dwellers is negligible

Fri, 29 Sep 17 00:07:40 -0700

At a swine farm with pigs carrying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, levels of MRSA among 95 percent of visitors became virtually undetectable only two hours after exposure. MRSA in the nasal passages was associated with exposure to airborne MRSA and not directly on physical contact with the animals. The research is published Sept. 29 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Researchers identify protein that could reduce death, improve symptoms in flu and other infections

Fri, 29 Sep 17 00:09:10 -0700

A new study by researchers has identified an innovative strategy for treating influenza, and perhaps other infectious diseases as well. Scientists showed that a small protein called retrocyclin-101 (RC-101) could potentially improve the symptoms and mortality associated with the flu and possibly other types of infectious illness as well.

Examining the lifestyles of microbes

Wed, 27 Sep 17 00:13:50 -0700

University of Delaware professor Jennifer Biddle and Rosa Leon-Zayas are studying microbes called Parcubacteria that were found by James Cameron (director of 'Terminator') during a recent deep sea expedition. They want to study the microbes' lifestyle and see how similar they are to those found on land.

Researchers identify novel way to target Ebola

Tue, 26 Sep 17 00:04:20 -0700

Researchers have identified a potential new way to attack Ebola. Scientists have discovered that a protein called Tim-1 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1) plays a key role in the development of the cytokine storm seen in the last stages of Ebola infection. The research was published this week in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Predatory bacteria found in study of cystic fibrosis patients' lung microbiome
Cystic fibrosis patients have a wide variety of bacteria in their lungs, including two 'predators' not detected before, according to a new study of lung microorganisms published this week in mBio