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activity  bispecific antibody  bispecific  chain  fold  increase  light chain  light  mutations  stability  terminal extension  variants 
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Preview: Protein Engineering Design and Selection - Advance Access

Protein Engineering, Design and Selection Advance Access

Published: Mon, 04 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Mon, 04 Sep 2017 06:46:48 GMT


Role of an N-terminal extension in stability and catalytic activity of a hyperthermostable α/β hydrolase fold esterase


The carbohydrate esterase family 7 (CE7) enzymes catalyze the deacetylation of acetyl esters of a broad range of alcohols and is unique in its activity towards cephalosporin C. The CE7 fold contains a conserved N-terminal extension that distinguishes it from the canonical α/β hydrolase fold. The hexameric quaternary structure indicates that the N-terminus may affect activity and specificity by controlling access of substrates to the buried active sites via an entrance tunnel. In this context, we characterized the catalytic parameters, conformation and thermal stability of two truncation variants lacking four and ten residues of the N-terminal region of the hyperthermostable Thermotoga maritima CE7 acetyl esterase (TmAcE). The truncations did not affect the secondary structure or the fold but modulated the oligomerization dynamics. A modest increase was observed in substrate specificity for acetylated xylose compared with acetylated glucose. A drastic reduction of ~30–40°C in the optimum temperature for activity of the variants indicated lower thermal stability. The loss of hyperthermostability appears to be an indirect effect associated with an increase in the conformational flexibility of an otherwise rigid neighboring loop containing a catalytic triad residue. The results suggest that the N-terminal extension was evolutionarily selected to preserve the stability of the enzyme.

Novel C H 1:C L interfaces that enhance correct light chain pairing in heterodimeric bispecific antibodies


Targeting two unique antigens with a single bispecific antibody is an attractive approach with potential broad therapeutic applicability. However, the production of heterodimeric bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) presents a challenge, requiring the co-expression and accurate pairing of two distinct heavy and light chain units. Several undesirable by-products can be formed in the production process, including heavy chain homodimers and non-cognate light chain pairings. Although additional downstream purification methods exist, they are often time consuming and restrict practical large-scale production. In this study, we identify and validate novel Fab interface mutations that increase cognate light chain pairing efficiencies within heterodimeric bsAbs. Importantly, the variable domains remain unaltered as interface mutations were restricted to the CH1 and CL domains. We performed several biochemical assays to demonstrate that the novel engineered interfaces do not adversely impact bispecific antibody expression, stability, affinity and biological function. The designs reported here can easily be applied in a generic manner to use existing antibodies as building blocks for bsAbs which will help to accelerate the identification and production of next generation bispecific antibody therapeutics.

Further increase in thermostability of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase by mutational combination


We previously generated a highly thermostable triple variant of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase, MM3 (E286R/E302K/L435R), by introducing positive charges by site-directed mutagenesis at positions that have been implicated in the interaction with template-primer (Yasukawa et al., (2010) J. Biotechnol., 150, 299–306). In this study, we attempted to further increase the thermostability of MM3. Twenty-nine mutations were newly designed, focusing on the number of surface charge, stabilization of hydrophobic core, and introduction of salt bridge. The corresponding 29 single variants were produced in Escherichia coli and characterized for activity and stability. Six mutations (A32V, L41D, L72R, I212R, L272E and W388R) were selected as the candidates for further stabilize MM3. Fifteen multiple variants were designed by combining two or more of the six mutations with the MM3 mutations, produced and characterized. The sextuple variant MM3.14 (A32V/L72R/E286R/E302K/W388R/L435R) exhibited higher thermostability than MM3.