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Preview: Family Practice - Advance Access

Family Practice Advance Access

Published: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:44:21 GMT


Primary care access and foregone care: a survey of transgender adolescents and young adults


To examine the issues of primary care access and foregone health care among transgender adolescents and young adults.
This cross-sectional analysis of data from the Canadian Trans Youth Health Survey was conducted online during 2013–2014. Participants included 923 youth aged 14–25 (323 adolescents aged 14–18 and 600 young adults aged 19–25). Main outcome measures were self-reported general and mental health status, comfort discussing transgender identity and health care needs with general practitioners, and types of and reasons for self-identified foregone health care.
Most youth reported poor/fair general and mental health status. Comfort with a family doctor was positively correlated with both general health (r(528) = 21, P < 0.001) and mental health (r(450) = 26, P < 0.001) status, as was having a doctor who was aware of one’s transgender status. 47.2% (n = 219) of young adults reported foregoing needed health care. Among adolescents, levels of comfort with family doctor were negatively correlated with foregone mental health care in the previous 12 months (F3,166 = 3.829, P = 0.011), but not correlated with foregone physical health care (F3,165 = 0.506, P = 0.679). Reasons for missing needed care spanned the dimensions of health care access, ranging from cost barriers to previous negative experiences with health care providers, and concerns that a doctor would be uneducated about transgender people.
General practitioners can play a key role in improving the health of transgender youth by demonstrating understanding of the health care needs of transgender youth and competence in gender-affirming care, and by ensuring that their practices are accessible to all transgender youth in need of care.

Test–retest reliability of the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Screener in non-ADHD controls from a primary care physician practice


To examine the test–retest reliability of the DSM-IV Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Screener in adults without ADHD. Prior studies have not examined test–retest reliability of the Screener in non-ADHD controls.
Subjects completed the Screener in a primary care physician (PCP) waiting room (T1); those who screened negative for ADHD (n = 104) (<4/6 significant Screener items) symptoms were further assessed on the phone (T2). T2 included phone administration of the full ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist (which contains the six items from the Screener). Spearman’s correlations and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) between T1 and T2 were calculated for the total Screener score and for each Screener item. McNemar–Bowker tests were conducted for the Screener total score and each item to check for significant changes from T1 to T2.
Screener T1 and T2 total scores were significantly correlated (Spearman’s rho = 0.78, P < 0.0001), as were individual items. Correlations remained significant when controlling for a variety of demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. Confirming the significant Spearman correlations, ICCs for Screener total score and each item were also significant (ICC = 0.75, P < 0.0001). The McNemar–Bowker tests showed no significant differences for Screener total score and for the IA items; however, the H-I items were somewhat higher at T1 versus T2.
The DSM-IV ASRS v1.1 Screener has high test–retest reliability in patients without ADHD.

The perspectives of pre-frail and frail older people on being advised about exercise: a qualitative study


Exercise is considered to be the most effective strategy to treat, prevent and delay frailty, a prevalent geriatric syndrome observed in clinical practice. Encouraging frail older people to take up exercise is crucial in the management of this condition. The study aimed to explore pre-frail and frail older peoples’ perspectives in relation to being advised about exercise and their perceptions of the general practitioners’ (GPs) role in promoting exercise for older people.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 community-dwelling older (median age 83 years) participants screened pre-frail or frail using the FRAIL Screen. Their attitudes towards exercise, the advice received, their access to relevant information and their perceptions of the GP’s role in promoting exercise were explored. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyse data.
The majority of participants had a positive attitude towards exercise, and many participants indicated a preference for being advised firstly by their GPs and then other healthcare professionals. Participants living in the community reported difficulties in accessing information on exercise and indicated that local governments and GP practices should promote exercise for older people more actively. Participants living in retirement villages, however, reported having access to relevant information and being encouraged to participate in exercise.
This research identified a gap in current practice, demonstrating that GPs, healthcare providers and local governments should promote exercise for older people more actively. Convincing health professionals to encourage regular exercise among their older patients would provide an opportunity to avoid and manage frailty in this population.