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Health Education Research Advance Access





Published: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:44:29 GMT

 



Reducing 30-day readmission rates in a high-risk population using a lay-health worker model in Appalachia Kentucky

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
This exploratory study aimed to address the effectiveness of a lay-health worker (LHW) model in addressing social needs and readmissions of high-risk patients admitted in a rural community hospital. A quasi-experimental study design assessed implementation of a LHW model for assisting high-risk patients with their post-discharge social needs. Outcome measures included 30-day hospital readmissions rates during a 4-month baseline period compared with a 6-month post-implementation period. The LHW intervention involved assessment and development of a personalized social needs plan for enrolled patients (e.g. transportation and community resource identification), with post-discharge follow-up calls. There was a 47.7% relative reduction of 30-day hospital readmissions rates between baseline and intervention phases of the study. Simple regression analyses demonstrated a 56% decrease in odds (90% confidence interval 0.20–0.98) in being readmitted within 30-days among those in the intervention phase compared with those in the baseline phase. Once adjusting for education, transportation cost and anxiety symptoms, there was a 77% decrease in odds among those exposed to the LHW program. LHWs offer an effective hospital-based model to improve transitions in care from the hospital setting, especially those at high-risk with persistent social needs.



An integrative review exploring black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening

Fri, 09 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Evidence suggests that black men are disproportionately more affected than any other ethnicity by prostate cancer. The aim of this review is to identify studies exploring black men of African and Caribbean descent, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening. Four databases were searched and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. The inclusion criteria were studies exploring attitudes towards screening and fear of prostate cancer in black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, peer-reviewed research, qualitative studies, surveys, questionnaires and English language publications. Qualitative findings were synthesized using a thematic framework to which quantitative findings were integrated. Of the 16 papers, 10 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative, all of which were conducted in the United States of America. Poorer and less educated black men were reluctant to seek help for prostate cancer. They may not visit their doctors for fear of intrusion into their personal lives. Moreover, they were fearful of being emasculated as a result of the digital rectal examination. The review identifies a paucity of UK literature on black men’s fears and perceptions of prostate cancer. Further studies are needed in the United Kingdom to address this gap in the literature.