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European Sociological Review Current Issue

Published: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 06:44:23 GMT


Continuity and Change at ESR: A Letter from the Editor

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Dear reader,

Do Government Expenditures Shift Private Philanthropic Donations to Particular Fields of Welfare? Evidence from Cross-country Data

Fri, 05 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Do government expenditures shift private philanthropic donations to particular fields of welfare? We examine this association in the first cross-country study to correlate government expenditures with the level of individual private donations to different fields of welfare using the Individual International Philanthropy Database (IIPD, 2016; Ncountry = 19; Nindividual = 126,923). The results of the descriptive and multilevel analyses support the idea of crosswise crowding-in; in countries where government expenditures in health and social protection are higher, more donors give to support the environment, international aid, and the arts. The level of giving to different sectors, however, is not associated with government expenditures. The results reject the crowding-out hypothesis and provide a nuanced picture of the relationship between government funding and philanthropic giving across different fields of social welfare.

Inherited Advantage: Comparing Households that Receive Gifts and Bequests with Non-receiving Households across the Distribution of Household Wealth in 11 European Countries

Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

This study examines the importance of gifts and bequests (‘wealth transfers’) across the distribution of household wealth. Unconditional quantile regression applied to harmonized survey data obtained from 11 European countries reveals that households that receive gifts and bequests own considerably more wealth than non-receiving households, all other things being equal. The wealth gap varies hugely along the distribution of net wealth. At the median, the wealth gap reaches about 119,000 euros and increases to 630,000 euros at the 90th percentile. With regard to the 99th percentile, survey data even indicate differences in wealth levels greater than 2.3 million euros. Further analysis finds evidence that the impact of wealth transfers on household wealth follows an inverted U-shaped pattern: gifts and bequests contribute the most to the stock of private wealth in the broad mid-section and less so at the lower and upper ends of the distribution. Overall, the study provides evidence for a strong nexus between inheritance and household wealth that is not limited to the top.

Housing Evictions and Economic Hardship. A Prospective Study

Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Research has demonstrated that evictions primarily affect vulnerable populations. However, relatively little is known about the consequences eviction has, particularly regarding economic outcomes. Using comprehensive Swedish national register data on evictions in 2009, this study tests two competing hypotheses regarding to what extent an eviction affects subsequent economic hardship for an already disadvantaged group. The degree to which individuals rely on means-tested social assistance is used as an indicator of economic hardship. The cumulative disadvantage perspective predicts that additional strain will compound the economic hardship experienced by the group. In contrast, the disadvantage saturation perspective suggests that additional adversities may not add to economic hardship for disadvantaged individuals. Results from propensity score matching analyses show that, the year immediately after eviction, the degree of social assistance receipt was around 8 percentage points higher for the evicted group than for the matched comparison group. In the following 3 years, the degree of social assistance receipt continued to be significantly higher for those evicted compared to peers. The results lend support to the cumulative disadvantage perspective and suggest that—in the context of preventing evictions—policy measures such as assistance to repay rent arrears would be adequate to prevent further economic hardship.

What Fairness? Gendered Division of Housework and Family Life Satisfaction across 30 Countries

Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

This article sheds new light on the role played by perceived fairness in configuring the relationship between gendered housework division and women’s family life satisfaction across 30 countries. This is achieved by distinguishing and comparing two major dimensions of women’s fairness comparison—inter-gender relational comparison between partners and intra-gender referential comparison with other women from the same society. Analysing data from the 2012 International Social Survey Programme, we find that women’s family life satisfaction is adversely affected by both a lack of relational fairness and unfavourable referential comparison, which operate independently of each other. Supporting the ‘self-serving’ theory, women are found to rely more on one dimension of fairness comparison to assess their family life satisfaction when they compare unfavourably rather than favourably in the other dimension. Country-level gender equality positively predicts the strength of the association between relational fairness and family life satisfaction. However, it does not seem to moderate the influence of referential comparison on family life satisfaction. In light of these results, scholars are urged to consider the perceived fairness of housework division as a plural construct, and to promulgate gender equality in multiple dimensions—addressing not just inter-gender (in)equity but also intra-gender (in)equality—to move the gender revolution forward.

How Selective Migration Shapes Environmental Inequality in Germany: Evidence from Micro-level Panel Data

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Socio-economically disadvantaged and ethnic minorities are affected by a disproportionately high exposure to environmental pollution. Yet, it is unclear if selective migration causes this disproportionate exposure experienced by low-income and minority households. The study uses longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel to investigate the process of selective migration and its connection to the perceived exposure to air pollution in Germany. Consistent with the selective migration argument, movers experience a decrease in exposure according to their income, while stationary households do not experience a reductive effect due to income. Furthermore, the moving returns differ by minority status. While native German households experience less exposure to pollution when moving to a new place of residence, minority households do not. Additional analyses show that this minority effect cannot be explained by socio-economic differences, but completely vanishes in the second immigrant generation.

Social Disparities in Destandardization—Changing Family Life Course Patterns in Seven European Countries

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

It is generally assumed that life courses in European societies have become less orderly and more destandardized in recent decades. Focusing on the family sphere, the article examines to what degree patterns of destandardization are stratified by educational attainment across seven European countries. Using data from the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) and the National Educational Panel Survey (NEPS) (n = 70,228 respondents), the article adds to the methodological discussion of destandardization by implementing both abstract analyses of life course dissimilarity, which focus on the ‘timing’ of events; and specific analyses of common episode orders, which relate to the ‘order’ of events. While European countries differ considerably with respect to dominant life course patterns in early adulthood, a consistent finding is that destandardization is more pronounced among individuals with lower than with higher levels of education.

Welfare Retrenchments and Government Support: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

A large body of literature has provided mixed results on the impact of welfare retrenchments on government support. This article examines whether the impact of welfare retrenchments can be explained by proximity, i.e. whether or not the retrenched policy is related to people's everyday lives. To overcome limitations in previous studies, the empirical approach utilizes a natural experiment with data from the European Social Survey collected concurrently with a salient retrenchment reform of the education grant system in Denmark. The results confirm that people proximate to a welfare policy react substantially stronger to retrenchment reforms than the general public. Robustness and placebo tests further show that the results are not caused by non-personal proximities or satisfaction levels not related to the reform and the government. In sum, the findings speak to a growing body of literature interested in the impact of government policies on mass public.

Is it Easier to Be Unemployed When the Experience Is More Widely Shared? Effects of Unemployment on Self-rated Health in 25 European Countries with Diverging Macroeconomic Conditions

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

The economic crisis in Europe since 2008 has led to high unemployment levels in several countries. Previous research suggests that becoming unemployed is a health risk, but is job loss and unemployment easier to cope with when unemployment is widespread? Using EU-SILC panel data (2010–2013), this study examines short-term effects of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH) in 25 European countries with diverging macroeconomic conditions. Ordinary least squares regressions show that the unemployed are in worse health than the employed throughout Europe. The association is reduced considerably, but remains significant in several countries when time-invariant personal characteristics are accounted for using individual-level fixed-effects models. Propensity score kernel matching shows that both being and becoming unemployed are associated with slightly worse SRH. There is a weak tendency towards less health effects of unemployment in countries where the experience is widely shared. In particular, countries with a very low unemployment rate stand out with larger health effects. The results overall suggest that a changed composition of the unemployed population is an important explanation for the weaker unemployment—health association in high-unemployment countries.