Subscribe: Alcohol and Alcoholism - current issue
http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/rss/current.xml
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
Tags:
alcohol related  alcohol  drinking  group  health  information  labels  patients  related  risk  social  support  treatment 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: Alcohol and Alcoholism - current issue

Alcohol and Alcoholism Current Issue





Published: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 07:49:50 GMT

 



Communicating Messages About Drinking

Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT




Alcohol, Power and Public Health: A Comparative Study of Alcohol Policy (Routledge Advances in Health and Social Policy)

Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Alcohol, Power and Public Health: A Comparative Study of Alcohol Policy (Routledge Advances in Health and Social Policy) by Butler,ShaneElmeland, Karen Thom, and Betsy NichollsJames, 214 pages; Indexed. Price £110 hardback; £39.99 ebook. ISBN-10: 9780203084557 and ISBN-13: 978-0415637466






Population Level Effects of a Mass Media Alcohol and Breast Cancer Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Evaluation

Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To examine the relationship between a TV-led breast cancer mass-media campaign in the North East of England (conducted in two waves: Jul/2015 and Nov/2015), awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer, intention to reduce alcohol consumption and support for alcohol related policies.
Methods
Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted; one over the 2 weeks pre-campaign (n = 572); one immediately following campaign wave 1 (n = 576); and another immediately following campaign wave 2 (n = 552). Survey questions assessed; campaign exposure; awareness of the links between alcohol and related cancers; intention to change alcohol consumption; and support for alcohol related policies.
Results
The proportion of respondents indicating awareness of alcohol as a cancer risk factor was larger post-campaign compared to pre-campaign. The largest increase was seen for breast cancer with 45% aware of the links post-campaign wave 2 compared to 33% pre-campaign. The proportion of respondents indicating ‘strong support’ of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. The proportion of respondents both aware of alcohol as a cancer risk factor and supportive of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. There was no significant change in self-reported intention to reduce alcohol consumption amongst increasing/higher risk drinkers.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that a mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol related policy support at a population level. However, there was no association found with a change in short-term drinking intentions.
Short summary
A mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol policy support at a population level but does not appear to be associated with a change in short term drinking intentions.



Alcohol Warning Label Awareness and Attention: A Multi-method Study

Thu, 09 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
Evaluation of alcohol warning labels requires careful consideration ensuring that research captures more than awareness given that labels may not be prominent enough to attract attention. This study investigates attention of current in market alcohol warning labels and examines whether attention can be enhanced through theoretically informed design. Attention scores obtained through self-report methods are compared to objective measures (eye-tracking).
Methods
A multi-method experimental design was used delivering four conditions, namely control, colour, size and colour and size. The first study (n = 559) involved a self-report survey to measure attention. The second study (n = 87) utilized eye-tracking to measure fixation count and duration and time to first fixation. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was utilized.
Results
Eye-tracking identified that 60% of participants looked at the current in market alcohol warning label while 81% looked at the optimized design (larger and red). In line with observed attention self-reported attention increased for the optimized design.
Conclusions
The current study casts doubt on dominant practices (largely self-report), which have been used to evaluate alcohol warning labels. Awareness cannot be used to assess warning label effectiveness in isolation in cases where attention does not occur 100% of the time. Mixed methods permit objective data collection methodologies to be triangulated with surveys to assess warning label effectiveness.
Short summary
Attention should be incorporated as a measure in warning label effectiveness evaluations. Colour and size changes to the existing Australian warning labels aided by theoretically informed design increased attention.



Ghrelin is Related to Personality Differences in Reward Sensitivity and Impulsivity

Thu, 09 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
Ghrelin, a feeding-related peptide mainly produced in the stomach, has been linked to reward mechanisms for food and drugs of abuse in addition to traits of impulsivity. This study is a secondary analysis of an existing data set designed to examine the direct relationships between fasting ghrelin levels and reward sensitivity/impulsivity in healthy social drinkers.
Methods
Participants (n = 20) were recruited from an original study examining the subjective effects of alcohol among social drinkers. Fasting ghrelin levels were collected at baseline. Personality measures (Behavioral Inhibition, Behavioral Activation, and Affective Response to Impending Reward and Punishment and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) were administered at baseline to evaluate sensitivity to reward and punishment, and measure traits of impulsivity, respectively.
Results
Fasting ghrelin levels were significantly related to reward sensitivity and impulsivity traits. Specifically, those with higher ghrelin levels were more sensitive to reward and were more impulsive (have lower self-control).
Conclusions
The results indicate that individuals with higher levels of ghrelin are more sensitive to reward. In addition, they are less able to exercise self-control and to an extent more likely to act without thinking. This is the first study to report on the direct relationship between fasting ghrelin levels and personality characteristics such as reward sensitivity and aspects of impulsivity among healthy social drinkers.
Short summary
Individuals with higher levels of fasting ghrelin are more sensitive to reward, but less sensitive to punishment. Higher ghrelin levels are also related to some aspects of impulsivity such as decreased self-control and increased likelihood of acting without thinking.



Nutritional Status During Inpatient Alcohol Detoxification

Thu, 09 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
As low rates of thiamine are thought to be implicated in alcohol-related cognitive disorders, we wanted to assess patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) during detoxification for their nutritional status and test if vitamins blood levels were associated with a surrogate of cognitive impairment.
Methods
We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of 94 consecutive patients hospitalized for alcohol detoxification in a specialized addiction medicine department. Nutritional status was assessed with Body Mass Index (BMI). Vitamins blood levels were available for 80 patients, but thiamine only for 52 patients. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was used to screen for cognitive impairment at Day 10 of entry and was available in 59 patients. A binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with MoCA scores below the threshold (26 points).
Results
The mean BMI was 23.28 ± 3.78 kg/m2 and 8.79% of weighted patients qualified for malnutrition. The mean MoCA score was 22.75 ± 4.88 points, and 66% of tested patients were below the threshold of suspected cognitive impairment. No low blood thiamine level was found. In multivariate analysis, BMI, but not vitamins blood rates, was significantly associated with a pathological MoCA screening test.
Conclusion
Clinical examination is more sensitive than biomarkers to determine malnourished AUD patients who are at-risk for cognitive impairment. Malnourished patients with AUD should receive a full neuropsychological testing.
Summary
This retrospective chart review study screened for cognitive disorders during alcohol inpatient detoxification with the MoCA test. Body mass index, but not vitamins blood rates, was associated with a pathological MoCA. Clinical examination is more sensitive than biomarkers to determine malnourished AUD patients who are at-risk for cognitive impairment.



Evaluation of Alcohol Screening and Community-Based Brief Interventions in Rural Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To assess the effectiveness of community-based alcohol brief interventions (ABI) implemented by community-health workers with and without motivational talks (MT) by former drinkers, in reducing harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption.
Methods
We conducted a three-arm quasi-experimental study (one control and two intervention groups) between May and December 2015 in Kakamega County, Kenya. Participants were hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8–19 at baseline. One intervention group received only ABI while the other received ABI + MT. The interventions’ effects on AUDIT scores were analysed using linear mixed models. Logistic regression was used to analyse the interventions’ effects on low-risk drinking (AUDIT score <8) after 6 months.
Results
The study included 161 participants: 52 in the control group, 52 in the only ABI group and 57 in the ABI + MT group. The mean AUDIT scores were lower in the intervention groups at 1, 3 and 6 months post-intervention; the ABI + MT group showed a greater reduction. The mean AUDIT scores over a 6-month period were lower in both intervention groups compared with the control group. The odds of low-risk drinking were almost two times higher in both intervention groups than in the control group, although the effect of only ABI on low-risk drinking was not significant.
Conclusions
ABI + MT and only ABI were associated with a reduced mean AUDIT score among hazardous and high-risk drinkers in this resource-limited setting. ABI + MT was also associated with low-risk drinking in this population.
Short summary
Community-based alcohol brief interventions implemented by community-health workers accompanied by motivational talks by former drinkers were associated with reduced hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in a rural setting in western Kenya.



Inclusion of Alcoholic Associations Into a Public Treatment Programme for Alcoholism Improves Outcomes During the Treatment and Continuing Care Period: A 6-Year Experience

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To investigate whether inclusion of self-help groups into the hospital treatment programme improves the prognosis of alcohol dependence through the treatment period; and to examine therapeutic adherence and prognosis during continuing care.
Method
Patients attending the treatment programme at the ‘Hospital 12 de Octubre’ were randomized into two groups. In Group A (n = 123), patients received the usual treatment included in our programme, whereas in Group B (n = 126), patients also attended self-help groups. Patients were assessed with psychological scales at baseline, at the end of the treatment period and after completing the continuing care visits. Data were collected over a total of 6 years.
Results
During the treatment period, patients in Group B accumulated more months of abstinence and dropped out less. During continuing care, patients in Group B accumulated more months of abstinence and therapeutic adherence was higher. Variables that were associated with these results during the continuing care period were: visits to the GP, scores on anxiety, impulsivity and meaning of life scales, and belonging to the group that attended the alcoholic associations.
Conclusions
Mutual help groups incorporated into a public treatment programme appear to improve outcomes during treatment and on into continuing care. This experience supports cooperation between public health centres and alcoholic associations in treating alcoholism.
Short Summary
Including alcoholic associations into the public treatment programme for alcoholism of the ‘Hospital 12 de Octubre’ in Madrid was shown to be associated with better outcomes in terms of months of accumulated abstinence, dropout rates and therapeutic adherence, during the treatment and continuing care periods.



Maintenance of Abstinence in Self-Help Groups

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aim
To analyse abstinence rates 12 months after alcohol cessation in a sample of French subjects participating in support group meetings.
Method
The project was co-designed with support group representatives, and co-investigator roles were delegated to meeting managers. Subjects who had stopped drinking for <3 months were included. An independent investigator evaluated alcohol intake and group attendance every 3 months using a questionnaire, and time to first drink was analysed using survival curves.
Results
Overall, 145 participants were included, mean age 47 years. At 1 year, 43% of the 119 who could be evaluated were abstinent. Relapse rates did not differ by gender, withdrawal method, previous stays in a rehabilitation unit or time of first contact with the self-help association. However, participants receiving specialist medical and/or psychological support in addition to attending group meetings had a significantly lower abstinence rate than those who only attended group meetings, although their attendance at group meetings was similar.
Conclusion
Self-help associations can participate in rigorous scientific studies. The present results identified a subgroup of individuals with alcohol problems who attended self-help groups, but not traditional care pathways. Having additional specialist support was not associated with better outcome.



The effect of increased alcohol availability on alcohol-related health problems up to the age of 42 among children exposed in utero: a natural experiment

Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aim
To examine whether exposure to increased alcohol availability in utero is associated with later alcohol-related health problems.
Method
Register-linked population-based longitudinal study using data from a natural experiment setting, including 363 286 children born 1965–71. An experimental alcohol policy change was piloted in two regions of Sweden in 1967–68, where access to strong beer increased for 16–20 year old. Children exposed in utero to the policy change were compared to children born elsewhere in Sweden (excluding a border area), and to children born before and after the policy change. The outcome was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register using the Swedish index of alcohol-related inpatient care. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox regression analysis.
Results
The results suggest that children conceived by young mothers prior to the policy change but exposed to it in utero had a slightly increased risk of alcohol-related health problems later in life (HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.94-1.68). A tendency towards an inverse association was found among children conceived by older mothers (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.74-1.06).
Conclusion
Results obtained from a natural experiment setting found no consistent evidence of long-term health consequences among children exposed in utero to an alcohol policy change. Some evidence however suggested an increased risk of alcohol-related health problems among the exposed children of young mothers.



Environmental Context Influences Visual Attention to Responsible Drinking Messages

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
Responsible drinking messages (RDMs) are used as a key tool to reduce alcohol-related harms. A common form of RDM is in a poster format displayed in places such as bars, bus stops and toilet cubicles. However, evidence for the effectiveness of RDMs remains limited. Moreover, it is not known how environmental contexts (e.g. the number of alcohol-related cues in the environment) impact how such RDMs are interacted with, nor how this in turn affects their efficacy.
Methods
One hundred participants completed a pseudo taste preference task in either in a bar laboratory (alcohol cue rich environmental context) or a traditional laboratory. The walls of the laboratory displayed either RDM or control posters during this task and eye tracking was used to assess participant attention to the posters.
Results
Participants looked at the RDM posters less in the bar laboratory where the environmental context is rich in alcohol cues compared to a traditional laboratory where alcohol cues are sparse. Neither poster type or environmental context affected the amount of ‘alcohol’ consumed and the amount of visual attention given to RDMs was unrelated to the amount of ‘alcohol’ consumed.
Conclusions
These findings provide experimental evidence that RDMs do not influence drinking behaviour in the direction intended (reduced consumption in situ). In addition, locating RDMs in alcohol-cue rich environments may result in sub-optimal behavioural responses to the RDM materials (e.g. visual attention to content). To maximize the potential impact of RDMs, the optimal location for RDMs is in environments where pre-existing alcohol cues are sparse to non-existent.
Short Summary
Responsible drinking messages (RDMs) aim to reduce alcohol consumption, however, the findings of this study show that they may not influence in situ consumption. These findings also suggest that the optimal location for RDMs is in environments with few or no other alcohol-related cues.



Oxytocin Genotype Moderates the Impact of Social Support on Psychiatric Distress in Alcohol-Dependent Patients

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
The social environment strongly influences individual mental health. Individuals with strong social support systems tend to experience higher levels of well-being, lower levels of psychological distress and exhibit fewer psychiatric symptoms. However, there is a significant degree of individual variability as to the extent to which social support is beneficial to overall mental health. From a neurobiological perspective, it is suggested that the social hormone, oxytocin, may moderate the favorable effects of social interaction. To explore this possibility, we evaluated oxytocin genotype, social support and psychological health in a group of individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV alcohol dependence.
Methods
The associations between OXT genotype, social support and psychological health were analyzed in data from 269 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV alcohol dependence (25% female) admitted into residential treatment programs and outpatient centers in Warsaw, Poland.
Results
In line with past observations, we noted that psychiatric distress scores were negatively correlated with social support. Extending these observations, we uncovered a significant moderating effect of OXT genotype (rs2740210) on the relationship between social support and psychiatric distress. While G carriers displayed the predicted negative relationship between social support and psychiatric distress, T homozygotes failed to exhibit such a relationship.
Conclusion
Genetically driven variation in oxytocin system functioning may influence the degree to which the beneficial effects of social support are felt in this population. These results have direct clinical relevance as enhancing social engagement to improve mental health may prove to be a less effective strategy in some patients owing to intrinsic factors.
Short summary
The associations between oxytocin genotype, social support, and psychological health were analyzed in data from 269 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV alcohol dependence. A significant moderating effect of OXT genotype (rs2740210) on the relationship between social support and psychiatric distress was detected.



Sociodemographic Differences Between Alcohol Use and Sickness Absence: Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies

Fri, 13 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
We examined differences in sickness absence in relation to at-risk drinking and abstinence, taking into account potential changes in consumption.
Methods
We used individual-participant data (n = 46,514) from four prospective cohort studies from Finland, France and the UK. Participants responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time points 4–6 years apart, and were linked to records of sickness absence for an ~6-year follow-up after the latter survey. Abstainers were those reporting no alcohol use in either survey. At-risk drinkers at T1 were labelled as ‘former’, at-risk drinkers at T2 as ‘current’ and at-risk drinkers at both times as ‘consistent’ at-risk drinkers. The reference group was low-risk drinkers at both times. Study-specific analyses were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and the estimates were pooled using meta-analysis.
Results
Among men (n = 17,285), abstainers (6%), former (5%), current (5%) and consistent (7%) at-risk drinkers had an increased risk of sickness absence compared with consistent low-risk drinkers (77%). Among women (n = 29,229), only abstainers (12%) had a higher risk of sickness absence compared to consistent low-risk drinkers (74%). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, abstaining from alcohol was associated with sickness absence among people with intermediate and high SES, but not among people with low SES.
Conclusions
The U-shaped alcohol use—sickness absence association is more consistent in men than women. Abstinence is a risk factor for sickness absence among people with higher rather than lower SES. Healthy worker effect and health selection may partly explain the observed differences.
Short summary
In a pooled analysis from four cohort studies from three European countries, we demonstrated a U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence, particularly among men. Abstinence from alcohol was associated with increased sickness absenteeism among both sexes and across socioeconomic strata, except those with low SES.



Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the AUDIT and CAGE Questionnaires in Tanzanian Swahili for a Traumatic Brain Injury Population

Sat, 07 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To develop Swahili versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and CAGE questionnaires and evaluate their psychometric properties in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) population in Tanzania.
Methods
Swahili versions of the AUDIT and CAGE were developed through translation and back-translation by a panel of native speakers of both English and Swahili. The translated instruments were administered to a sample of Tanzanian adults from a TBI registry. The validity and reliability were analyzed using standard statistical methods.
Results
The translated versions of both the AUDIT and CAGE questionnaires were found to have excellent language clarity and domain coherence. Reliability was acceptable (>0.85) for all tested versions. Confirmatory factor analysis of one, two and three factor solution for the AUDIT and one factor solution for the CAGE showed adequate results. AUDIT and CAGE scores were strongly correlated to each other (R > 0.80), and AUDIT scores were significantly lower in non-drinkers compared to drinkers.
Conclusions
This article presents the first Swahili and Tanzanian adaptations of the AUDIT and CAGE instruments as well as the first validation of these questionnaires with TBI patients. Both instruments were found to have acceptable psychometric properties, resulting in two new useful tools for medical and social research in this setting.



Symptom-Triggered Detoxification Using the Alcohol-Withdrawal-Scale Reduces Risks and Healthcare Costs

Sat, 07 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
As there are only a few existing experimental studies on symptom-triggered therapy for patients with alcohol withdrawal, we investigated the effectiveness of symptom-triggered detoxification regarding the use and dosage of benzodiazepine and withdrawal complications in a naturalistic clinical setting of a specialized treatment center for alcohol use disorder.
Methods
In total, 301 charts of patients who entered residential treatment for alcohol withdrawal were included in the retrospective analysis. Charts of 176 patients treated with the Alcohol Withdrawal-Scale (AWS) were compared to the charts of 125 patients treated with treatment as usual (TAU) before the implementation of AWS. Sociodemographical and clinical variables, previous detoxifications and complications, duration of treatment, use and dose of benzodiazepine and other withdrawal medication, complications and premature discontinuation of treatment were abstracted from the patients’ medical records.
Results
The two groups did not differ in any demographical or clinical variables measured upon treatment admission. The total percentage of patients being treated with benzodiazepines during detoxification decreased from 78.4 to 38.6% after the implementation of the AWS. The implementation of the AWS significantly reduced the duration of the acute detoxification from 136 to 66 h, and the use, duration and dose of benzodiazepine by nearly two-thirds while complications and treatment discontinuation remained unvaryingly. Healthcare costs for detoxification were reduced by half per patient.
Conclusions
The findings indicate that symptom-triggered treatment for alcohol withdrawal is safe and effective in a naturalistic clinical setting and significantly reduces healthcare costs and the risk for overmedicating patients.



The Science of Absent Evidence: Is There Such Thing as an Effective Responsible Drinking Message?

Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To review the effectiveness of responsible drinking messages (RDMs).
Methods
We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE and Google Scholar to June 2016 for studies evaluating the effectiveness of RDMs. Only eight studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Due to a small number of search results and broad inconsistency in methods and outcome measures, quantitative synthesis was not possible so a narrative summary of findings was conducted.
Results
A review of findings from these articles suggested a disjointed approach in terms of the format and content of RDMs evaluated, as well as the dependent variables used to judge their effectiveness. An overall pattern emerged suggesting that RDMs may have beneficial effects across various outcome measures, including reducing prospective alcohol use. However, due to the inconsistent approach to both the development and evaluation of RDMs, it was not possible to draw any clear conclusions in terms of effectiveness, or indeed the potential size of any effects.
Conclusions
A systematic approach to the development and evaluation of RDMs is recommended to ensure that a clearer evidence base is established in this area, particularly in light of the substantial public funds which are often spent on RDM campaigns.
Short summary
A systematic review of studies evaluating the effectiveness of responsible drinking message campaigns reveals an inconsistent approach to message design and evaluation. Findings of the review suggest the need for a more consistent approach to aid in the development of a clearer evidence base in this area.



No Impact of Calorie or Unit Information on Ad Libitum Alcohol Consumption

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
To investigate the impact of unit and calorie information on drinking behaviour in an ad libitum taste test paradigm.
Methods
In this experimental human laboratory study, participants were randomized to one of four conditions, balanced by gender, using a 2 (unit information: present vs. absent) × 2 (calorie information: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. The percentage of beer consumed during the taste test was the primary outcome measure.
Results
Among this largely undergraduate student population, we found no evidence that either unit or calorie information impacted alcohol consumption in an ad libitum taste test. A manipulation check indicated that few of the participants receiving either unit and/or calorie information could accurately recall the number of units and/or calories in the beverages provided to them, indicating low levels of engagement with this information. Analysis of qualitative reactions to calorie and unit labelling indicated possible negative unintended consequences of calorie and unit information, including using unit information to facilitate consumption of higher strength beverages, and calorie information to reduce food consumption prior to a drinking episode.
Conclusion
We find no evidence to support an effect of unit or calorie information, a public-health initiative supported by the alcohol industry, on drinking behaviour. It is possible that compulsory unit and calorie labelling, at least in the numeric format used here, would have no effect on alcohol intake and may even have some negative unintended consequences among certain populations.



“We Have a Right to Know”: Exploring Consumer Opinions on Content, Design and Acceptability of Enhanced Alcohol Labels

Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
This study aimed to refine content and design of an enhanced alcohol label to provide information that best supports informed drinking and to gauge consumer acceptability of enhanced alcohol labels among a subset of consumers.
Methods
Five focus groups (n = 45) were conducted with stakeholders and the general public (age 19+) across one jurisdiction in northern Canada. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo software.
Results
The majority of participants showed strong support for enhanced alcohol labels with an emphasis on the consumers’ right to know about the health risks related to alcohol. Participants preferred larger labels that included standard drink (SD) information, national low-risk drinking guidelines presented as a chart with pictograms, cancer health messaging and a pregnancy warning. Supporting introduction of the labels with a web resource and an educational campaign was also recommended.
Conclusions
Displaying enhanced labels on alcohol containers that include SD information, low-risk drinking guidelines and other health messaging in an accessible format may be an effective way to better inform drinkers about their consumption and increase awareness of alcohol-related health risks. Introduction of enhanced labels shows potential for consumer support.
Short summary
Focus group findings indicate strong support for enhanced alcohol labels displaying SD information, national drinking guidelines, health messaging and a pregnancy warning. Introduction of enhanced alcohol labels in tandem with an educational campaign may be an effective way to better inform Canadian drinkers and shows potential for consumer support.



Testing the Efficacy of Alcohol Labels with Standard Drink Information and National Drinking Guidelines on Consumers’ Ability to Estimate Alcohol Consumption

Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Aims
Despite the introduction of national drinking guidelines in Canada, there is limited public knowledge of them and low understanding of ‘standard drinks (SDs)’ which limits the likelihood of guidelines affecting drinking behaviour. This study tests the efficacy of alcohol labels with SD information and Canada's Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines (LRDGs) as compared to %ABV labels on consumers’ ability to estimate alcohol intake. It also examines the label size and format that best supports adults’ ability to make informed drinking choices.
Methods
This research consisted of a between-groups experiment (n = 2016) in which participants each viewed one of six labels. Using an online survey, participants viewed an alcohol label and were asked to estimate: (a) the amount in a SD; (b) the number of SDs in an alcohol container and (c) the number of SDs to consume to reach the recommended daily limit in Canada's LRDG.
Results
Results indicated that labels with SD and LRDG information facilitated more accurate estimates of alcohol consumption and awareness of safer drinking limits across different beverage types (12.6% to 58.9% increase in accuracy), and labels were strongly supported among the majority (66.2%) of participants.
Conclusion
Labels with SD and LRDG information constitute a more efficacious means of supporting accurate estimates of alcohol consumption than %ABV labels, and provide evidence to inform potential changes to alcohol labelling regulations. Further research testing labels in real-world settings is needed.
Short summary
Results indicate that the introduction of enhanced alcohol labels combining standard drink information and national drinking guidelines may be an effective way to improve drinkers’ ability to accurately assess alcohol consumption and monitor intake relative to guidelines. Overall support for enhanced labels suggests probable acceptability of introduction at a population level.