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anomalies  children  congenital anomalies  congenital  higher  hiv infected  hiv  malaria  parasitaemia  p     p   study   
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Preview: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - Advance Access

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Advance Access





Published: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 07:46:06 GMT

 



A Study of Malaria Parasite Density in HIV-1 Positive Under-fives in Benin City, Nigeria

2017-09-14

Abstract
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among under-fives in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection could affect development of antimalarial immunity by impaired parasite clearance with predisposition to higher malaria parasitaemia.Objective: The objective of this study is to assess asymptomatic malaria parasite density (AMPD) in HIV-1-infected under-fives in a holoendemic zone.Methods: HIV-1-positive and -negative children <5 years on follow-up care were recruited and AMPD and CD4 counts were determined. Results: A total of 358 children were studied. Significantly higher malaria parasitaemia was found in HIV-infected individuals (118.7 vs. 87.3 parasite/μl, p = 0.021). Disparity in AMPD was most pronounced at infancy with similar distribution at all age brackets and consistently higher parasitaemia in the subjects.Conclusion: Parasitaemia is higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children. The burden is highest at infancy. Acquisition of antimalarial immunity is similar in both groups. Parasitaemia is not significantly affected by clinical disease stage or worsening immunosuppression.



Pattern of Congenital Anomalies in Newborn: A 4-Year Surveillance of Newborns Delivered in a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in the South-East Nigeria

2017-09-13

Abstract
Congenital abnormalities are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children and significantly add to the burdens on healthcare in developing countries. Unfortunately, there remains a paucity of information on congenital birth defects in most developing countries. This is a 4-year prospective study that assessed the patterns and predictors of congenital anomalies among newborns at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. In total, 5830 deliveries were recorded, of which 38 had congenital anomalies, giving an incidence rate of 6.5/1000 live births. Fifty-two newborns were enrolled as nested controls. Factors significantly associated with congenital anomalies were low birth weight (p = 0.009), low socio-economic class (p = 0.011), lower maternal educational attainment (p = 0.009), parity of ≥ 5 (p = 0.002), febrile illness (p = 0.001) and the use of local concoction in index pregnancy (p = 0.009). More than half of the anomalies reported involved the musculoskeletal system. Occurrence of congenital anomalies may be prevented by curtailing risk factors identified in this study.