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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Advance Access





Published: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 05:46:42 GMT

 



Prevalence and Factors Associated with Diarrhoea among Children between 6 and 59 Months of Age in Mwanza City Tanzania

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Background
Childhood diarrhoea is a global public health problem especially in unplanned settlements of low- and middle-income countries. Different studies have associated household settlement and childhood diarrhoea, but the prevalence and risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea at the community level are not clearly known.
Method
A community-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with diarrhoea in among 480 children between 6 and 59 months of age in Mwanza city from June to August 2016. Risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea in Mwanza city were determined using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis.
Results
The study showed a prevalence of diarrhoea of 20.4% and an association between type of settlement and childhood diarrhoea (p < 0.001) in a chi-square analysis. During bivariate analysis, and logistic regression, after controlling for other factors, unplanned settlement was significantly associated with childhood diarrhoea (odds ratio=3.475, p < 0.001 and AOR=3.469, p < 0.001). Other factors associated with childhood diarrhoea were behaviour of mother washing hands before preparing food (AOR = 0, 193, p < 0.001), mother washing hands after changing child’s napkins (AOR = 0.544, p < 0.036) and the behaviour of the child washing hands after toilet (AOR = 0.447, p < 0.006).
Conclusion
Risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea in Mwanza city are unplanned settlement and behaviour of mother and child washing hands during critical time; hence, continuous community health promotion insisting on washing hands with soap and water during critically time is the best method for fighting childhood diarrhoea in Mwanza city.



The Prevalence and Management of Dehydration amongst Neonatal Admissions to General Paediatric Wards in Kenya—A Clinical Audit

Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
An audit of randomly selected case records of 810 patients admitted to 13 hospitals between December 2015 and November 2016 was done. Prevalence of dehydration was 19.7% (2293 of 11 636) [95% CI: 17.1–22.6%], range across hospitals was 9.4% to 27.0%. Most cases with dehydration were clinically diagnosed (82 of 153; 53.6%), followed by excessive weight loss (54 of 153; 35.3%) and abnormal urea/electrolytes/creatinine (23 of 153; 15.0%). Documentation of fluids prescribed was poor but, where data were available, Ringers lactate (30 of 153; 19.6%) and 10% dextrose (18 of 153; 11.8%) were mostly used. Only 17 of 153 (11.1%) children had bolus fluid prescription, and Ringer’s lactate was most commonly used for bolus at a median volume per kilogram body weight of 20 ml/kg (interquartile range, 12–30 ml/kg). Neonatal dehydration is common, but current documentation may underestimate the burden. Heterogeneity in practice likely reflects the absence of guidelines that in turn reflects a lack of research informing practical treatment guidelines.