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Preview: Refugee Survey Quarterly - current issue

Refugee Survey Quarterly Current Issue





Published: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Fri, 08 Dec 2017 14:55:27 GMT

 



Migration Control à la Khartoum: EU External Engagement and Human Rights Protection in the Horn of Africa

Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
This article examines the European Union–Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative (the Khartoum Process), which is primarily aimed at combating human trafficking and smuggling in the region. It probes this partnership model in the field of external migration control from a human rights and refugee law perspective. Instead of being based on a human rights approach, the Khartoum Process has relied on a managerial, project-based approach to the complex realities of mixed migration in the Horn of Africa. The article uses Sudan as a case study, due to its critical role in the Khartoum Process. It identifies systemic weaknesses in Sudan’s law and practice, which cast serious doubts on Sudan’s ability to combat trafficking and smuggling in conformity with international standards, and its reliability as a partner in “migration management”. It also shows how the Khartoum Process risks undermining the coherence of the European Union’s external policy, particularly in respect of human rights protection in the region. These findings corroborate critiques of, and accentuate concerns about flawed partnership models and externalisation policies driven by imperatives of migration control. The article concludes by sketching out an alternative approach based on attention to context, process, and respect for human rights.



Refugee Policy in Brazil (1995–2010): Achievements and Challenges

Thu, 05 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Refugee policy in Brazil constitutes an underexplored case study in the field of forced migration, given that researchers often focus on developed and developing countries that receive large refugee flows. Brazil has been investing more in this policy, since the country has been hosting a growing number of refugees and has been considered an emerging resettlement country in the developing world. Not only governmental agencies take part in refugee policy in Brazil, but also civil society institutions and international organizations such as Caritas and the United Nations High Commissioner for the Refugees. This article aims to discuss the refugee policy adopted in Brazil especially during Cardoso (1995–2002) and Lula da Silva (2003–2010) Governments. The Brazilian refugee policy was analysed based on: internal and external factors; the relations between State and non-State actors; the rules of entry and the living conditions provided to the refugees in the country. The article argues that Brazil’s refugee policy has focused on admission policy, not shedding light on integration policy and not providing satisfactory living conditions to the refugees hosted in the country. Thus the Brazilian refugee policy can be characterized as a regulation policy, not accompanied by a properly structured immigrant policy in the country.



A Social Survey on Refugees in and Around Vienna in Fall 2015: Methodological Approach and Field Observations

Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
In late 2015, a survey called Displaced Persons in Austria Survey was carried out in and around Vienna to study the socio-demographic characteristics, values and attitudes of refugees arriving in Austria in 2015. In that year, the number of persons seeking refuge in Europe was substantially high, with Austria being the fourth largest receiving country of asylum-seekers in Europe. This data collection is the first of its kind in Austria and to our knowledge the first in Europe focusing on the recent arrivals of Syrian, Iraqi, and Afghan refugees. First results on human capital and attitudes of respondents have been published recently. This article presents the methodological approach of collecting these data, experiences from survey preparation, and insights from the field phase. Findings address four key challenges faced by surveys of the highly mobile and vulnerable group of asylum-seekers, namely (1) representativity, (2) language barriers, (3) ethical considerations, and (4) cultural diversity. We discuss concrete solutions and recommendations for similar (inter)national, cross-cultural surveys, and provide insights for planning longitudinal studies on displaced persons who recently arrived in Europe.



Political Refugees from El Salvador: Gang Politics, the State, and Asylum Claims

Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Social conditions driving refugees from El Salvador to seek asylum in the US have changed dramatically since the summer of 2015. After more than a decade of inter-gang warfare and criminal violence, the maras in El Salvador have become political actors. They have declared the formation of a new supra-organization, Mara-503, and announced that they intend to shape the political process in El Salvador and potentially the entire Central American region. As a result, people fleeing violence in El Salvador should be considered political refugees as defined by US immigration courts and United Nations charters. This essay is based on research conducted in El Salvador, and as an expert witness in cases for refugees from El Salvador. It outlines the emergence of a “Third Generation” of gang organizations, the threats to social order in El Salvador, and the approach immigration lawyers should pursue in refugee cases.



“We are Like Animals”: Negotiating Dehumanising Experiences of Asylum-Seeker Policies in the Australian Community

Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Industrialised countries have applied increasingly restrictive measures to deter people from seeking asylum. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 29 people seeking asylum living in the Australian community who arrived in Australia by boat, this article explores how restrictive policies, including delays in processing refugee claims and the denial of the right to work and access to basic standards of living, are experienced as fundamentally dehumanising. It also explores how interviewees negotiated this in ways that reasserted their humanity. Thematically, many of the responses mapped onto Haslam’s “animalising” conceptualisations of dehumanisation in relation to being subject to restrictive policies. Despite the conditions in the community being described as dehumanising, many interviewees were also working hard to find action-orientated activities that were affordable in order to regain a sense of control and independence over their daily lives, such as accessing education and building social connections with others. A number of interviewees also appealed to human rights via speech when describing dehumanising treatments, in effect realigning themselves as humans deserving of rights. Implications for understandings of dehumanisation and for Australia’s asylum-seeker policies are discussed.