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Preview: Lipid - Fett

European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Wiley Online Library : European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Published: 2017-11-01T00:00:00-05:00

 



Content of Erucic Acid in Edible Oils and Mustard by Quantitative 13C NMR

2017-11-24T04:20:22.753771-05:00

High content of erucic acid in foods and edible oils is a major concern. The excessive consumption of erucic acid has been linked to heart diseases. Therefore, accurate, rapid and direct analysis of the erucic acid content is particularly crucial. However, most of the analytical methods involve time-consuming sample preparation and chromatography analyses. As a result, quantitative 13C NMR was developed and the total content of erucic acid in a wide variety of edible oils and mustard products were analysed within 58 minutes. Meanwhile, the positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols and mustard products could be done effortlessly. An additional peak, namely, erucic acid peak was detected at 173.19 ppm has not been reported previously. Apart from that, the detection limit of erucic acid (0.98% (m/m)) and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9977) both were investigated by the current method. The total content of erucic acid showed an excellent quantitative relation between reference method (gas chromatography) and quantitative 13C NMR. In this study, mustard oil and few mustard products exceeded the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (European Union: 5%, United State: 2%). Practical Applications: Erucic acid in mustard products and edible oils were determined. The excessive consumption of erucic acid can cause some healthy problems. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the tolerable intake of erucic acid. The results of this study can be applied to monitor and quantify the erucic acid content quickly in a wide variety of edible oils and mustard products without any laborious chemical derivatisation prior to the analysis.



HPLC-DAD, ESI - MS/MS and NMR of Lycopene isolated from P. guajava L. and its Biotechnological applications

2017-11-18T06:55:20.662971-05:00

Psidium guajava L. has been reported to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Its carotenoids have been highlighted by their high antioxidant capacity, which offers several benefits for human health. In this sense, lycopene isomers need to be identified. In this work, the comprehensive chemical characterization, by HPLC-DAD, MS/MS and NMR, of lycopene isolated from P. guajava L., antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lycopene extracts and isolated lycopene were evaluated. The FTIR results reported a structure with Z configuration, confirmed by UV-Vis, with λmax = 448, 473 and 505 nm for 5-Z lycopene. Furthermore, MS/MS positive ionization showed one fragment m/z 309 [M – 227]+, relatively abundant for isolated lycopene. Experimental and Theoretical NMR studies revealed that guava may contain 5-Z lycopene because of the similarity found among the peaks. Lycopene extracts presented higher antioxidant activity than isolated lycopene, from both P. guajava L. and tomato, when measured by ABTS and ORAC (r2 = 0.9995 and r2 = 0.9992, respectively). In addition, lycopene extract showed antibacterial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus and L. innocua, presenting MBC values of 20 mg.mL−1. These results suggest that lycopene extract has potential applicability for food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Practical Applications: Lycopene from P. guajava L. was characterized by HPLC-DAD, MS, NMR, FTIR and X-Ray, presented antioxidant capacity by ORAC and antibacterial efficacy against food pathogens.



Influence of polymorphism on the solid fat content determined by FID deconvolution

2017-11-17T09:40:43.850739-05:00

One of the most important quality parameters of a fat, is its solid fat content (SFC). The standard method to determine the SFC is pNMR using a f-factor. This factor is determined with three standards. However, this contribution shows that SFC standards are not required when using deconvolution methods. At first, data acquisition was optimized. These experiments revealed that the deconvolution method worked better, if more sample was present in the detection zone of the NMR, due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Regarding deconvolution, a bi-Gaussian model and a model combining a Gaussian and Abragamian function were compared. Both models were able to fit the free induction decay (FID) data. Furthermore, the corresponding SFC values were comparable with the SFC values of the f-factor method when analyzing SFC standards or fats which were preprocessed using the AOCS tempering protocol. Upon evaluating the influence of the polymorphic states of cocoa butter, it became clear that the f-factor standards resemble fats containing β-polymorphs. As a further consequence, the f-factor method fails when α-polymorphs are present to a large extent. Overall this study shows that the deconvolution method is superior to the f-factor method since it does not require any standards and is less affected by the polymorphic state. Practical Applications: This work shows that the solid fat content (SFC) of a fat can be calculated without the use of calibration standards. If deconvolution would replace the standard used pNMR method, it could potentially reduce the preparation time for the measurements, because no calibration is necessary. Next to this, it also lowers the cost of SFC determination, because no standards should be bought. Deconvolution also gives insight in the behaviour of the different components present in the sample, for example T2-values. There above, research towards deconvolution of pNMR signals is necessary as it could potentially also determine the presence of different fat crystal polymorphs present in samples.



Lipids in eating and appetite regulation- a neuro-cognitive perspective

2017-11-08T07:35:36.45081-05:00

Foods high in dietary fat provide a particularly energy-rich source of nutrition. A preferred food choice in humans, their intake is thought to contribute substantially to the current obesity epidemic. Fat has recently been proposed to constitute a basic taste; yet, its diverse sensory properties in the olfactory and somatosensory domain, as well as its postingestive effects have made the exact attributes that make its consumption so appealing difficult to disentangle. Recent scientific advances have shed light on the different molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory detection of fat in the periphery, and described their relevance for perceptual experience and eating behavior. However, these different analysis levels are to date poorly integrated, both within each sensory modality, and from a multisensory perspective. The current review aims to integrate current knowledge concerning the molecular mechanisms of the different sensory modalities contributing to fat perception, as well as their cortical neuroanatomical correlates and their behavioral and clinical relevance for fat intake. In doing so, we would like to highlight the evidence for cortical integration among the different sensory domains as a driving mechanism for the emotional evaluation of fatty foods, and point out gaps in the current literature, which should be addressed to complete the picture of fat perception from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.



Anti-apoptotic effect of N-palmitoyl serotonin on glutamate-mediated apoptosis through secretion of BDNF and activation of TrkB/CREB pathway in HT-22 cells

2017-11-08T07:35:34.565078-05:00

Recently, N-acyl serotonins have been reported to exert neuroprotective actions against oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant enzymes. However, the mechanisms for the neuroprotective action of N-acyl serotonins are still not clarified. In this study, we focused on the suppressive effect of N-palmitoyl serotonin on glutamate-induced apoptosis in HT-22 cells, and then examined the molecular mechanism for anti-apoptotic action of N-palmitoyl serotonin. For this purpose, we performed flow cytometry, immunoblotting analysis and antibody-mediated neutralization. When HT-22 cells were preincubated with N-palmitoyl serotonin prior to glutamate treatment, N-palmitoyl serotonin dose-dependently reduced apoptotic bodies, and recovered mitochondrial potential in glutamate-treated HT-22 cells. Further, N-palmitoyl serotonin concentration-dependently increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic factor, whereas it reduced the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein, apoptosis-inducing factor, Ca2+-dependent non-lysosomal cysteine protease, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3. Meanwhile, N-palmitoyl serotonin enhanced phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptors (TrkB) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Separately, the inclusion of anti-BDNF antibody neutralized the neuroprotective action of N-palmitoyl serotonin against glutamate-induced cell death. In addition, K252a, a TrkB inhibitor, also reversed neuroprotective effect of N-palmitoyl serotonin, suggesting that the action of N-palmitoyl serotonin may be expressed through the formation of BDNF. Based on these results, it is proposed that N-palmitoyl serotonin promotes formation and secretion of BDNF, and then protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through activation of TrkB/CREB pathway. Practical applications: The results may provide further information for the application of N-acyl serotonins as a therapeutic or preventive agent for neurodegenerative diseases.



Validation of a Simple Extraction Method for Oil Bodies Isolated from Peanuts

2017-11-08T07:35:32.18642-05:00

Peanut preserves lipids in the form of oil bodies (OBs) which have great potential to be used in the food industries. In this study, a simple aqueous extraction method was used to extract peanut OBs and its effect on the properties and the stability of the resulted emulsions was evaluated. The above-mentioned method involves, successive mechanical steps in order to release OBs from their cell networks, followed by purification using different recovery pHs and washing. Results showed that crude OBs had a high amount of extrinsic proteins and low physical stability. Washing OBs twice with the increase in recovery pH decreased the extrinsic proteins, the lipid oxidation and improved the storage stability. The physical and the oxidative stability of all OBs emulsions was significantly enhanced by heating. These results suggest that peanut OBs extracted using this aqueous extraction method, can be used to prepare natural emulsions with improved long-term stability. Practical applications: Peanut oil is widely used in food industries in the form of emulsified oil. OBs can be represented as a better alternative solution of stable emulsified oil with a high content of antioxidant and phytosterols. Our results showed that peanut OBs can be isolated and purified by a simple aqueous extraction method. Therefore, the OBs emulsion resultant from this extraction under specific conditions (pH recovery 8.0 and washing twice with the same pH) is physically and chemically stable. Heat treatment such as pasteurization and sterilization which are essential processing steps in food industries can enhance the OBs emulsion properties by giving the emulsion better physical stability, lipid oxidation, and shelf life.



Degradation of Fat by a Bioaugmentation Product Comprising of Bacillus spp. Before and After the Addition of a Pseudomonas sp

2017-11-24T02:31:32.766818-05:00

A bioaugmentation product, BFL, comprising strains of the genus Bacillus, is evaluated for its ability to degrade fat in laboratory-scale experiments. Addition of a Pseudomonas putida strain CP1 to the commercial mixed population (BFL-CP1) is tested for optimization of fat degradation. Experiments are carried out in aerobic batch culture, at 30 °C and 150 rpm for 13 days incubation. A minimal medium (MM) and an enriched nutrient medium (ENM) are investigated supplemented with 1% (w/v) butter. Fat removal is determined gravimetrically and the lipid content is analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC). No degradation of butter by the product is recorded after 13 days of incubation, while up to 97% degradation is observed by BFL-CP1. All the Bacillus isolates produced lipase but not the Pseudomonas putida. TLC and GC results suggested that while the Bacillus spp. hydrolyzed the fat to fatty acids and glycerol, complete metabolism of the breakdown products only took place in the presence of the Pseudomonad sp. A citrate buffer is used to investigate fat removal by BFL-CP1in low and stable pH using citrated minimal buffer. Similar fat removal is observed. The use of citrated minimal buffer caused flocculation of the mixed culture, a phenomenon desirable for fats, oils, and grease (FOGs) degradation in grease traps. Practical Applications: The bioaugmentation product, BFL, comprising strains of the genus Bacillus, only promoted high fat removal in a few days incubation after the addition of a Pseudomonas putida strain CP1. Analysis of the remaining fat suggested a cooperative activity between the Bacillus spp., which hydrolyzed the fat to fatty acids and glycerol, and the Pseudomonas putida CP1, which assimilated the released fatty acids. Formation of flocs were observed when the inoculum was tested under different environmental conditions with low pH. This phenomenon is desirable and along with the high degradative ability of the that new inoculum, it showed good potential for use in the treatment of FOG in grease traps. Fats, oils, and greases (FOGs) are generated in high amounts from food facilities presenting potential blockages and wastewater management problems. FOG may be intercepted at source using grease traps and may be treated biologically in situ using bioaugmentation, an environmentally desirable approach that involves the introduction of suitable microorganisms. In this study, combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria successfully cooperated and degraded the FOG breaking down the lipids to fatty acids and glycerol by the activity of lipases, and also assimilating the produced fatty acids to carbon dioxide and water through the β-oxidation process. Fats, oils, and greases (FOGs) are generated in high amounts from food facilities presenting potential blockages and wastewater management problems. FOG may be intercepted at source using grease traps and may be treated biologically in situ using bioaugmentation, an environmentally desirable approach that involves the introduction of suitable microorganisms. In this study, combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria successfully cooperated and degraded the FOG breaking down the lipids to fatty acids and glycerol by the activity of lipases, and also assimilating the produced fatty acids to carbon dioxide and water through the β-oxidation process.



Estimation of the Volume of Blood in a Small Disc Punched From a Dried Blood Spot Card

2017-11-23T09:28:29.107196-05:00

A specialized dried blood spot (DBS) collection system (PUFAcoat™) in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has enabled the measurement of numerous analytes in minimal volumes of blood. The current study aimed to determine the volume of blood in 3 and 6 mm discs obtained from our DBS system. The volume of blood in 3 and 6 mm discs obtained from DBS cards is estimated using four different methods: (i) gravimetric analysis; (ii) LC-MS/MS; (iii) a hemoglobin colorimetric assay; and (iv) GC. Differences in the estimated volume are compared between methods, and variations in estimated blood volume within and between individuals are determined. The average volume of blood in a DBS disc is calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.4 μL and 8.7 ± 1.9 μL for 3 and 6 mm discs, respectively. This estimate is similar between direct and indirect analytical methods and between DBS samples with different starting volumes independent of the method, but there is considerable variation in the volume of blood in comparably-sized DBS discs from different individuals. Current methods enable the estimation of the blood volume in a small disc obtained from a DBS but a method that can both accurately measure volume and store blood on a DBS is required. Practical Applications: This study demonstrates that it is possible to evaluate the volume of blood contained in a small disc punched from a dried blood spot (DBS) card using a range of different methods, but there is considerable variation in the estimate of volume in samples collected from different individuals. These variations could potentially result in overestimation or underestimation of endogenous levels of various metabolites if presuming a fixed volume, which may be clinically significant. Although there are several ways to correct for blood volume contained on a DBS, the practicality and the universality of these methods are questionable. Ideally, the development of a tool to better determine the volume of blood and/or to precisely spot a volume of blood is required to ensure accuracy when expressing the results of DBS analyses per unit of blood. The volume of blood in a 3 or 6 mm disc obtained from a DBS needs to be known to accurately quantify endogenous levels of metabolites per unit of blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The volume of blood in a 3 or 6 mm disc obtained from a DBS needs to be known to accurately quantify endogenous levels of metabolites per unit of blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.



Epoxidation of Methyl Oleate and Subsequent Ring-Opening Catalyzed by Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125

2017-11-22T04:00:28.866746-05:00

A green method for chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of methyl oleate is developed, resulted in epoxidized methyl oleate. Subsequently, excessive hydrogen peroxide and extended reaction time led to polyols through ring-opening reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99–125. The corresponding reaction conditions are systematically investigated. High epoxy number is obtained at 70 °C for 5 h when 1.5 wt% immobilized lipase and 1.5 equivalent of hydrogen peroxide are used. Interestingly, no hydrolysis reaction of epoxidized methyl oleate is observed. Moreover, epoxidized methyl oleate generated shows good plasticizing effect on PVC resin. On the basis of epoxidation reaction, more hydrogen peroxide and extended reaction time are employed in the ring-opening reaction, resulting in more polyols. Polyurethane rigid foams with good thermal conductivity, dimensional stability, and compress strength can be successfully prepared through the use of polyols acquired by ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil. In addition, the enzyme shows good reusability toward epoxidation and ring-opening reaction. Practical Applications: The epoxides can be widely used as stabilizers for plasticizers, ingredients of lubricants, and the intermediates for surfactants. The bio-based polyols are the potential alternative petrochemicals in polyurethane industry. Furthermore, successful achievement of this study can provide a powerful technical support for the application of enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. A green and economically attractive chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of methyl oleate and subsequent ring-opening of epoxy oleic acid alkyl esters are successfully conducted using commercially available lipase from Candida sp. 99–125.The epoxy product and polyols were successfully applied in PVC resin and PU foams.



The Study of Ultrasound-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Oil From Peanut Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology

2017-11-20T03:06:25.769738-05:00

The present study evaluates the suitability of ultrasound pretreatment in n-hexane solvent as well as enzymatic treatment with cellulase enzyme to extract oil from peanut seed powders. To optimize this process, the effects of ultrasonic time (0–70 min), cellulase enzyme concentration (0–2%) and pH (4–5.5) are investigated on peanut oil extraction yield (EY) as well as the quality attributes of the extracted oil containing total phenolic content (TPC), peroxide value (PV), and color parameters of L, a, and b using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction using n-hexane solvent (UAEE) is found as ultrasonic pretreatment time of 33.23 min, cellulase concentration of 1.47%, and pH of 4.61 before incubation process at temperature of 56 °C for 120 min. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) represented considerable interspaces, holes, and porous structure of peanut meal after optimal UAEE treatment compared to that after shaking incubation extraction using n-hexane solvent (SIE). It is found that the peanut oil extracted by optimal UAEE treatment had considerable high levels of L color parameter and TPC and significantly more EY and b color parameters than those extracted by SIE, ultrasound-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (UAAEE), and aqueous shaking incubation extraction (ASIE) treatments. Practical Applications: This paper describes an innovative oil extraction method of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic process using n-hexane solvent. This new extraction technique makes it possible to increase the extraction yield, total phenolic content, and yellowness of extracted peanut oil. The results illustrated that ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction using n-hexane solvent method was a far more efficient extracting technique than the individual shaking incubation extraction using n-hexane solvent, ultrasound- assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction and aqueous shaking incubation extraction treatments and would be a promising alternative for conventional oil extraction techniques. Comparison of two treatments of optimal ultrasound-enzymatic extraction and individual shaking incubation extraction of oil from peanut seed powders. Comparison of two treatments of optimal ultrasound-enzymatic extraction and individual shaking incubation extraction of oil from peanut seed powders.



Using Short-Wave Infrared Radiation to Improve Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Peanut Oil: Evaluation of Peanut Cotyledon Microstructure and Oil Quality

2017-11-20T03:01:17.483009-05:00

In this study, the effects of short-wave infrared radiation (SIR) on enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) of peanut oil (PO) are investigated, including peanuts cotyledon cells mircrostructure and yield as well as quality of extracted PO. GC-flash electronic nose (EN) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) is applied to select conditions for SIR process. The appropriate roasting condition based on the overall flavor is determined as 150 °C for 55 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to investigate the effects of SIR on cotyledon microstructure. The results demonstrated that SIR damaged the cell microstructure and oil body membrane, and the extraction of oil is facilitated. Accordingly, the oil yield increased significantly by 8.74% compared to that of the control (p < 0.05). Further analysis on the quality properties of PO revealed that the content of polyphenols of oil extracted from SIR roasted peanuts (2.79 ± 0.05 mg GAE kg−1) is 62.21% higher than that from the control. It is in consistent with the significantly enhanced oxidation stability of oil in the present study (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the variety and relative content of volatile compounds which contributed to a better overall flavor are greatly increased. Practical Applications: SIR as a mild and efficient roasting method could enhance the oil extraction yield in EAEP and improve the oxidation stability of the extracted oil. With the appropriate pre-roasting of peanuts by SIR, the overall flavor of EAEP extracted peanut oil was improved. Its volatiles pattern was close to that of the commercial hot-pressed PO. It was confirmed that SIR is a novel choice for roasting processing, as well as a potential and available pre-roasting method of peanuts to improve the EAEP technology. In order to improve the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) of peanut oil, short-wave infrared radiation (SIR) to roast peanuts before the extraction process is used. SEM and TEM are employed to evaluate the roasting effects on cotyledon microstructure. Some chemical properties, the content of antioxidant compounds, and the flavor of extracted oil are assessed to show the effects on oil quality. The oil yield is also evaluated to explain the roasting effects together with the changes of the microstructure. In order to improve the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) of peanut oil, short-wave infrared radiation (SIR) to roast peanuts before the extraction process is used. SEM and TEM are employed to evaluate the roasting effects on cotyledon microstructure. Some chemical properties, the content of antioxidant compounds, and the flavor of extracted oil are assessed to show the effects on oil quality. The oil yield is also evaluated to explain the roasting effects together with the changes of the microstructure.



Modulating the Lipase-Mediated Bioactivity of Particle-Lipid Conjugates Through Changes in Nanostructure and Surface Chemistry

2017-11-17T11:15:55.710856-05:00

The lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides can be controlled by confining lipid droplets within highly porous nanostructured particle matrices. Novel hybrid materials with varying bioactivities toward lipase have been developed by spray drying particle-stabilized emulsions to form highly organized three-dimensional architectures. In this study, the particle size, nanostructure, and surface chemistry of hybrid particles are tailored to systematically investigate the influence of material characteristics on lipase activity. This is achieved by varying (i) the spray drying process and (ii) the structure and composition of particulate colloids employed to stabilize the precursor emulsions. In all cases, the colloidal self-assembly of particles and droplets into nanostructured conjugates during the water removal process facilitated enhanced lipase activity compared to submicron triglyceride emulsions, with lipolysis kinetics increasing in the following order: polymer-lipid hybrid (PLH) < silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) ≤ clay-lipid hybrid (CLH). Lipase activity increased as a function of increasing interfacial surface area of the lipid substrate and increasing hydrophilicity of the solid matrix support. The novel insights into the role of hybrid particle nanostructure and surface chemistry on the mechanism of lipase action can be harnessed for the intelligent design of new and improved lipid-based drug delivery vehicles and functional foods. Practical Applications: Understanding and controlling the interaction between triglyceride molecules and pancreatic lipase is of fundamental importance for the rational design of new functional foods and drug formulations. Lipid digestion in the body facilitates the delivery of fat and encapsulated bioactive compounds from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the blood and surrounding tissues. Hence, the bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds can be controlled by engineering lipid-based systems that regulate lipase activity. In this study, three novel solid-state systems have been designed that finely control the catalytic activity of lipase, and therefore, demonstrate high commercial potential within the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides is controlled by designing novel solid-state particle-lipid conjugates with unique nanostructures and surface chemistries. The hybrid materials are prepared by spray-drying particle-stabilized lipid droplets, which induced the forced agglomeration of particles and droplets into micron-sized particles with distinctive three-dimensional architectures. The ability to modulate lipase activity through material design presented novel insights into the mechanism of digestive enzyme action, which is of fundamental importance for the rational design of new functional foods and drug formulations. The lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides is controlled by designing novel solid-state particle-lipid conjugates with unique nanostructures and surface chemistries. The hybrid materials are prepared by spray-drying particle-stabilized lipid droplets, which induced the forced agglomeration of particles and droplets into micron-sized particles with distinctive three-dimensional architectures. The ability to modulate lipase activity through material design presented novel insights into the mechanism of digestive enzyme action, which is of fundamental importance for the rational design of new functional foods and drug formulations.



South African Cactus Pear Seed Oil: A Comprehensive Study on 42 Spineless Burbank Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia robusta Cultivars

2017-11-17T11:15:49.808577-05:00

Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar. Seed oil content varied among cultivars and seasons and the yield ranged between 4.09 and 8.76% of seed mass. The unsaturated fatty acids are the most prominent and were dominated by linoleic acid, which varied between 56.86 and 65.21%, followed by oleic acid (16.44 and 22.51%), while the saturated fatty acids palmitic and stearic acid content ranged from 12.72 to 16.05% and from 2.21 to 3.39%, respectively. Cultivar and variation in rainfall have a statistically significant effect on cactus pear seed oil content and fatty acid composition. Principal Component Analysis show that certain cultivars are exclusively associated with specific characteristics. This is the most comprehensive study of the seed oil characteristics of the available cultivars in South Africa ever to be performed. The American Giant cultivar have the highest seed oil yield. Practical Applications: In a semi-arid country such as South Africa, the value of by-products and waste products from a drought resistant plant such as cactus pear should be emphasized. Cactus pear seed oil is a novel and expensive essential oil. The emergence of many small-holding farms and small-scale processing facilities necessitated a comprehensive investigation into the oil composition of all the available cactus pear cultivars. Essential knowledge regarding cultivar choice in terms of oil-production and specific fatty acid composition, as well as seasonal effects thereon, is generated with this research. This research indicats that the American Giant (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivar have the highest oil yield wheras the Roly Poly cultivar have the highest linoleic acid content. This data will enable processors to make recommendations to producers to use cultivars with optimum yield and oil quality as production target. Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar. Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar.



Nanoemulsions From Unsaturated Fatty Acids Concentrates of Carp Oil Using Chitosan, Gelatin, and Their Blends as Wall Materials

2017-11-16T09:48:59.965263-05:00

This work aimed to study the development of food–grade nanoemulsions containing unsaturated fatty acids concentrates from carp oil, using chitosan, and gelatin as wall materials. The effects of chitosan:gelatin ratio, polymer concentration and homogenization time on the nanoemulsions characteristics were evaluated. Phase separation occurred when the chitosan:gelatin ratio was higher than 50:50. Nanoemulsions using proportion of chitosan over than 70% remained visually stable, with no phase separation, for more of 7 days. The highest homogenization time (20 min) and the lowest biopolymers concentration (1% w/v) resulted in smaller particle sizes for the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, and 70:30 (respectively, 292.0, 52.3, and 34.8 nm). The zeta potential increased with the amount of chitosan (from 26.5 to 31.0 mV), while pH and refractive index were not affected by the biopolymers ratio. After 7 days of storage, the nanoemulsion with 90:10 of chitosan:gelatin ratio was in the acceptable range of the legislation, showing peroxide value of 4.8 meq kg−1, p–Anisidine value of 9.8 meq kg−1, and ToTox value of 19.4 meq kg−1. Chitosan and gelatin provided high stability to the emulsions and also behaved as good wall materials, demonstrating the importance of studying its combination to form food–grade nanoemulsions. Practical Applications: Carp viscera are by–products of the fishery industry, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which are associated to human health benefits. However, its low solubility in water and oxidative instability difficult the foods enrichment with these unsaturated fatty acids. Nanoemulsions delivery systems can be used to protect and increase its solubility. Edible biopolymers, such as chitosan and gelatin, can increase the physical and oxidative stability of these lipids in food systems through the formation of nanoemulsions, to facilitate the addition these lipophilic active ingredients in aqueous–based foods or beverages. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) of fish oil, especially omega-3 series, are associated with several health benefits. In this work are prepared food–grade nanoemulsions containing UFA concentrates of carp oil, rich in omega-3, using different proportions of the biopolymers chitosan and gelatin as wall materials. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) of fish oil, especially omega-3 series, are associated with several health benefits. In this work are prepared food–grade nanoemulsions containing UFA concentrates of carp oil, rich in omega-3, using different proportions of the biopolymers chitosan and gelatin as wall materials.



Enhanced Lycopene Extraction from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) by the Z-Isomerization Induced with Microwave Irradiation Pre-Treatment

2017-11-16T09:48:49.815475-05:00

This study aims to improve the efficiency of lycopene extraction from gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) by the Z-isomerization induced with microwave irradiation pre-treatment. Although 93.6% of lycopene exist as all-E-isomers in dried gac aril, the total Z-isomer content reaches 35.6 and 58.5% by microwave irradiation at 900 W for 40 s and at 1050 W for 60 s, respectively. The 35.6 and 58.5% Z-isomerization treatment improves lycopene content of extract (by 6.0 or 8.5 times for press extraction, 7.8 or 13.5 times for ethanol extraction, and 4.5 or 6.1 times for supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2)extraction, respectively) compared with no treatment. In addition, the extracts containes high amounts of lycopene Z-isomers, which have higher bioavailability and antioxidant capacity than (all-E)-lycopene. Practical Applications: This study clearly shows that lycopene recovery by press, organic solvent, and SC-CO2 extraction from dried gac aril improved by the increase in the Z-isomer content. It indicates that the Z-isomers are more soluble in oil, organic solvent, and SC-CO2 than the all-E-isomer. Moreover, the thermal Z-isomerization pre-treatment increases the content of lycopene Z-isomers in the extract. Therefore, this procedure is important not only for improving the productivity of lycopene, but also for providing a highly functionalized extract. The effect of the Z-isomerization, induced by microwave irradiation pre-treatment of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) aril, on the lycopene recovery and lycopene content of the extracts obtained using press, ethanol, and SC-CO2 extractions is investigated. For all extraction methods, as the content of Z-isomers in the raw material increases, the recovery and lycopene content of gac extracts improve. The effect of the Z-isomerization, induced by microwave irradiation pre-treatment of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) aril, on the lycopene recovery and lycopene content of the extracts obtained using press, ethanol, and SC-CO2 extractions is investigated. For all extraction methods, as the content of Z-isomers in the raw material increases, the recovery and lycopene content of gac extracts improve.



Degradation of Edible Oil During Deep-Frying Process by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy and Physicochemical Appreciation

2017-11-15T12:27:24.97058-05:00

During frying process of edible oil, lipid oxidation occurs, which is a complex process and involves free radical chain reactions. The impacts of oil with different fatty acid composition on free radicals were evaluated. An ESR study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile. Results showed an increase of formed free radicals in frying oils over frying time. Besides, frying oils with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids were more prone to be oxidized, as well as physicochemical parameters evidencing this phenomenon. Volatile compounds produced by β-scission homolytic cleavage of peroxide group during thermal oxidation in frying oils were detected by GC-MS/MS. Results implied major aldehyde volatile compounds were derived from hydroperoxide and oil with higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are more likely to produce volatile oxidation products. In order to compare the degree of lipid oxidation in deep-fried sunflower oil (high degree of unsaturation) and palm oil (high degree of saturation), the formed free radicals based on ESR, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile to improve comprehensive assessment of degradation in oil with different fatty acid composition are investigated. In order to compare the degree of lipid oxidation in deep-fried sunflower oil (high degree of unsaturation) and palm oil (high degree of saturation), the formed free radicals based on ESR, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile to improve comprehensive assessment of degradation in oil with different fatty acid composition are investigated.



Silkworm (Bombyx mori) has the Capability to Accumulate C20 and C22 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

2017-11-15T12:27:15.684285-05:00

Bombyx mori, an insect with significant economic importance in China contains a large amount of lipids among different developmental stages, especially the pupal stage. Silkworms are fed with a base diet and fish oil supplemented diet, and the fatty acid (FA) compositions of different strains, life stages, and sexes are determined by GC-MS. No C20 or C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are detected in silkworms fed with the base diet. Females accumulates more unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) than males in the pupal stage, and the relative amount of USFAs decreases from the wandering stage to the moth stage, especially in females, suggesting that silkworms prefer the utilization of USFAs. In addition, when silkworms are fed with a diet supplemented with fish oil, which contained C20 and C22 PUFAs, they accumulates C20 and C22 PUFAs in proportion to the concentration of fish oil added to the diet. Practical Applications: Currently, the main dietary source of C20 and C22 PUFAs is marine fish, however, of which the stocks are declining because of environmental pollution and overfishing. Because of its excellent capability to accumulate C20 and C22 PUFAs, silkworm could be developed as a potential new source of these long-chain FAs by transferring ?5 and ?6 desaturases to silkworm or its primary food, mulberry. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) can accumulate C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from diet supplemented with these PUFAs (B). The accumulation efficiency of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in silkworm is particularly outstanding. This capacity may make silkworm a potential new source of C20 and C22 PUFAs. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) can accumulate C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from diet supplemented with these PUFAs (B). The accumulation efficiency of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in silkworm is particularly outstanding. This capacity may make silkworm a potential new source of C20 and C22 PUFAs.



Fruit Pits Recovered from 14 Genotypes of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

2017-11-15T12:10:42.565593-05:00

Kernels recovered from fruit pits of 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes are tested for future application as feedstock for biodiesel production. The difference between the lowest and the highest oil yield between studied samples is over twofold and reached between 27.1 and 58.7% (w/w) dw. The oleic and linoleic acids are the two dominant fatty acids in apricot kernel oils; however, their content is affected meaningfully by the variety and amounted to 38.5–67.2 and 26.4–54.8%, respectively. Two significant correlations (p [...]



Impact of Added Phytosteryl/Phytostanyl Fatty Acid Esters on Chemical Parameters of Margarines upon Heating and Pan-Frying

2017-11-14T12:55:20.969786-05:00

The effect of the thermal treatment on chemical parameters of margarines enriched with phytosteryl fatty acid esters is evaluated. Sterols, fatty acids, polar and volatile compounds, dimers, trimers, tocopherols, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters are analyzed applying GPC-RI, GC-FID, GC-MS, and HPLC. Additionally, a Rancimat test is performed to compare the oxidative stability of margarines. This study shows that margarines with and without added phytosteryl esters are both stable at a mild temperature of 60 °C over a period of at least 7 days. On the other side after 15 min of pan-frying at 180 °C a degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (14–47%), phytosterols (31–49%), and vitamin-E-active compounds (71–100%) is found. The supplementation of margarines with phytosteryl fatty acid esters have no effect on their oxidative stability during pan-frying characterized by Rancimat test and total polar compounds. Volatile, degradation products of fatty acids as well as phytosterols, are found after pan-frying. The composition of volatiles after pan-frying significantly differed depends on the presence of additional PSE in margarines. For the first time, it is shown that pan-frying with margarines over a period of 15 min results in a remarkable formation of 3-MCPD esters while the increase of glycidyl esters is only very moderate. Practical Application: Based on this study results additional phytosteryl esters do not have antioxidative properties on margarines upon pan-frying. What is more, they are not stable during pan-frying at 180 °C. A significant amount of nutritionals as phytosterols, vitamin E active compounds, unsaturated fatty acids are degraded within 15 min and other undesired compounds as dimers, trimers, 3-MCPD esters are formed. According to the research, heating at a high temperature over longer time should not be applied to this kind of product to avoid oxidation of valuable constituents and formation of degradation products. Volatile compounds which were found are characteristic for fatty acids and phytosterols degradation and can be used as indicators of margarines oxidation. The research presents chemical changes in margarines with and without additional phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid esters. In the graphical abstract compounds which naturally occur in those margarines are presented and compounds which are formed after thermo-oxidative degradation during pan-frying. The research presents chemical changes in margarines with and without additional phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid esters. In the graphical abstract compounds which naturally occur in those margarines are presented and compounds which are formed after thermo-oxidative degradation during pan-frying.



Scd1 Contributes to Lipid Droplets Formation in GMEC via Transcriptional Regulation of Tip47 and Adrp

2017-11-14T04:21:55.569026-05:00

Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) plays a pivotal role in the synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids (FA). However, whether Scd1 contributes to lipid accumulation in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), and how it affects FA synthesis and metabolism remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of Scd1 on lipid droplets (LD) formation and uncover its regulatory mechanism in GMEC. In this study, a novel fluorescence reporter system was developed to confirm the expression of SCD1 protein in GMEC plasma. In addition, a mammalian expression vector (pCAG-SCD1) and siRNA targeting Scd1 were constructed and confirmed to be efficient by qRT-PCR. Notably, the amount and the size of LD varied with the alteration of Scd1. Furthermore, Scd1 induced the mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo FA synthesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, lipid droplets formation, and milk fat lipolysis. In particular, changes in Scd1 led to a consistent change in LD formation-associated genes (tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (Tip47) and adipose differentiation-related protein (Adrp)). Overall, the results suggest that Scd1 affects lipid accumulation by altering the FA metabolic profile in GMEC. Practical Applications: As is known, FA metabolism closely associates with human health. The results of our research firstly exposed the metabolic profile associated with SCD1 in GMEC. It will be helpful for our understanding about the regulatory role of Scd1 in FA metabolism in mammary gland of dairy goats. It also provides a reference for the studies on Scd1-related FA metabolic pathways, which is of great significance for human health. Furthermore, this study lays the foundation for engineering the FA content via SCD1 in transgenic goat milk products. Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) differentially activates signaling pathways associated with de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (Acaca and Fasn), TAG biosynthesis (Gpam, Agpat6, and Dgat1), lipid droplets (LD) formation (Tip47 and Adrp), and milk fat lipolysis (Atgl and Hsl) in GMEC; in particular, it contributes to the LD formation through transcriptional regulation of Tip47 and Adrp. Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) differentially activates signaling pathways associated with de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (Acaca and Fasn), TAG biosynthesis (Gpam, Agpat6, and Dgat1), lipid droplets (LD) formation (Tip47 and Adrp), and milk fat lipolysis (Atgl and Hsl) in GMEC; in particular, it contributes to the LD formation through transcriptional regulation of Tip47 and Adrp.



Analysis of the Changes in Volatile Compound and Fatty Acid Profiles of Fish Oil in Chemical Refining Process

2017-11-13T04:15:55.893283-05:00

In this study, the effect of chemical refining on the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles of crude fish oil is evaluated. The process mainly comprises degumming, deacidification, decoloration, and deodorization. The changes in volatile compounds during the refining process are detected by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Meanwhile, the fatty acid profile is determined by GC. The results showed that hexanal, nonanal, undecanal, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone are the key volatile components of fish oil, and the relative content of each compound changed significantly in each step. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the refined oil increased, while the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) reduced significantly. This study provides a theoretical basis for the improvement of sensory characteristics of fish oil via chemical refining. Practical Applications: Chemical refining is employed for improving the characteristics of crude fish oil, mainly including the volatile compound and fatty acid compositions. The result demonstrated that the refining process could affect the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles significantly, which provided the theoretical foundation for the optimization of process conditions. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. The effect of chemical refining on the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles of crude fish oil is evaluated. The results show that hexanal, nonanal, undecanal, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone are the key volatile components of fish oil, and the relative content of each compound changed significantly in each refining step. This study provides a theoretical basis for the improvement of sensory characteristics of fish oil via chemical refining.



Characteristics of Wild Pear (Pyrus glabra Boiss) Seed Oil and Its Oil-in-Water Emulsions: A Novel Source of Edible Oil

2017-11-13T04:15:38.810245-05:00

The observed high consumer demand for edible oils with high oxidative stability resulted in notable efforts to investigate wild plants as new sources of oils and fats. In this context, the fatty acid profile, total tocopherols, tocotrienols, and phenolic compounds, as well as oxidative stability parameters such as peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes (CT), anisidine value (AnV), and kinetic parameters of wild pear (Pyrus glabra Boiss.) seed oil as a novel source of edible oil are investigated. In addition, the oil-in-water emulsion is prepared from wild pear seed oil. Considering the fatty acid profile, linoleic (56.8 ± 1.4 g/100 g oil), and oleic acid (27.4 ± 0.6 g/100 g oil) are defined as the main fatty acids. The α-tocopherol (57.6 ± 0.3 mg/100 g oil) is recognized as the primary form of tocopherols in wild pear seed oil. The PV, CDV, and AnV values are lower in crude oil compared to purified oil in both oil-in-water emulsion and bulk oil. Due to high oxidative stability, wild pear seed oil could be regarded as a novel source of edible oil. Practical Applications: The concentration of the primary and secondary oxidation products in both systems was decreased, mainly due to natural tocopherols and tocotrienols. Furthermore, wild pear seed oil samples (crude and oil containing BHT and TBHQ) were the more stable ones against oxidation as compared to oil-in-water emulsion system. Therefore, it can be conclude that wild pear seed oil could be promising edible oil, as well as a functional component in foods and other bio-products. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. The wild pear seeds are a rich source of oil mainly consisting of oleic and linoleic acids and valuable vitamin E contents. Results show that the peroxide value, conjugated dienes values, and anisidine values of crude wild pear seed oil are lower than purified oil in both oil and oil-in-water emulsion systems. Additionally, natural tocopherols and tocotrienols play important roles in decreasing of primary and secondary oxidation products concentrations in both systems. The wild pear seed oil could be a promising edible oil, as well as a functional component in foods.



Biocompatible Polymeric Nanoparticles From Castor Oil Derivatives via Thiol-Ene Miniemulsion Polymerization

2017-11-07T09:51:50.8214-05:00

Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles are obtained via thiol-ene polymerization of a biobased monomer in miniemulsion. The α,ω-diene-diester monomer is synthesized through esterification reaction of a glycerol derivative, namely 1,3-propanediol, with 10-undecenoic acid, a long-chain diene carboxylic acid. In order to investigate how different monomeric structures behave toward thiol-ene polymerization in miniemulsion, two types of thiols are investigated: 1,4-butanedithiol and 2-mercaptoethyl ether. Poly(thioether-ester)s with weight average molecular weight up to 15 kDa (Mn) are obtained, depending on initiator concentration and types of surfactant and dithiol employed. Finally, biobased poly(thioether-ester) nanoparticles are submitted to cytotoxicity and hemolysis analyses. High cell viability and no significant changes in cell morphology are observed after the incubation on murine fibroblast (L929) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Last, hemolysis assays revealed blood compatibility and therefore polymeric nanoparticles have been shown to be a potential alternative drug delivery vector for intravenous administration. Practical Applications: There is a great demand for polymeric systems that fulfill a number of requirements, such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, for biomedical applications. In this context, biobased polymers obtained from vegetable oils are a very attractive sustainable alternative to fossil-derived polymeric materials, presenting potential biodegradability and low toxicity. By thiol-ene reactions, polymeric materials containing ester groups in the main chain—which can undergo hydrolysis—can be prepared in miniemulsion, enabling their degradation in physiological environment and, therefore, being interesting for biomedical applications and material disposal. Such novel materials could be used in temporary implants, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles are obtained via thiol-ene polymerization of a biobased monomer in miniemulsion. Nanoparticles revealed to be a potential alternative controlled release drug delivery vector for intravenous administration. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles are obtained via thiol-ene polymerization of a biobased monomer in miniemulsion. Nanoparticles revealed to be a potential alternative controlled release drug delivery vector for intravenous administration.



A Novel Method for Extracting Steryl Glucosides From Soy Lecithin

2017-10-27T12:55:21.687053-05:00

In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps, is developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin – the by-product of vegetable oil refining. Phospholipase A1 is used to convert phospholipids in soy lecithin into more hydrophilic hydrolysates, from which SG and ASG are separated by solvent extractions. A 3 × 3 full factorial design is employed to investigate the effects of two parameters (enzyme dose and reaction time) on three responses (yield of extract, SG/ASG content of extract, and recovery of SG/ASG). There are significant enzyme dose – reaction time interaction effects on all the responses, except for yield of extract. The highest SG (including ASG) content of more than 90% in the extract is achieved at enzyme dose of 0.03 g and reaction time of 16 h, where the yield of extract obtained is 1.43%. Practical Applications: Conventionally, steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides are isolated from lipid extract and purified by chromatographic methods, which result in a small amount of high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, and thus is not economic to scale up. The method revealed in this study employed an enzymatic reaction followed by simple solvent extractions, and can be easily scaled up to produce high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, making them more affordable for researchers. In addition, the method also presents a new application for soy lecithin or lecithin of other plant origins, whose current applications are mostly related to the main component-phospholipids. In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps is developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin – the by-product of vegetable oil refining. In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps is developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin – the by-product of vegetable oil refining.



GC-MS Characterization of Hydroxy Fatty Acids Generated From Lipid Oxidation in Vegetable Oils

2017-10-27T02:46:16.37239-05:00

Lipid oxidation has long been described as following a radical chain reaction mechanism, where hydrogen abstraction is considered the preferred pathway. Hydroxy compounds are, in theory, major products formed from hydrogen abstraction but their presence is rarely monitored. In this study, a GC-MS technique to characterize hydroxy fatty acids (FA) formed during the oxidation of sunflower and canola oils is described. First, hydroxy FA in oxidized oils are methylated and isolated from non-oxygenated structures using solid phase extraction (SPE). Then they are converted into their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives using a N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)-pyridine method and identified by their electron ionization (EI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) spectra. Separation of most isomeric hydroxy FA with very similar structures is accomplished using a DB-23 capillary column with (50%-cyanopropyl)-methylpolysiloxane phase. The fragmentation patterns of the TMS derivatives are discussed in detail and several easily applicable rules for spectral interpretations are presented. The major hydroxy FA arising from oxidation of sunflower and canola oils are allylic and conjugated structures, specifically 8-, 9-, 10-, and 11-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid (OH-C18:1) and 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (OH-C18:2). Practical Applications: Unsaturated hydroxy FA are potential indicators of hydrogen abstraction reactions by FA alkoxyl radicals during lipid oxidation. A prerequisite for the quantification of these hydroxy FA is knowledge of their structures. In this work a GC-MS method, coupled with SPE and TMS derivatization, to characterize the hydroxy FA derived from oxidation of vegetable oils, which will enable future quantifications of these compounds is employed. In addition, the use of EI and PCI spectra provided clear strategies to interpret mass spectra for both saturated and unsaturated hydroxy FA. The fragmentation patterns in EI and PCI presented in this paper will benefit future studies on identification or quantification of both saturated and unsaturated hydroxy FA in other lipid samples. Hydroxy fatty acids in oils are methylated and isolated using solid phase extraction. They are converted into their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives, which enabled identification by the electron ionization and positive chemical ionization spectra. Here, the fragmentation patterns of the TMS derivatives are discussed in detail and several easily applicable rules for spectral interpretations are presented. Hydroxy fatty acids in oils are methylated and isolated using solid phase extraction. They are converted into their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives, which enabled identification by the electron ionization and positive chemical ionization spectra. Here, the fragmentation patterns of the TMS derivatives are discussed in detail and several easily applicable rules for spectral interpretations are presented.



Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity Degradation Kinetics During Long-Term Storage of Rapeseed Oil Pressed From Microwave-Treated Seeds

2017-10-27T02:45:30.622901-05:00

The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave (MV) pre-treated seeds (2–10 min, 800 W). A maximum tocochromanols (90.48 mg/100 g) and phenolic compounds (mainly canolol, 1692.15 μg g−1) concentration is achieved after 10 min of seeds MV pre-treatment, while the highest content of carotenoids (1017.51 μg/100 g) is found in the oils pressed from seeds exposed to microwaves for 6 min. During storage, the tocochromanols and carotenoids decrease following zero-order kinetic, the reduction of phenolic compounds display pseudo first-order kinetic. Storage stability of tocochromanols in the oils obtained from MV pre-treated seeds is comparable to that of the control oil. Oils produced from 8 min MV pre-treated seeds show the slowest progress of carotenoids reduction, as the values of degradation rate constant (k) are lower (14.678 μg/100 g/month) than that of the control oil (18.168 μg/100 g/month). The half-life (t1/2) of oils phenolic compounds increases with longer seeds exposition to MV. Practical Applications: Numerous studies have shown favorable effect of oilseeds thermal pre-processing on the concentration of phytochemicals in the resulting oil. However, there is lack of information regarding storage stability of oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. As the prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry, evaluation of phytochemicals degradation based on the kinetic models will provide information on cost-effectiveness of the seeds thermal pre-treatment prior to oil cold-pressing. The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. The study includes a comparative study of kinetics of tocochromanols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds in correlation with changes in the antioxidant capacity. It is shown that the content of phytochemicals in the oil and their storage stability is significantly affected by the time of seeds microwave pre-treatment prior to pressing. The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. The study includes a comparative study of kinetics of tocochromanols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds in correlation with changes in the antioxidant capacity. It is shown that the content of phytochemicals in the oil and their storage stability is significantly affected by the time of seeds microwave pre-treatment prior to pressing.



Effects of Storage Temperature and Duration on Bioactive Concentrations in the Seed and Oil of Brassica napus (Canola)

2017-10-24T01:31:24.299704-05:00

The effects of storage temperature and duration on phytosterol, tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations are assessed in canola seed, and oil extracted using two different techniques, over a 10 month period. Increases to oxidation indices (K232, K270 and ΔK) are observed in the solvent extracted oils, and in the seed stored at 40 °C, indicating the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Only small decreases in the concentrations of γ-tocopherol and β-carotene are observed across the 10 month period. Phytosterol concentration decreases over time, with similar degradation rates observed in both seed and oils. α-tocopherol and lutein are well preserved up to 7 months in all samples, despite oil oxidation, and further research will be needed to identify the cause for retention of bioactives. The results indicate that in order to preserve phytosterols, tocopherols and carotenoids in seed stored in bulk for extended periods, storage temperatures should remain at or below 21 °C. Moreover, oil stored at 4 °C or −18 °C, results in high bioactive concentrations and slows the onset of oil oxidation, compared to oil stored at room temperature. Practical Applications: Industrial storage conditions have been shown to greatly influence the chemical processes that occur with canola seed and oil. However, the effects of typical storage conditions on phytosterols, tocopherols and carotenoids in canola seed and extracted oil, are not yet known. This study presents the effects of typical seed and oil storage conditions on phytosterol, tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations, whilst monitoring oxidation indices and FFA, and thus provides information to seed handlers and oil processors on storage conditions that may preserve these bioactives. Moreover, the different behaviours of bioactives are examined relative to the oil extraction technique used, and present opportunities to optimise oil extraction techniques. Time series plots for α-tocopherol concentrations in canola oil stored at different temperatures over 280 days, illustrating a difference in behaviour between the solvent extracted oil and the hand-press extracted oil. Time series plots for α-tocopherol concentrations in canola oil stored at different temperatures over 280 days, illustrating a difference in behaviour between the solvent extracted oil and the hand-press extracted oil.



Immobilization of Candida rugosa Lipase on Glutaraldehyde-Activated Fe3O4@Chitosan as a Magnetically Separable Catalyst for Hydrolysis of Castor Oil

2017-10-19T06:36:25.47558-05:00

In this study, the catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil by Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated magnetic Fe3O4@chitosan is investigated. Magnetic Fe3O4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and coated with chitosan (CS). Next, CRL is immobilized on Fe3O4@chitosan using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking reagent. The prepared Fe3O4@CS@CRL is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box–Behnken design is used to evaluate and optimize the hydrolysis reaction variables. The optimum reaction conditions for the hydrolysis of castor oil by the Fe3O4@CS@CRL heterogeneous catalyst are found to be a water/oil ratio of 1.60:1, pH of 7.05, reaction temperature of 34 °C, and lipase concentration of 3.27%; under these conditions, the hydrolysis conversion of castor oil reached 46.81%. Moreover, the immobilized lipase showed high stability with no appreciable loss in its activity after three consecutive cycles. Practical Applications: RSM is found to be a useful technique for optimizing hydrolysis of castor oil. The high conversion of the hydrolysis of castor oil indicates that the Fe3O4@CS@CRL have potential to be used in preparing ricinoleic acid from castor oil. Ricinoleic acid have the potential to be used in printing ink as a pigment and dye disperser, plasticizers, surfactants, lubricants, and other valuable products. Ricinoleic acid can be used in pigment and dye disperser in printing ink, sebacic acid, azelaic acid, heptaldehyde, plasticizers, surfactants, lubricants, and other valuable products. Hydrolysis of castor oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated magnetic Fe3O4@chitosan is investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box–Behnken design is used to evaluate and optimize the hydrolysis reaction variables. Fe3O4@CS@CRL can be easily separated from the suspension using an external strong magnet. Fe3O4@CS@CRL have potential to be used in preparing ricinoleic acid from castor oil. Ricinoleic acid can be used in pigment and dye disperser in printing ink, sebacic acid, azelaic acid, heptaldehyde, plasticizers, surfactants, lubricants, and other valuable products. Hydrolysis of castor oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated magnetic Fe3O4@chitosan is investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box–Behnken design is used to evaluate and optimize the hydrolysis reaction variables. Fe3O4@CS@CRL can be easily separated from the suspension using an external strong magnet. Fe3O4@CS@CRL have potential to be used in preparing ricinoleic acid from castor oil.






Use of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Has Insufficient Clinical Evidence for Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

2017-10-18T07:05:29.754814-05:00

Omega-3 fatty acid supplements have been used to treat dyslipidemia. However, there is no comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that encompasses a broad range of populations with or without underlying diseases regarding their efficacy. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for trials in June 2016. A pooled weighted mean difference with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 58 trials were included in the final analysis. Compared with placebos, omega-3 fatty acid supplements significantly reduced triglyceride (TG) levels by 38.59 mg dL−1 (95%CI, −47.16 to −30.02 mg dL−1; n = 53). In the subgroup meta-analysis, the beneficial effects on TG levels were dose-dependent up to 3.9 g of omega-3 fatty acid supplements daily and were greater at higher baseline TG levels. However, there existed substantial heterogeneity in the main and subgroup meta-analyses, overall methodological quality of included trials were low, and about 70% of the included trials had a small sample size less than 100 participants. The current meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials suggests that there is no sufficient clinical evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia. Practical Applications: Further large, high-quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a long-term follow-up are warranted to confirm the clinical efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on lipid profiles management. The meta-analysis of 53 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials shows a beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements such as EPA and DHA on triglyceride levels. However, there exists substantial heterogeneity in the main and subgroup meta-analyses, overall methodological quality of includes trials was low, and about 70% of the include trials has a small sample size less than 100 participants. WMD, weighted mean difference; CI, confidence interval. The meta-analysis of 53 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials shows a beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements such as EPA and DHA on triglyceride levels. However, there exists substantial heterogeneity in the main and subgroup meta-analyses, overall methodological quality of includes trials was low, and about 70% of the include trials has a small sample size less than 100 participants. WMD, weighted mean difference; CI, confidence interval.



Changes in Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Short and Long-Lived Veiled (Cloudy) Virgin Olive Oil Upon Storage in the Dark

2017-10-17T02:30:46.38407-05:00

Veiled (cloudy) virgin olive oil is an intermediate state before sedimentation of unfiltered newly produced olive oil. Despite growing consumer interest in unfiltered veiled virgin olive oil, one of the key factors limiting wider distribution is its low physical stability. The present research describes the production of long-lived veiled virgin olive oil generated in a new storage system to prevent the rapid sedimentation of unfiltered olive oils. Chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted with three short-lived (3–5 months) and three long-lived (1 year) veiled virgin olive oils that contained different concentrations of polar phenolic compounds. The best results were demonstrated in both veiled olive oils types when the polar phenolic compounds content was greater than 130 mg caffeic acid equivalent per kg. The solid particles (98%) present in the short-lived virgin veiled oil settled onto the bottom of the canisters, producing sediments, during storage for 6 months; while only 2–6% settled in the long-lived veiled oil. The microbial activity was higher in both types of veiled virgin oil of low polar phenols content decreasing the quality of the product in the short-lived veiled oil. Practical Applications: Unfiltered veiled virgin olive oils are gaining popularity among some chefs and consumers, who judge the opalescent appearance as an indicator of higher wholesomeness. Presently, large-scale production is prevented because it does not meet the expectations of consumers seeking a stable product, since, due to the sedimentation process, the opalescence usually disappears after the first weeks or months of storage. In this research, we evaluated a new storage system capable of preventing the rapid sedimentation of veiled virgin olive oils, extending the opalescence life from 3 to 6 months to approximately 1 year. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters, were assessed for three short-lived and long-lived veiled virgin olive oils. The best results were found for oils containing higher concentration of total polar phenolic compounds. The opalescent aspect of veiled olive oil disappears with sedimentation during the first 6 months. A new storage system capable of prevent the rapid sedimentation of unfiltered olive oil, generates the production of long-lived veiled olive oil in which the opalescence life is extended from 3 to 6 months to approximately 1 year. Physicochemical and microbiological studies demonstrate that the oil quality is compromised primarily in the short-lived veiled olive oil with the lowest total polyphenols content. The opalescent aspect of veiled olive oil disappears with sedimentation during the first 6 months. A new storage system capable of prevent the rapid sedimentation of unfiltered olive oil, generates the production of long-lived veiled olive oil in which the opalescence life is extended from 3 to 6 months to approximately 1 year. Physicochemical and microbiological studies demonstrate that the oil quality is compromised primarily in the short-lived veiled olive oil with the lowest total polyphenols content.



Chemical Characterization, Oxidative Stability, and In Vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Sesame Oils Extracted by Supercritical and Subcritical Techniques and Conventional Methods: A Comparative Study Using Chemometrics

2017-10-16T11:47:08.30216-05:00

In this study, profiles of chemical characterization, oxidative stability, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of sesame oils obtained from supercritical and subcritical techniques and conventional methods are studied and compared. The results shows that a large proportion of fatty acid and triacylglycerol are not significantly influenced by the processing technologies (except for LLLn, SOA, C18:3n-6, and C22:0). However, significant differences of minor component, oxidation stability, and free radical scavenging activity among the test oil samples are observed. Supercritical sesame oils are more excellent than the subcritical sesame oils and oils obtained from the traditional methods, especially in terms of γ-tocopherol, lignan and polyphenol contents, and antioxidant capacity, thus indicating that CO2 fluid technology is a desirable alternative to extract sesame oils with rich nutrition and superb physiological activity. Further, oils obtained from roasted sesame seeds exhibited higher oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity, thus declaring that high temperature roasting was a critical issue that influenced the quality of the final sesame oil product. Practical Applications: This study used two burgeoning technologies, namely supercritical and subcritical techniques for the practical applications of the extraction process of sesame oils from sesame (Sesamum indicum, L.) seeds. Supercritical fluid was an excellent technology to selectively extract bioactive compounds from sesame by using CO2 as a carrier solvent. The use of CO2 supercritical fluid in the present study was associated with high efficiency and antioxidant activities of the obtained sesame oils. These results indicate that this technology was an efficient and rapid method for extracting phytochemicals when compared with the conventional methods (hot pressing, cold pressing, solvent extraction, and aqueous extraction), thus indicating that it had the potential to work as a satisfactory approach to produce specific sesame oil products for health care and cosmetic use. This method can be easily implemented on an industrial scale. In this study, profiles of chemical characterization, oxidative stability, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of sesame oils obtained from supercritical and subcritical techniques and conventional methods are studied and compared. PCA and HCA show apparent distinctions between the supercritical sesame oils and the other kinds, as well as between the roasted and unroasted sesame oils. Models deduced by MLR are all significant, which are recognized as satisfactory and acceptable for predicting the in vitro antioxidant abilities of the sesame oils. In this study, profiles of chemical characterization, oxidative stability, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of sesame oils obtained from supercritical and subcritical techniques and conventional methods are studied and compared. PCA and HCA show apparent distinctions between the supercritical sesame oils and the other kinds, as well as between the roasted and unroasted sesame oils. Models deduced by MLR are all significant, which are recognized as satisfactory and acceptable for predicting the in vitro antioxidant abilities of the sesame oils.



Tallow Beef Flavor: Effect of Processing Conditions and Ingredients on 3-Chloropropane-1, 2-Diol Esters Generation, and Sensory Characteristics

2017-10-16T11:46:00.956709-05:00

The effect of processing conditions (heating temperature, reaction time, and pH) and ingredients of beef flavor system (including enzymatic tallow hydrolysate, DL-methionine, L-cysteine, glucose, and D-xylose) on 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD) esters concentration, and sensory characteristics of beef flavors are investigated. The results indicates that DL-methionine and L-cysteine had similar effects on the content of 3-MCPD esters, promoting their formation at low concentration, whereas, reducing them when added at high concentration. 3-MCPD esters concentration increased with increasing enzymatic tallow hydrolysate and D-xylose concentration. However, the addition of glucose has no significant effect on 3-MCPD esters concentration. Considering 3-MCPD esters concentration and sensory characteristics, the optimal addition of flavor precursors is finally selected as: Enzymatically hydrolyzed tallow (10%), L-cysteine (1.2%), DL-methionine (1.2%), glucose (1%), and D-xylose (0.5%). In addition, 3-MCPD esters concentration is also strongly dependent on heating temperature, reaction time, and pH. In conclusion, beef flavor is prepared using the optimal concentrations of flavor precursors and heated at 110 °C with initial pH 7.0 for 100 min. Practical Application: This study provides a promising way of controlling the formation of 3-MCPD esters without changing the flavor quality of savory flavors. It promotes the food safety control technology of savory flavoring from passive defense to active forewarning. Also, it provides theoretical guidance and technical support for the sustainable and healthy development of savory flavoring industry. In this study the effect of processing conditions and ingredients on 3-MCPD esters concentration and sensory characteristics are evaluated. It can provide references for the reduction 3-MCPD esters without changing its quality during beef flavor processing. In this study the effect of processing conditions and ingredients on 3-MCPD esters concentration and sensory characteristics are evaluated. It can provide references for the reduction 3-MCPD esters without changing its quality during beef flavor processing.



Production of MLM Type Structured Lipids From Grapeseed Oil Catalyzed by Non-Commercial Lipases

2017-10-16T01:05:29.337422-05:00

Low calorie triacylglycerols (TAG) presenting medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2 are known as MLM. This study aims at the production of MLM by acidolysis of grapeseed oil with medium-chain caprylic (C8:0) or capric (C10:0) acids. Grapeseed oil is used as source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs), especially linoleic acid, at sn-2 position in TAG. Reactions are performed in batch, in solvent-free systems, during 48 h. Novel non-commercial sn-1,3 regioselective lipases are used as alternative to high-cost commercial biocatalysts, namely, the heterologous lipase from Rhizopus oryzae (rROL) immobilized in Amberlite™ IRA 96 and Carica papaya lipase (CPL) self-immobilized in papaya latex. The highest productions of new TAG are achieved at 40 °C, molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2, after 48 h, with both biocatalysts, with yields varying between 38 and 69%. rROL immobilized in Amberlite IRA 96 shows a preference toward caprylic acid while CPL shows no preference toward caprylic or capric acid. First-order deactivation kinetics is observed for both biocatalysts. Half-lives at 40 °C are 166 and 118 h for rROL and 96 and 81 h for CPL, in the acidolysis of grapeseed oil with C8:0 or C10:0, respectively. Practical Applications: Grapeseeds of Vitis vinifera L. are a by-product of the wine industry. Using grapeseed oil to produce added-value functional oils rich in linoleic acid (essential fatty acid) may be a way of improving the revenues of the enological and oil sectors. Both lipases, and mainly Carica papaya lipase self-immobilized in papaya latex, due to its low-cost production and easy preparation, are promising non-commercial biocatalysts for the synthesis of MLM in solvent-free media. The use of a solvent-free system, in addition of being a green option, is also preferred for economic reasons, avoiding the costs with solvent and solvent recovery. Also, the use of the stoichiometric molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2 will 1) decrease costs related with the recovery and reutilization of medium chain fatty acids in excess, product recovery and purification, and 2) avoid biocatalyst deactivation by high amounts of free fatty acids in reaction media. Both Carica papaya lipase (CPL) self-immobilized in papaya latex and rROL in Amberlite IRA 96 catalyze the synthesis of MLM from grapeseed oil in solvent-free medium. The highest productions of new TAG are achieved at 40 °C, molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2, after 48 h, with both biocatalysts, with yields varying between 38 and 69%. rROL immobilized in Amberlite IRA96 shows a preference toward caprylic acid while CPL shows no preference toward caprylic or capric acid. Both Carica papaya lipase (CPL) self-immobilized in papaya latex and rROL in Amberlite IRA 96 catalyze the synthesis of MLM from grapeseed oil in solvent-free medium. The highest productions of new TAG are achieved at 40 °C, molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2, after 48 h, with both biocatalysts, with yields varying between 38 and 69%. rROL immobilized in Amberlite IRA96 shows a preference toward caprylic acid while CPL shows no preference toward caprylic or capric acid.



The Effect of Different Dietary Fats on the Fatty Acid Composition of Several Tissues in Broiler Chickens

2017-10-13T07:36:01.084699-05:00

The type of fat used in formulating broiler chicken diets can affect growth performance, influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues and has consequences for bird health and nutritional value for the consumer. This study aimes to address the hypothesis of whether these effects are specifically due to the variation in the fatty acid composition of the diets, that is, the proportion of different saturates, monounsaturates (n-7 and n-9) or polyunsaturates (n-3 or n-6), or other factors (physical properties, solid/liquid and source, plant/animal). A total of 480 male Cobb 500 broilers are fed ad libitum on one of six diets containing 4% w/w of either: beef tallow, flaxseed, corn, canola, macadamia, or coconut oil (eight replicates/treatment) for 6 weeks. At harvest, there are no significant differences in productivity parameters nor in the crude lipid content of different tissues between dietary treatments. There are, however, substantial qualitative differences in the fatty acid profiles of all tissues. The levels of specific fatty acids in all tissues except the brain, are positively correlated with the levels of the same fatty acids in the diet however, the strength of the correlations varied between different fatty acids. Practical Applications: The results of the current study demonstrate that the dietary fatty acids types and proportions largely determines the fatty acid profile in edible tissues (meat, adipose, liver, and heart). The strong correlations and regressions between diet and tissue fatty acid levels validate the ability to predict the tissue fatty acid profile of broilers based on their dietary fat composition. Contrary to our hypothesis, dietary fat type had no influence on the growth parameters which makes us speculate whether such differences in similar studies only become apparent in situations where the birds are also under some level of environmental or social stress. This information will assist poultry feed manufacturers and broiler producers in making decisions about selection of fats with known nutritional and health benefits for inclusion in chicken feed. The relationship between the diet and breast meat fatty acid composition of 6-week-old male broilers (Cobb 500) fed diets containing 4% w/w of either tallow, flaxseed oil, corn oil, canola oil, macadamia oil, or coconut oil. Dietary fatty acid intake determined breast meat fatty acid composition with a strong positive linear correlation for 6 all fatty acid groups (saturates, omega-9 and omega-7 monounsaturates, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturates and trans, R = 0.938–0.999, P < 0.01). The relationship between the diet and breast meat fatty acid composition of 6-week-old male broilers (Cobb 500) fed diets containing 4% w/w of either tallow, flaxseed oil, corn oil, canola oil, macadamia oil, or coconut oil. Dietary fatty acid intake determined breast meat fatty acid composition with a strong positive linear correlation for 6 all fatty acid groups (saturates, omega-9 and omega-7 monounsaturates, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturates and trans, R = 0.938–0.999, P < 0.01).



Application Of Microwaves and Megasound to Olive Paste in an Industrial Olive Oil Extraction Plant: Impact on Virgin Olive Oil Quality and Composition

2017-10-13T04:21:08.415992-05:00

Traditional olive oil processing includes batch olive paste kneading for 30–60 min. Microwave (MW) treatment of the olive paste have recently shown to continuously provide faster conditioning, while megasound (MS) treatment have been shown to enhance oil extractability. In the present work the virgin olive oil standard parameters, sensory descriptors, and phenolic and headspace composition upon treatment of oils obtained using novel process enhancement interventions, and their combination in an industrial plant is examined. Standard parameters are within the international specifications. The Control and MW process provide similar phenolic composition but a post MS intervention significantly increased total phenolic content, and decrease total C5 and C6 aldehydes in the MW treated paste. These results encourage further developments for a combined continuous MW and megasonic conditioning technology to fasten the olive oil extraction, to enhance yields, and total phenolic content. Practical Applications: Microwave and megasounds are two technologies easily implementable on industrial olive oil extraction plant. They permit to simplify the entire plant and could replace totally the malaxers section. This new technology allows having a uniform paste treatment in continuous mode, enhancing the olive oil quality. Microwaves and megasonics machine are employed to conditioning the olive paste. Chemical analyses on obtained oils, compared to the traditional technology, show that the new technologies allow producing good quality oils. These results encourage further developments for a combined continuous microwave and megasonic conditioning technology to fasten the olive oil extraction, to enhance yields, and total phenolic content. Microwaves and megasonics machine are employed to conditioning the olive paste. Chemical analyses on obtained oils, compared to the traditional technology, show that the new technologies allow producing good quality oils. These results encourage further developments for a combined continuous microwave and megasonic conditioning technology to fasten the olive oil extraction, to enhance yields, and total phenolic content.



Antioxidant Hydrophobicity and Emulsifier Type Influences the Partitioning of Antioxidants in the Interface Improving Oxidative Stability in O/W Emulsions Rich in n-3 Fatty Acids

2017-10-13T04:20:41.238761-05:00

Emulsions with oils rich in n-3 long chain fatty acids, undergo rapid oxidation reactions that may have adverse effects. Therefore, protection against oxidation is necessary. The efficacy of antioxidants with different hydrophobicities (gallic acid, GA; propyl gallate, PG; ascorbyl palmitate, AP; and α-tocopherol, TC) was evaluated in a 79% oil-in-water emulsion model rich in n-3 long chain fatty acids stabilized with either Tween 65 or Tween 80. Antioxidants efficacy was compared to their partitioning in the phases of the emulsion. The order of the antioxidant protection against peroxides and secondary oxidation products was the same as for the antioxidant partitioning in the water-oil interface: AP > GA > PG > TC. The antioxidant efficacy was influenced by antioxidant (p < 0.001), emulsifier (p < 0.001), and interactions of both factors (p < 0.001). AP was the most active antioxidant, while TC was the least active; it was apparently due to a cut-off effect because of its poor partitioning in the interface. The correlation analysis indicated a negative dependency between the oxidation and the partitioning of the antioxidants at the interface; “R” values of −0.66 and −0.75 were obtained for the peroxide and p-anisidine values, respectively. These results showed that the antioxidant activity is determined by the antioxidant partitioning at the interface, the hydrophobicity of the antioxidant, and the emulsifier. Practical Applications: This study shows that the antioxidant activity is greatly determined by the antioxidant partitioning at the interface, which in turn, depends of molecular properties of both, antioxidant and emulsifier. It is clear that the affinity amongst such molecules is based uporn the amphiphilic properties of both types of molecules. These results seem to support the nonlinear or cut-off theory, recently proposed. Hability of antioxidants with different hydrophobicities to protect oil in water (o/w) emulsions of oxidation process is affected by partitioning of antioxidants in the emulsion phases. Hability of antioxidants with different hydrophobicities to protect oil in water (o/w) emulsions of oxidation process is affected by partitioning of antioxidants in the emulsion phases.



Convenient and Environmentally Friendly Production of Isostearic Acid with Protonic Forms of Ammonium Cationic Zeolites

2017-10-13T04:20:36.761832-05:00

Three ammonium-cationic zeolites (ferrierite, ZSM5, and zeolite BETA) are individually analyzed to produce branched-chain fatty acid (i.e., isostearic acid) from unsaturated linear-chain fatty acid (ulc-FA) with up to 98% conversion and 80% selectivity. The SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of zeolite, amount of water and choice of additive are found to be the key factors for the efficiency of zeolites in this particular reaction. Detailed characterization of zeolites supports the optimization parameters to produce the best results. Large scale production of isostearic acid achieving a 76% selectivity and 96% conversion demonstrates the potential of this system's capability at the pilot scale. Variation in isomeric composition of branched-chain fatty acid (bc-FA) product is observed for the three different catalytic methods. Dimer production due to interaction with the external acidic surface of these zeolites has been observed, but it can be suppressed. Practical Application: Lubricant, cosmetic and surfactant fields are examples where these biodegradable isostearic acid and other bc-FA materials are applied. Three ammonium cationic zeolites (i.e., ferrierite, BETA, ZSM-5) are used to produce the iso-oleic acid (precursor of isostearic acid) with high selectivity. The iso-oleic acid products are found to have different isomeric compositions which could potentially expand the application of the isostearic acid. Three ammonium cationic zeolites (i.e., ferrierite, BETA, ZSM-5) are used to produce the iso-oleic acid (precursor of isostearic acid) with high selectivity. The iso-oleic acid products are found to have different isomeric compositions which could potentially expand the application of the isostearic acid.



A Simple Enzymatic Process to Produce Functional Lipids From Vegetable and Fish Oil Mixtures

2017-10-13T04:16:22.950052-05:00

Functional lipids (e.g., those triacylglyerols containing EPA and DHA, besides others) are related to the prevention and treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, fatty acids located at the central bond (sn-2) of triacylglycerols are more efficiently absorbed via lymphatic route. Hence, the aim of this work is to increase the Omega-3 content at the sn-2 position of vegetable and fish oils (high oleic sunflower and sardine oil), via enzymatic interesterification. To that end, direct interesterification and a two-step treatment (in situ hydrolysis and re-esterification) were evaluated using Lipozyme TL IM and Novozyme 435. For both lipases, direct esterification led to a minor production of by-products, that is, free fatty acids and diacylglycerols (<10 mol%), and to an increase of EPA and oleic acid at the sn-2 position, regardless of the oil mixture composition. The best result was obtained using pure sardine oil and Lipozyme TL IM, (at sn-2 position, the content of EPA and oleic acid were doubled, while DHA presented an increase of 20%). This is an easy process by which the composition of the oils used in food fortification can be improved. Practical Applications: The regiodistribution of mixtures of fish and vegetables oils is modified using two enzymatic processes with random and 1,3-specific lipases. Direct interesterification produced minor by-products (<10 mol%) compared to hydrolysis and in situ re-esterification. Final triacylglycerols possess double EPA and 20% more DHA at the sn-2 position, thus, improving the composition of oils intended for Omega-3 fortified formulations. Enzymatic interesterification is used to enrich vegetable oil with Omega-3 at sn-2 for functional lipids used in food fortification. Enzymatic interesterification is used to enrich vegetable oil with Omega-3 at sn-2 for functional lipids used in food fortification.



Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacities of Four Mediterranean Industrial Essential Oils and Their Resultant Distilled Solid By-Products

2017-10-13T04:16:09.516399-05:00

The aim of this work is to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant capacities of the essential oils and their resulting solid residues of four aromatic plants from the industrial distillation, including hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.), and winter savory (Satureja montana L.). In general, the different in vitro antioxidant assays showed that both the oil and the industrial residue extract of S. montana followed by the residue of S. chamaecyparissus are the best antioxidants, whereas the solid residue extracts of S. chamaecyparissus and H. officinalis show the highest copper and iron chelating capacities, respectively. Therefore, distilled solid residues might well constitute a viable and profitable source of natural antioxidants with a potential application in food and non-food products. Practical Applications: Solid residues from the industrial steam distillation of aromatic plants constitute an available and affordable source of phenolic compounds that can be used as natural and safe antioxidants, among others, in foodstuffs. Moreover, the exploitation of distilled plants constitutes a sustainable approach to reduce the residues generated every year from this industry, which results in environmental issues when they are not correctly managed. Essential oils and their resulting solid residues from the industrial distillation of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.), and winter savory (Satureja montana L.) are potential sources of phenolic compounds that can be used as natural and safe antioxidants, among others, in foodstuffs. Essential oils and their resulting solid residues from the industrial distillation of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.), and winter savory (Satureja montana L.) are potential sources of phenolic compounds that can be used as natural and safe antioxidants, among others, in foodstuffs.



Tocopherols and Polyphenols in Pumpkin Seed Oil Are Moderately Affected by Industrially Relevant Roasting Conditions

2017-10-13T04:13:20.590284-05:00

Traditionally, pumpkin seed oil is obtained by pressing the seeds after a roasting pretreatment, at temperatures up to 150 °C. However, the appropriate temperatures and roasting times are under discussion. In this study, oils from seeds roasted at different temperatures (60–150 °C) are compared with oil from non-roasted seeds. At higher roasting temperatures, lower roasting times are required to release the oil. Both, for tocopherols and phenolic compounds, no decreasing trend with the increasing roasting temperature are observed. In contrast, the oil from non-roasted seeds have relatively low levels of tocopherols and phenolics and lacked the typical aroma. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very low, ranging from not detected in oil from non-roasted seeds to 13.8 μg kg−1 in the oil from seeds roasted at 150 °C. Therefore, the choice between the studied roasting conditions may depend rather on sensory evaluations than on the content of antioxidants or of PAHs. Practical Applications: The process of the production of virgin pumpkin oil is based on a thermal treatment of the ground seeds, favoring the separation of the lipid fraction, and giving a typical aroma of the roasted oil. Results of this research provide important information regarding the influence of roasting conditions on the quality and safety of the oil. Roasting pumpkin seeds increased the tocopherol and phenols content in the pumpkin oil, with no significant formation of PAHs. The information will be valuable and important for not only for the pumpkin oil production, but also for all the seeds submitted to a roasting treatment before extraction. Pumpkin seed oil is traditionally produced in several European countries and commonly used in salad dressing. The production of pumpkin seed oil frequently includes roasting of the seeds at high temperatures, which may influence the amount of phenolic compounds and the final nutritional quality of the oil. The roasting of the pumpkin seeds is necessary to obtain the desired color, flavor, and taste characteristics. At higher roasting temperatures, lower roasting times are required to release the oil. Both, for tocopherols and phenolic compounds, no decreasing trend with the increasing roasting temperature is observed. Pumpkin seed oil is traditionally produced in several European countries and commonly used in salad dressing. The production of pumpkin seed oil frequently includes roasting of the seeds at high temperatures, which may influence the amount of phenolic compounds and the final nutritional quality of the oil. The roasting of the pumpkin seeds is necessary to obtain the desired color, flavor, and taste characteristics. At higher roasting temperatures, lower roasting times are required to release the oil. Both, for tocopherols and phenolic compounds, no decreasing trend with the increasing roasting temperature is observed.



The Effect of Dairy Fat Source on Viscoelastic Properties of Full-Fat Processed Cheese Spreads

2017-10-13T03:40:21.466501-05:00

During production of processed cheese, different sources of dairy fat are used, that contain different concentrations of surface active compounds (SAC), for example, natural cheeses (the fat is present in the form of fat globules with membranes with SAC) or butter (practically without membrains with SAC). It is known that SAC concentrations could influence the structure and therefore consistency of processed cheese. The objective of the work is to produce processed cheeses with various SAC contents, and to study how various SAC contents affect the viscoelastic properties of full-fat processed cheeses (dry matter content 35% w/w and fat content in dry matter 50% w/w) over the course of a 56 day storage period. The elastic, loss, and complex moduli are monitored. The SAC concentration is indirectly controlled by the use of natural cheeses with various fat contents (e.g., ingredients containing fat in the form of fat globules coated by SAC) and butter (an ingredient in which SAC is practically not found at all). The various fat contents of the natural cheeses, and the balancing of this parameter in the raw material composition of the processed cheeses with milk fat (practically without SAC) do not significantly affect the consistency of the processed cheeses (p ≥ 0.05). This finding is positive for industrial practice, where natural cheeses with various fat contents are commonly used. In this work the effect of milk fat source and the concentration of SAC originating from the fat globule membranes on the viscoelastic properties of model processed cheeses are studied.Dependence of the elastic (G′; full symbols; Pa) and the loss (G″; open symbols; Pa) after 1 day (•○) and 56 days (▴△) of storage at 6 ± 2 °C on frequency. In this work the effect of milk fat source and the concentration of SAC originating from the fat globule membranes on the viscoelastic properties of model processed cheeses are studied.Dependence of the elastic (G′; full symbols; Pa) and the loss (G″; open symbols; Pa) after 1 day (•○) and 56 days (▴△) of storage at 6 ± 2 °C on frequency.



Renewable Photopolymer Films Derived From Low-Grade Lampante and Pomace Olive Oils

2017-10-10T07:20:32.286023-05:00

Thiol-ene photoinduced copolymerization between a polythiol cross-linker and low-grade unsaturated olive oil provides an eco-efficient route to dry, flexible, and rubbery films in the matter of minutes. The synthetic methodology uses low cost olive oils resulting from non-edible grades (lampante olive oil) and waste production (pomace olive oil) without prior chemical modification. The resultant photopolymer thioether cross-linked films contain up to 80–85% of renewable resources, and UV-driven drying proceeds despite the limited unsaturations’ concentration. Photopolymerization is triggered with a conventional medium-pressure mercury arc in presence of three different thiol cross-linkers: 2,2′-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol, hexanedithiol or trimethylolpropanetris(3-mercaptopropionate) and a radical photoinitiator (2-hydroxy 2-methylpropiophenone). Using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR), we show that cross-linking proceeds essentially via a step-growth thiol-ene polymerization, and to a minor extent, by a conventional photo-oxidation mechanism. Practical Applications: Olive oil is the second largest produced vegetable oil, and in 2016 world production amounted to 3.5 million tons. An excess of low-grade pomace and lampante olive oils is generated annually from the conventional extraction process; however, declared unfit for human consumption, they have a limited number of uses, and it is difficult to find new outlets. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert these non-edible olive oils in useful materials has not been investigated widely. Here we report a method based on thiol-ene photopolymerization to prepare a new range of UV-curable films. Using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, this study sheds light into reaction kinetics and polymerization mechanism. We report a method based on thiol-ene photopolymerization to prepare a new range of UV-curable films derived from the excess of low-grade pomace and lampante olive oils generated from the conventional extraction process of olive oil. We report a method based on thiol-ene photopolymerization to prepare a new range of UV-curable films derived from the excess of low-grade pomace and lampante olive oils generated from the conventional extraction process of olive oil.



Vegetable Oils Acting as Encapsulated Bioactives and Costabilizers in Miniemulsion Polymerization Reactions

2017-10-10T06:05:46.431506-05:00

Vegetable oils with different chemical structures are successfully encapsulated and applied as costabilizers in miniemulsion polymerization reactions. The results are compared to hexadecane, a well-known costabilizer used for this type of polymerization. The great advantage of using vegetable oils is that besides acting as costabilizers, they are also encapsulated, increasing the application of the nanoparticles. Results show that kinetics tend to be slower with argan oil, due to the higher concentration of double bonds present in the oil. When coconut oil and jojoba oil are used, the kinetic rate kept nearly the same. The different types of costabilizers do not affect the average size of the particle, and are able to keep the miniemulsion stable throughout the reaction. DSC analysis shows a decrease in the glass transition temperature when the vegetable oils are used. However, after a long period of storage, the Tg of the polymers increases. STEM images show the formation of nanoparticles for hexadecane and the vegetable oils. However, the nanocapsule morphology appeares only when coconut oil, jojoba oil, and hexadecane are used, while for argan oil no phase separation can be detected in the polymer particle. Practical Applications: Miniemulsion polymerization reactions allow the production of polymeric nanoparticles in only one step with high encapsulation efficiency. To obtain a stable miniemulsion, it is necessary the addition of a costabilizer. The vegetable oils are chosen because besides acting as costabilizers the vegetable oils can increase the application of the nanoparticles since they have important characteristics and functionalities. Miniemulsion polymerization reactions allow the production of polymeric nanoparticles in only one step with high encapsulation efficiency. To obtain a stable miniemulsion, the addition of a costabilizer is necessary. The vegetable oils are chosen because besides acting as costabilizers, the vegetable oils can increase the application of the nanoparticles since they have important characteristics and functionalities. Furthermore, the vegetable oils are biodegradable. In this work, we propose two oils that are not composed of unsaturated fatty acids, unlike many vegetable oils commonly used in the literature. Miniemulsion polymerization reactions allow the production of polymeric nanoparticles in only one step with high encapsulation efficiency. To obtain a stable miniemulsion, the addition of a costabilizer is necessary. The vegetable oils are chosen because besides acting as costabilizers, the vegetable oils can increase the application of the nanoparticles since they have important characteristics and functionalities. Furthermore, the vegetable oils are biodegradable. In this work, we propose two oils that are not composed of unsaturated fatty acids, unlike many vegetable oils commonly used in the literature.



A Statistical Model for Estimating the Effects of Oil Droplet Size and Oil Fraction in Microcapsules on Oxidation of Oil

2017-10-09T07:53:42.843802-05:00

Based on a two-dimensional percolation theory and an autocatalytic rate expression for oil autoxidation, a statistical model is proposed to estimate the effects of the oil droplet size and the volume fraction of oil within the microcapsule on the oxidation of microencapsulated oil, by means of computational simulations. The model can address both the unique oxidation steps for microencapsulated oil: The rapid progress of oxidation at the early stage of storage and the leveling off of the oxidation after prolonged storage. The simulation also demonstrates that the reduction of the oil droplet size retards the oxidation of microencapsulated oil as well as lowering of the oil fraction within the microcapsule. Practical Applications: A statistical model is proposed to simulate oxidation process of microencapsulated oil. The simulation enable us to reasonably design oil microencapsulation. Based on a two-dimensional percolation theory and an autocatalytic rate expression for oil autoxidation, a statistical model is proposed to estimate the effects of the oil droplet size and the volume fraction of oil within the microcapsule on the oxidation of microencapsulated oil, by means of computational simulations. Based on a two-dimensional percolation theory and an autocatalytic rate expression for oil autoxidation, a statistical model is proposed to estimate the effects of the oil droplet size and the volume fraction of oil within the microcapsule on the oxidation of microencapsulated oil, by means of computational simulations.



Development of an Improved Method to Determine Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes in Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Oil: A Supplement to p-Anisidine Value

2017-10-09T07:46:19.005518-05:00

p-Anisidine value (AV) is an important and commonly used index to determine the second oxidation statue of edible oils, but it sometimes cannot reflect the concentrations of all the secondary products, such as saturated aldehydes. An improved method for the determination of saturated aliphatic aldehydes (SAA) in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oils is developed in this study. This method reduces the aldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone adducts (DNPhydrazones) using 2-picoline borane, which can eliminate the analytical error caused by the isomerism of DNPhydrazone derivatives. The changes of SAA content during the oxidation of DHA-rich oil is subsequently monitored. Acetaldehyde (168.8 µmol kg−1) and propionaldehyde (78.5 µmol kg−1) are the two main SAAs in fresh oil, and their concentrations increase to 824.8–811.9 µmol kg−1, respectively, after oxidation for 50 h at 80 °C. Furthermore, a Michael addition reaction is found to significantly reduce the AV of oxidized oils, from 172.5 to 11.7. Moreover, the concentration of SAAs shows no significant difference and could clearly identify the low-quality oil. These results demonstrate that SAA content might be a potential index to identify oxidized oils, which could provide a good supplementary value to the traditional AV index. Practical Applications: The method that has been developed in this study makes it possible to quantify saturated aliphatic aldehydes as markers of oxidation of oils, especially when the panisidine value (AV) cannot correctly assess the levels of secondary products. It could serve as a supplement to the AV index and could be applied to oils, fats, and food products. This work provides quantitative data regarding the amounts of saturated aliphatic aldehydes that can be present in DHA-rich oils during the oxidation process. An improved method for determinig saturated aliphatic aldehydes (SAA) in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oils is developed. The changes of SAA content during the oxidation of DHA-rich oil is monitored. Furthermore, a Michael addition reaction is found to significantly reduce the AV of oxidized oils, from 172.5 to 11.7. The concentration of SAAs does not display significant differences and can clearly identify the low-quality oil. These results demonstrate that the SAA content might be a potential index to identify oxidized oils, which could serve as a good supplement to the AV index. An improved method for determinig saturated aliphatic aldehydes (SAA) in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oils is developed. The changes of SAA content during the oxidation of DHA-rich oil is monitored. Furthermore, a Michael addition reaction is found to significantly reduce the AV of oxidized oils, from 172.5 to 11.7. The concentration of SAAs does not display significant differences and can clearly identify the low-qu[...]



Olive Pomace in Diet Limits Lipid Peroxidation of Sausages from Cinta Senese Swine

2017-10-09T07:46:05.799092-05:00

In order to examine whether olive pomace (OP), the mean by-product of olive oil extraction, can be included in the animal diet, its effect on the raw mixture and sausages made from meat from OP-fed Cinta Senese swine is tested by comparing it with a diet supplemented with high oleic sunflower oil (SO) and a control diet (C). Proximate composition, pH, color, total culturable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and lipid oxidation are evaluated in both the raw mixture and sausages. The aroma profile is also evaluated in sausages. Olive pomace affected the fatty acid composition of the raw mixture and strongly limited the lipid peroxidation of sausages, probably due to the synergistic action of 3,4-DHPEA and α-tocopherol. Olive pomace selectively promotes LAB growth, and protected the raw mixture and sausages from discoloration. The diet also affected the content of volatile organic compounds thus enabling OP sausages to be distinguished from other sausages. Practical Applications: The protection of foods against lipid peroxidation is a very important aspect in terms of their quality. Achieving this naturally is a high priority for consumers, as there is an increasing demand for “low impact” and “environment-safe” production processes. The approach proposed in the present study is aimed at meeting both these objectives. Our findings demonstrate that the inclusion of olive pomace in the swine diet effectively slowed down the lipid oxidation in the sausages. The strategy we propose also meets both economic and ecological goals. Olive pomace is the main by-product of olive oil spinneret, and its re-use in another spinneret is a cost-effective way of improving the sustainability of the production process. Three different kinds of sausages are made. The experiment is aimed at studying the effect of olive pomace (OP) in controling the progression of lipid oxidation. OP have protected sausages against cholesterol oxidation, thus limiting the production of COPs (α-hydroxycholesterol, α-epoxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol). The most probable mechanism is attributable to electron or H+ donor properties of polyphenols contained in olive pomace. Three different kinds of sausages are made. The experiment is aimed at studying the effect of olive pomace (OP) in controling the progression of lipid oxidation. OP have protected sausages against cholesterol oxidation, thus limiting the production of COPs (α-hydroxycholesterol, α-epoxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol). The most probable mechanism is attributable to electron or H+ donor properties of polyphenols contained in olive pomace.



Storage Conditions Affect Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Composition of Freeze-Dried Nannochloropsis salina

2017-10-09T07:46:01.607864-05:00

Microalgae biomass is known as a promising sustainable source of bioactive compounds. Application of microalgae biomass in food and feed products requires information regarding storage stability and optimized storage conditions to minimize unwanted deterioration which downgrades the bioactive composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20, and 40 °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure) used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration occurred both due to enzyme-induced lipolysis and autoxidation. Carotenoids and α-tocopherol contents decreased during storage, but may still have prevented EPA from higher oxidative deteriorations due to their powerful antioxidant properties. Oxidation reactions, which resulted in the creation of primary and secondary volatile oxidation products, occurred mainly at the first days of storage. The resulting volatile compounds(measured by head space gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) declined further until day 56, probably due to reaction with amino acids, or decomposition to low molecular weight tertiary oxidation compounds. Storage of microalgae at low temperature is more effective than vacuum packaging. Practical Applications: Microalgae are known as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds, and their industrial scale application is growing very fast. Application of microalgae biomass in food, feed, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life of microalgae biomass by choosing correct storage conditions. The storage time and conditions influenced the bioactive compounds in freeze-dried microalgae biomass. The storage time and conditions influenced the bioactive compounds in freeze-dried microalgae biomass.



Effects of Adsorption on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Lipid Characteristic, Oxidative Stability, and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Sesame Oil

2017-10-09T07:45:20.768297-05:00

Treatment with three adsorbents led to reductions of PAHs in sesame oils, and activated carbons are more effective for removal of PAHs than activated clay under the experimental conditions. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and γ-tocopherol profiles of sesame oils are not significantly influenced by addition of any adsorbents. However, significant differences (P < 0.05) are observed in the contents of other minor components, oxidation stability and free radical scavenging capacity between the crude and treated sesame oils. Polyphenol and phytosterol are good predictors of oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of sesame oils, due to significant correlations are observed. Although adsorption process may bring disadvantage to sesame oils such as reductions of beneficial constituents related to storage stability, free radical scavenging capacity and other physiological functions, however, to eliminate the contamination of PAHs, treatment with activated carbon during sesame oil purification is highly recommended in order to reduce the risk of consumption and to assure the consumer health. Moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for sesame oil plant to improve the quality of the final oil product. Practical Applications: Results of this study can be applied to sesame oil plants and are transferable to other flavor edible oils for which lower the risk of consumption and bring economic and social advantages to manufacturers to guarantee the oil quality and consumer health. In this work, the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, lipid characteristic, oxidative stability, and free radical scavenging capacity of sesame oil during adsorption process are investigated and compared. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed apparent distinctions between the crude and treated sesame oils, thus illustrated that adsorption is a double-edged sword to sesame oils. In this work, the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, lipid characteristic, oxidative stability, and free radical scavenging capacity of sesame oil during adsorption process are investigated and compared. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed apparent distinctions between the crude and treated sesame oils, thus illustrated that adsorption is a double-edged sword to sesame oils.



Classification of Monovarietal Sardinian Extra Virgin Olive Oils by 1H NMR Metabolomic

2017-10-09T07:05:36.122263-05:00

The chemical composition affects the sensory properties and quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO). In addition, its knowledge can supply valuable information about the cultivar and its geographical origin. The goal of this study is to obtain a protocol in order to be able to recognize the composition of various Sardinian oils and to consequently correlate them with their production areas. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze 100 (82 training + 18 test sets) samples of EVOO from the Bosana cultivar, collected from different growing areas in Sardinia (Italy). Growth areas were classified on the basis of FAO-UNEP aridity index. NMR data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. NMR profiling presents a connection between environmental factors of Sardinian cultivation areas and the chemical composition of EVOO. An NMR-based metabolomic approach that uses six “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models allowed us to discriminate the different influence of evapotranspiration, solar exposure, and altitude on the chemical composition of Bosana EVOO. Practical Applications: Detailed knowledge of NMR spectra pattern variations could have a potential impact on olive oil market. The application of the 1H NMR metabolomic, based on chemometric models, can be a useful tool in order to certificate the geographical origin of EVOO. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO.



Quantitative Indices of the Oxidizability of Fatty Acid Compositions

2017-10-09T07:05:29.676733-05:00

The correlation between a wide range of fatty acid composition indices, resulted from different groups of purified edible oils and their binary blends, and two quantitative criteria of primary (induction period of hydroperoxide formation at 60 °C) and secondary (oxidative stability index, OSI, at 100 °C) oxidations was evaluated. On the basis of highly correlated linear regression models, a corrected form of calculated oxidizability index and the content of saturated fatty acids, SFA, were jointly found to be appropriate indices of primary oxidative stability of all vegetable oils whereas the ratio between palmitic and linoleic acids was mainly considered to show their secondary oxidative stability. As for the oils containing fish oil (FO), a combination of SFA/(C18:4 + C20:4 + C20:5 + C22:6), and monounsaturated fatty acids/(C18:2 + C18:3) ratios was used to represent the primary and secondary oxidative stabilities. Among the oils containing vegetable oils and even fish oil, canola oil, and its blends had the best fatty acid composition from a health point of view. Practical Application: Since edible oils have a vast diversity in fatty acid compositions of very different oxidative stability, prediction of oxidizability based on fatty acid compositions has become too complicated. Considering primary and secondary oxidation products over the course of lipid oxidation, the present study simplifies the prediction of the oxidative stability of fatty acid compositions by introducing four predictive linear regression models for vegetable and fish oils. Oxidative stability of five different edible oils and their binary blends are determined through the induction period (IP) of hydroperoxide formation and the oxidative stability index (OSI) at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Considering a range of linear regression models between fatty acid composition indices and the oxidative stability quantities, IP and OSI, four linear regression models of highest correlation were obtained to simplify the prediction of oxidizability of diverse fatty acid compositions. Oxidative stability of five different edible oils and their binary blends are determined through the induction period (IP) of hydroperoxide formation and the oxidative stability index (OSI) at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Considering a range of linear regression models between fatty acid composition indices and the oxidative stability quantities, IP and OSI, four linear regression models of highest correlation were obtained to simplify the prediction of oxidizability of diverse fatty acid compositions.



Separation, Purification, and Characterization of Sterol Fatty Acid Esters From Lotus Plumule

2017-10-09T01:50:55.387279-05:00

In this work, a new plant resource (lotus plumule) is used to produce sterol fatty acid ester (SFAE). Acetone extraction and column chromatography are developed for the separation and purification of SFAE. Silica gel (200–300 mesh) was the best adsorbent according to the static and dynamic adsorption experiments. The adsorption of SFAE on silica gel (200–300 mesh) is well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model. The column chromatography conditions (elution solvents, loading amount, column height to diameter ratio, and elution flow rate) are optimized and the purity and recovery yield of SFAE are up to 95.56 ± 1.32% and 95.70 ± 3.05%, respectively. Purification processes have no significant effect on sterol composition and fatty acid composition of SFAE. Moreover, SFAE products are identified by UV and IR spectra using standard sample, as well as GC-MS. GC results show that, β-sitosterol (49.6%), △5-avenasterol (33.4%), and campesterol (9.1%) are the main sterols; and linoleic acid (63.1%), behenic acid (8.3%), and oleic acid (8.1%) are the main fatty acids. Practical Applications: This work provides an economic and efficient method for high purity SFAE production, which gave some available information for the value-added utilization of idle plant materials with high levels of SFAE. A new plant resource, lotus plumule, is used to produce sterol fatty acid ester (SFAE). Acetone extraction and column chromatography are developed for separation and purification of SFAE. The SFAE product is a pale yellow oily liquid with high purity (95.6%) and recovery (95.7%), which is analyzed and confirmed by GC, MS, and ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. A new plant resource, lotus plumule, is used to produce sterol fatty acid ester (SFAE). Acetone extraction and column chromatography are developed for separation and purification of SFAE. The SFAE product is a pale yellow oily liquid with high purity (95.6%) and recovery (95.7%), which is analyzed and confirmed by GC, MS, and ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy.



Deep Eutectic Solvents Enable the Enhanced Production of n-3 PUFA-Enriched Triacylglycerols

2017-10-09T01:45:30.055693-05:00

Efficient synthesis of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol (TAG) by the esterification of glycerol with n-3 PUFA in deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reported. There was a 1.2-fold increase of TAG yield in DES compared with that in the solvent-free system. Adsorption of the produced water by DES during esterification contributed to enhance the conversion efficiency by changing the reaction equilibrium. DES also served as an effective solvent for enriching the n-3 PUFA of TAG in the upper layer of reaction media. A TAG yield of 55% was achieved under the optimal condition. Practical Applications: Enzymatic synthesis of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol (TAG) is challenged by low yields. Here, deep eutectic solvents show great potential for enhancing the production of n-3 PUFA-enriched TAG. The production of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol is greatly enhanced in deep eutectic solvents. The production of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol is greatly enhanced in deep eutectic solvents.



Changes in Olive Paste Composition During Decanter Feeding and Effects on Oil Yield

2017-10-09T01:45:20.521739-05:00

In olive oil production, olive paste is fed into a decanter in order to separate the oil from solids. The decanter is usually fed by a mohno or lobe pump. In this study, we analyze the composition of olive paste and pomace at the beginning, middle, and end of decanter feeding. The results show a change in paste composition with the two types of pumps. In both cases, olive paste contains a higher percentage of water and oil at the beginning of decanter feeding than at the end. This phenomenon is probably related to the different viscosity of the three components in the system. Furthermore, as the level for the recovery of olive oil is fixed, the change in the solid/liquid ratio causes product loss. This loss is demonstrated and quantified through the measurement of pomace oil content. Practical Applications: The paper quantifies the effect of the olive paste transport from malaxers to decanter on the olive oil yield. The transport causes a change in the relative composition among oil, water, and solids. The decanter centrifuge is not able to separate efficiently paste with different compositions. This causes marked product losses. The presented data could lead to the development of a control system able to limit the losses. In this study the ratio of solids, water and oil in the olive paste at the beginning, middle, and end of decanter feeding are tested. Change in paste composition with the two types of pumps. Olive paste contains a higher percentage of water and oil at the beginning of decanter feeding than at the end. The level for the recovery of oil is fixed and the change in the ratio causes product loss that is quantified through the measurement of pomace oil content. In this study the ratio of solids, water and oil in the olive paste at the beginning, middle, and end of decanter feeding are tested. Change in paste composition with the two types of pumps. Olive paste contains a higher percentage of water and oil at the beginning of decanter feeding than at the end. The level for the recovery of oil is fixed and the change in the ratio causes product loss that is quantified through the measurement of pomace oil content.



Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B Onto ECR1030 Resin and its Application in the Synthesis of n-3 PUFA-Rich Triacylglycerols

2017-10-06T09:06:34.729435-05:00

In this study, Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is immobilized onto ECR1030 resin and the obtained immobilized preparation is used for the synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich triacylglycerols (TAG). The immobilization process is systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, the immobilized preparation of ECR1030-CALB with an esterification activity of 10 058 U g−1 is obtained, which is comparable with the commercially available Novozym 435. Confocal microscopy images showed that CALB diffused from the surface to the center of carrier during immobilization. The basic properties of ECR1030-CALB is also investigated and it is found that the thermostability, acidic and alkaline stability, and organic solvent tolerance of ECR1030-CALB are comparable with Novozym 435. Interestingly, ECR1030-CALB showed significantly higher specificity toward EPA and DHA compared with Novozym 435, which made it suitable for the synthesis of n-3 PUFA-rich TAG. Overall, the prepared ECR1030-CALB with excellent esterification activity, basic properties, and catalytic performance might be a promising alternative to commercial Novozym 435. Practical Applications: A previous study found that ECR1030 resin was a robust and promising carrier for the immobilization of CALB. However, the detailed immobilization conditions, the basic properties, and catalytic performance of the immobilized preparations using ECR1030 resin as carrier are still unknown. Consequently, knowledge of the above unknown information for the immobilization of CALB using ECR1030 resin as carrier is of great importance for their further practical applications in lipid chemistry. Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B onto ECR1030 resin: Characterization and its application in the synthesis of n-3 PUFA-rich triacylglycerols.



Alkyl-Branched Fatty Compounds: Hydro-Alkylation of Non-Activated Alkenes With Haloalkanes Mediated by Ethylaluminum Sesquichloride

2017-09-18T01:06:26.205745-05:00

The general method for the cationic hydro-alkyl addition to the nonactivated CC double bond of alkenes mediated by ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3) has been importantly improved and simplified by using haloalkanes (primary, secondary, tertiary) instead of alkyl chloroformates as alkylating agent and performing the reaction without any additional solvent. The protocol is especially suited to perform the hydro-alkylation of internal double bonds. Reaction of the haloalkane with Et3Al2Cl3 gives an alkyl cation which is added to the alkene; hydride transfer from Et3Al2Cl3 to the adduct carbenium ion gives the saturated addition product. Primary halo alkanes give the same addition product as the respective secondary halo alkane because of 1,2-H shift yielding the secondary carbenium ions. In the case of 1-alkenes triethylsilane has to be used as additional hydride donor to avoid di- and oligomerization. Special interest has been focused on alkylation of unsaturated fatty compounds, which are important renewable feedstocks, mostly (Z)-configured such as methyl oleate, high oleic sunflower oil, neopentyl glycol dioleate, but also (E)-configured, that is, dimethyl (E)-icos-10-enedioate, and with terminal double bond such as methyl 10-undecenoate. The respective alkyl branched fatty compounds were obtained after simple work-up with excellent to good yields. The protocol was scaled up without problems to >0.5 mol. The ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3)-mediated reaction of non-activated alkenes with haloalkanes gives the respective hydro alkylation product in excellent to good yields. The reaction protocol allows the synthesis of well-defined alkyl branched oleochemicals, as for example methyl 9(10)-isopropylstearate, and can easily be scaled up. The ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3)-mediated reaction of non-activated alkenes with haloalkanes gives the respective hydro alkylation product in excellent to good yields. The reaction protocol allows the synthesis of well-defined alkyl branched oleochemicals, as for example methyl 9(10)-isopropylstearate, and can easily be scaled up.



Oolong Tea Polyphenols–Phospholipids Complex Reduces Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced Mice Model

2017-09-14T07:45:28.146527-05:00

In this study, the anti-obesity effect of oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex (OTC) was investigated. OTC was prepared with oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) and phospholipids, and exhibited higher stability than OTP in vitro. Then high fat diet-induced obesity human flora-associated (HFA) mice model were obtained, and the administration of both OTP and OTC alleviated the changes of the serum and liver levels induced by high fat diet dramatically. The numbers (log10 cell mL−1) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium histolyticum in obesity models fed with OTC after 8 weeks were 8.28 ± 0.03, 8.21 ± 0.01, 7.23 ± 0.02, and 7.05 ± 0.03 compared with 8.21 ± 0.02, 8.07 ± 0.02, 7.31 ± 0.02, and 7.10 ± 0.01, respectively, in the control. Together, it confirmed the potential of phospholipids in the promotion of intestinal transport of polyphenols, suggesting OTC may have prebiotic-like activity to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders. Oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex show modulatory effect on the intestinal microbiota of high fat diet-induced obesity mice model, and may have prebiotic-like activity contributing to the prevention of obesity. Oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex show modulatory effect on the intestinal microbiota of high fat diet-induced obesity mice model, and may have prebiotic-like activity contributing to the prevention of obesity.



Using a pseudophase model to determine AO distributions in emulsions: Why dynamic equilibrium matters

2017-09-14T07:40:32.703313-05:00

For decades, explorations with ground state, thermal reactions combined with pseudophase kinetic models and methods for interpreting the results have provided insights into the properties of the different regions of homogeneous association colloids. More recent successful determination of antioxidant (AO) distributions by this approach is providing new insights into AO efficiency in opaque, well-mixed two-phase intact emulsions and eliminating the need to separate the phases. The chemical probe reacts with AOs exclusively in the interfacial region of the emulsion, permitting simplification of the kinetic treatment, and determining its distribution between the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. AO distributions are obtained from the two partition constants, POI and PWI, of the AOs between the oil-interfacial and aqueous-interfacial regions, respectively. POI and PWI values are obtained by fitting the observed rate constant, kobs, versus surfactant concentration profiles with an overall kinetic approach or model we call the “pseudophase chemical kinetic method.” However, because emulsions break up and reform, and reactants and other components diffuse at various time scales within and between the oil, interfacial, and water regions, kobs could also depend on reactant diffusion coefficients. Here we demonstrate that reactant diffusion is generally orders of magnitude faster than most thermal reactions and reactant distributions between the multiple oil, aqueous, and interfacial droplets and regions of emulsions are in dynamic equilibrium throughout the multiphase systems during the time course of the reaction. Thus, kinetic probes are powerful tools for determining structure-reactivity, for example, the HLB, relationships governing AO distributions and efficiencies in emulsions. Practical applications: The analysis presented here demonstrates that one of the basic assumptions of the pseudophase chemical kinetic model that we have developed has a solid foundation in the properties of emulsions. That is, we can determine the distributions of reactants between oil (O), interfacial (I), and aqueous (W) regions of the emulsions because the diffusivity coefficients of reactants within emulsions are orders of magnitude greater than the rate of the reaction between the antioxidant and the 4-hexadecylbenzenediazonium probe. Consequently, we can use the same kinetic model in emulsions as we have used in homogeneous microemulsions. The method permits determination of the partition constants of many[...]



Synthesis of Dimer Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by Catalytic Oxidation and Reductive Amination: An Efficient Route to Branched Polyamides

2017-09-12T04:40:59.962773-05:00

A novel and versatile route toward dimer fatty acid methyl esters (dimer FAMEs) via catalytic oxidation and reductive amination is described. The oxyfunctionalization of mono-unsaturated FAMEs bearing different chain lengths (C11, C18, C22) is accomplished by a co-catalyst-free Wacker Oxidation process in a high pressure reactor. The applied catalytic system of palladium(II) chloride in a dimethylacetamide/water mixture enabled the formation of keto-FAMEs in the presence of molecular oxygen as sole re-oxidant. In a first attempt, partially renewable dimer FAMEs are synthesized by reductive amination of keto-FAME (C18) in the presence of various aliphatic and aromatic diamines and sodium triacetoxyborohydride as selective reducing agent. In another approach, the keto-FAMEs directly underwent reductive amination using Raney-Nickel in order to obtain the corresponding amino-FAMEs. Subsequently, the keto- and amino-FAMEs are used for the synthesis of fully renewable dimer FAMEs via reductive amination with sodium triacetoxyborohydride as reducing agent. In order to demonstrate a possible application for these new dimer FAMEs, three out of the thirteen synthesized dimer FAMEs are selected and studied in a polycondensation with renewable 1,10-diaminodecane using TBD as catalyst. The polyamides are obtained in molecular weights (Mn) of up to 33 kDa and are carefully characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, SEC, and DSC analysis. The synthesis of keto-fatty acid methyl esters via a straightforward co-catalyst-free Wacker oxidation process allows access to partially and fully renewable dimer fatty acid methyl esters, by using the obtained keto-fatty acid methyl esters as renewable raw materials in a reductive amination process. Some of the obtained dimer fatty acids are exemplarily studied as monomers for polyamide synthesis. The synthesis of keto-fatty acid methyl esters via a straightforward co-catalyst-free Wacker oxidation process allows access to partially and fully renewable dimer fatty acid methyl esters, by using the obtained keto-fatty acid methyl esters as renewable raw materials in a reductive amination process. Some of the obtained dimer fatty acids are exemplarily studied as monomers for polyamide synthesis.



Hydroaminomethylation of oleochemicals: A comprehensive overview

2017-08-22T02:06:30.907966-05:00

The present review explores the historical background of the rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM) of vegetable oils and the recent developments in this field. The reaction conditions are especially discussed and commented upon. Various amines have been grafted onto alkyl chains of vegetable oils, thus giving rise to a wide range of bio-based HAM-products. A focus is on bifunctional HAM-products as they have potential as monomers in polymer chemistry. The nature of the ligands stabilizing the rhodium catalytic species is also discussed. The catalytic results obtained with phosphanes and amines are analyzed and compared. The goal of this review is to convince the reader that HAM of vegetable oils is a simple and effective synthetic pathway to access valuable functionalized bio-based compounds with industrial potential. Practical applications: Products resulting from hydroaminomethylation of vegetable oils have potential as monomers in polymer chemistry and as bio-based surface-active agents. The functionalization of the carbon–carbon double bonds of vegetable oils by amino groups is easily carried out via rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM). The functionalization of the carbon–carbon double bonds of vegetable oils by amino groups is easily carried out via rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM).



Production of chemicals from microalgae lipids – status and perspectives

2017-08-17T07:40:39.232734-05:00

The engineering of algae strains, cultivation, and further processing steps in microalgae production are considered in view of the utilization of microalgae lipids for chemicals. Insights from biofuel production trials on the one hand and existing processes for very high-value pharmaceuticals on the other hand are instructive to this end. A recent example of the production of a surfactant from chemical intermediates gained from algae oil and further opportunities are discussed. Microalgae oil lipids are discussed as an alternative source for chemicals. The tuning of lipid production in microalgae via genetic engineering and cultivation optimization for this purpose is reviewed. We further illuminate the bottlenecks of upscaling and the state of the art in industrial algae production by means of three concrete case studies. We give insights into the catalytic functionalization to high-value products. Microalgae oil lipids are discussed as an alternative source for chemicals. The tuning of lipid production in microalgae via genetic engineering and cultivation optimization for this purpose is reviewed. We further illuminate the bottlenecks of upscaling and the state of the art in industrial algae production by means of three concrete case studies. We give insights into the catalytic functionalization to high-value products.



Lipids from the marine world: Perspectives of an organic chemist

2017-08-17T07:31:14.965273-05:00

This report describes synthesis of novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs) of the 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerol type constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids. One of two TAGs was comprised of a pure EPA located at the 1,3-positions with pure DHA at the 2-position and the other had it reversed with a pure DHA at the 1,3-positions and pure EPA at the 2-positions. The similarly structured DAGEs were derived from chimyl-, batyl-, and selachyl alcohols constituting pure EPA at their sn-3 position with pure DHA at the sn-2 position as well as the opposite composition with pure DHA at the sn-3 position and EPA at the sn-2 position, the total of six such DAGE products. The syntheses of these compounds were brought about by a two-step chemoenzymatic process involving a highly regioselective immobilized Candida antarctica lipase to incorporate EPA or DHA activated as acetoxime esters exclusively into the 1,3-positions of glycerol and the sn-3 position of the 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols. The second PUFA acyl groups were subsequently introduced to the remaining 2-positions by EDCI coupling agent to accomplish the title compounds highly efficiently in very high to excellent yields (86–92%). Practical applications: The work described is based on a previously reported methodology to introduce n-3 PUFAs activated as oxime esters exclusively into the terminal 1,3-positions of glycerol and 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols to prepare reversed structured TAGs and DAGEs by use of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. The methodology is ideal for introducing isotopically labeled fatty acids into predetermined positions of TAGs and DAGEs. Novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs), constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids, were obtained by a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis comprised of an exclusive incorporation of EPA or DHA, activated as acetoxime esters, into the terminal positions of glycerol and 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols by use of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase, and a subsequent introduction of a second PUFA acyl group to the remaining 2-positions by EDCI coupling agent. Novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs), constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids, were obtained by a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis comprised of an exclusive incorporation of EPA or DHA, activated as acetoxime esters, in[...]



Macromolecular materials based on the application of the Diels–Alder reaction to natural polymers and plant oils

2017-08-04T07:10:42.444609-05:00

The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin. The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin. The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin.



Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil: Effect of oil content and natural antioxidants addition

2017-08-01T06:04:20.989249-05:00

The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30 wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented beads where the oil accumulated. The number of beads was significantly higher in 30 wt% oil-loaded fibers. Moreover, fibers containing 30 wt% fish oil had a higher oxidative stability when compared to 10 wt% oil-loaded fibers, despite its lower encapsulation efficiency (EE) value (67.1 ± 3.1%). The oxidative stability of fibers loaded with 10 wt% fish oil (EE = 88.5 ± 0.7%) was significantly improved when adding δ-tocopherol (500 ppm) and rosemary extract (500 ppm) as antioxidants. However, higher concentration of antioxidants (2000 ppm δ-tocopherol and 1000 ppm rosemary extract) did not further improve the oxidative stability of 10 wt% oil-loaded fibers, but had a pro-oxidant effect. Finally, the production of pullulan fibers containing 10 wt% fish oil from formic acid solutions increased the oxidative stability of the fibers when compared to the same type of fibers obtained from water solutions. The latter was observed for fibers without and with antioxidants (500 ppm of δ-tocopherol and 500 ppm of rosemary extract). Practical applications: Encapsulation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and addition of antioxidants are the most efficient strategies to protect these lipids against oxidation when incorporating them into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants.



Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of glycerol monodecanoate

2017-07-17T02:41:04.164789-05:00

Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis was carried out to prepare 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate, by esterification of decanoic acid in the presence of two distinct glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate, respectively. The process described is based on microwaves heating source with electrical power in the range of 200–400 W, involving stoichiometric proportions of decanoic acid and glycerol derivatives, and using catalytic amounts of TBAI used as organocatalyst. Conversion and selectivity rates of esterification reactions were monitored by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy. The predominantly formed ester, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate was fully characterized by infrared and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Compared with the classical heating procedures, and whatever the glycerol derivatives used, total conversions were obtained with considerably reduced reaction times. Thus, under 300 W, esterification requires only 1 min exposure from glycidol and 5 min from glycerol carbonate. The use of heating with conventional oil bath conditions needs residence times of more than 1 h (even 24 h in the case of glycerol carbonate). The microwave-assisted synthesis also notably enhances the selectivity in 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate (at 300 W, 90, and 50%, respectively), reinforcing the efficiency and the interest of the method. Practical applications: The results establish that microwave heating is well suited for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol monodecanoate from decanoic acid and two glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate. Reaction times are drastically reduced, and in both cases, marked improvements of the conversion and selectivity are recorded. The target α-monoglyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate, has various potential applications such as antimicrobial properties, bacterial inhibitory activity, or denture disinfectant. Solvent-free microwave heating conditions are applied to the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate by esterification of decanoic acid in the presence of two glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate. In both cases, conversion and selectivity gains, as well as notable reductions of reaction times are record. Solvent-free microwave heating conditions are applied to the synthesis of 2,3-dih[...]



Cover Picture: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 11∕2017

2017-11-06T04:54:33.349287-05:00

Novel type of carbon-centered antioxidants arylmethyl Meldrum's acids – inhibit free radicalsInese Mierina, Mara Jure, Sindija Zeberga, Violeta Makareviciene, Daina Zicane, Zenta Tetere, and Irisa RavinaDOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201700172Arylmethyl Meldrum's acids are new type of antioxidants, which scavenge free radicals both in lipophilic and hydrophilic media. These compounds are found as excellent inhibitors of autooxidation processes in fatty acid methyl esters. In some cases, they are comparable or even better antioxidants than well-known butylated hydroxytoluene.






Contents: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 11∕2017

2017-11-06T04:54:40.954302-05:00




Can chemometrics protect pumpkin seed oil buyers from false Styrian PGI labels?

2017-08-25T05:15:56.915061-05:00

A group of scientists from Loeben Universtity is proposing the use of chemometrics in the detection of authenticity of Styrian PGI pumpkin seed oil. They have shown that pumpkin seeds from Austria and foreign countries differ in the composition of various element traces. Based on that they are able to differentiate between false and authentic PGI pumpkin seed using mathematical modeling. A group of scientists from Loeben Universtity is proposing the use of chemometrics in the detection of authenticity of Styrian PGI pumpkin seed oil. They have shown that pumpkin seeds from Austria and foreign countries differ in the composition of various element traces. Based on that they are able to differentiate between false and authentic PGI pumpkin seed using mathematical modeling.



Lactobacilli survival and adhesion to colonic epithelial cell lines is dependent on long chain fatty acid exposure

2017-08-03T06:35:24.056044-05:00

Lactobacilli and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are commonly consumed as functional foods. However, there is very little research into their interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between fatty acids (FA) and lactobacilli by exploring lactobacilli survival following exposure to different FA and their adhesion to epithelial cells pre-treated with different FA. Three strains of lactobacilli were cultured with 20 µM eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) or oleic acid (OA, n-9) to assess survival. Additionally, adhesion of radioactively labelled bacteria to confluent layers of three colorectal cell lines was measured following pre-treatment of the epithelial cells with 50 µM EPA, DHA, AA. or OA. Results show that exposure to FA slowed log-phase growth of two human derived strains of lactobacilli, but reduced survival of a chicken derived strain to 20%. Survival was associated with the formation of the FA cyc19:0 in the human derived strains. The chicken derived strain showed greatest adherence to epithelial cells and adhesion was increased following epithelial cell exposure to DHA. In conclusion, the survival and adhesion of lactobacilli in the intestinal tract is likely to be affected by FA content of the diet. Practical applications: The fatty acid composition of the diet has the potential to modulate the behaviour of probiotic bacteria in the gut and in probiotic foods. We showed that combining high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with certain probiotics may lead to reduced numbers of probiotic bacteria. Despite this, we showed that PUFA could enhance adhesion of some lactobacilli strains and that increasing the PUFA content of epithelial cells via the diet may aid the adherence of some potentially beneficial lactobacilli. We also highlight a potential concern for the chicken industry whereby PUFA inhibited the growth of the lactobacilli isolated from chicken. With the increasing use of PUFA in chicken feed this could lead to a dysbiosis in normal chicken microflora and requires further investigation. Overview of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) potential eff[...]



Sicilian Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil: Fatty acid composition and bio-economical aspects

2017-08-23T12:32:33.513451-05:00

The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil obtained comprises significant amounts of vaccenic acid along with several other unsaturated fatty acids showing several health benefits, including linolenic, trans-13-octadecenoic, gondoic, 7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoic, and gadoleic acid. The economic analysis shows the significant advantage of carrying out the extraction from fruits considered unfit for consumption. Practical applications: The fatty acid composition of Sicilian Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil is similar to that of fruits grown in Tunisia, while it has a completely different profile than the OFI fruits grown in Algeria and Morocco. Like the oil obtained in Tunisia, the Sicilian oil has a higher vaccenic acid content, but it comprises significant amounts of other unsaturated fatty acids showing highly beneficial health properties. Extracted from fruits considered unfit for consumption, its production generates €1220 additional revenues per tonne of unfit fruit thereby significantly improving the economics of OFI processing companies. The oil has several potential applications which go beyond cosmetics, especially as nutraceutical ingredient. With increasing usage and market expansion, we predict that cold press extraction will be replaced by advanced extraction methods such as extraction with supercritical CO2 maximizing for example the biophenol amount in the oil. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil obtained comprises significant amounts of vaccenic acid along with several other unsaturated fatty acids showing several health benefits, including linolenic, trans-13-octadecenoic, gondoic, 7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoic, and gadoleic acid. The economic analysis shows the significant advantage of carrying out the extraction from fruits considered unfit for consumption. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil[...]



Polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LipiGo®) increases fatty acid and neutral sterol excretion in guinea pigs fed with hypercholesterolemic diets

2017-10-13T07:40:32.819808-05:00

This study aimed to evaluate the hypolipidemic properties of a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising β-glucan-chitin-chitosan (BCC). Guinea pigs (n = 8 per group) were fed high-fat and hypercholesterolemic diets (17 g/100 g of fat, 0.2 g/100 g of cholesterol), containing 12 g/100 g of either cellulose (CEL) as negative control, oat bran as a source of β-glucan (BOB), or BCC. Food intake and body weight were monitored for 4 weeks and fatty acid (FA), neutral sterol (NS), and bile acid (BA) excretion were determined. BCC, but not BOB, reduced body weight gain and plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, without altering food consumption. This effect correlated well with the capacity of BCC to reduce apparent FA absorption (78.36 ± 7.41 vs. 89.51 ± 3.93% in control group), mainly due to an increase of saturated fatty acid (SFA) excretion and, to a lower extent of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). NS excretion was also increased by BCC, although no effects were observed on BA excretion. Therefore, results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of BCC can be mainly ascribed to its capacity to increase FA and NS excretion. Practical applications: This research provides evidence on the hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of action of Lipigo®, a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising β-glucan-chitin-chitosan (BCC). Particularly, results show that BCC can effectively increase the excretion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and neutral sterols (NS), having a beneficial effect on plasma lipids. This information can be of interest for the development of food supplements in the field of diseases associated with high fat intake such as cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Supplementation of hypercholesterolemic diets with a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising β-glucan-chitin-chitosan increases the excretion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and neutral sterols compared to cellulose. This effect is consistent with a reduction in body weight gain and plasma total and LDL-cholesterol. Supplementat[...]



Optimization of epoxidation of ricinoleic acid methyl ester by hydrogen peroxide and phase-transfer catalyst using response surface methodology

2017-08-17T07:40:58.482425-05:00

The epoxidation of ricinoleic acid methyl ester (RAME) has been investigated using an environmentally friendly oxidant (i.e., hydrogen peroxide) and a phase-transfer catalyst ([π-C5H5N(CH2)15CH3]3[PW4O16]) in dichloroethane. The response surface methodology (RSM), based on the Box–Behnken design was used to assess individual and interactive effects of the process variables and to optimize the epoxidation reaction condition. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9544) obtained from analysis of the variance confirmed the suitability of the fitted model. The RSM analysis results indicated that the molar ratio of H2O2 to CC bonds and the reaction temperature are the most significant (P [...]



Resveratrol formulated with a natural deep eutectic solvent inhibits active matrix metalloprotease-9 in hormetic conditions

2017-10-10T06:05:21.718043-05:00

Despite the promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RES) on human health, pre-clinical and clinical studies are frequently disappointing, probably due to its low water-solubility and poor bioavailability. Even though a hormetic mode of action was clearly established for RES, the high doses commonly used to mitigate these issues, lead to adverse effects. Common hallmarks of multiple pathologies results from pathological-enhanced endothelial permeability due to both enhanced inflammation and matrix metalloprotease-9 (aMMP-9) activities. The main aim of this work was to optimize the RES capacity to inhibit aMMP-9 by using a new class of solvents, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) for a new RES formulation as compared with dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). To obtain the appropriate NADES, 18 compounds combinations were prepared to select those exhibiting the optimized capacity to dissolve RES. The RES-NADES 1,2-propanediol:choline-chloride:water (PCW, 1:1:1 molar ratio) and compared with RES-DMSO for their aMMP-9-inhibitory capacities. Low concentrations of RES-NADES/PCW formulation exhibited both a biocompatible solubility and a strong increased aMMP-9-inhibitory activity, at least 10-fold, higher than RES-DMSO, reaching its hormetic mode of action. Following in vivo validations, some particular NADES could potentially be considered as the new generation of formulation for druggable compounds. Practical applications: Formulation of resveratrol in Natural Deep Eutectic solvents (NADES) optimizes its capacity to inhibit active matrix metalloprotease-9. The Resveratrol-NADES 1,2-propanediol:choline-was the most efficient and low concentrations exhibited both a biocompatible solubility and an increased aMMP-9-inhibitory activity, at least 10-fold, higher than RES-DMSO. Consequently, the NADES/PCW formulation allowed resveratrol to reach its hormetic mode of action. Following in vivo validations, some particular NADES could potentially be considered as the new generation of formulation for druggable compounds. The effect of resveratrol (RES) di[...]



Phenolic compounds obtained from alkyl oleates as additives to improve the oxidative stability of methyl rapeseed biodiesel

2017-10-09T07:05:47.363867-05:00

Phenolic antioxidants have limited solubility in biodiesel, so this research developed new antioxidants by addition of hydroquinone and catechol on unsaturated fatty acid esters, which improved significantly the oxidative stability of rapeseed biodiesel. This new compound class is more soluble in biodiesel than hydroquinone and catechol, in same molar concentrations. The aging of biodiesel was studied using Metrohm model 743 Rancimat and PetroOxy devices and it was possible to observe an improvement on oxidation stability in both testing using these new antioxidants. Especially the additives 2MB3 and 4MB3 improved the induction period (IP) of rapeseed methyl ester (RME-B100), from 4 to 63 and 65 h, respectively, with 30 mmol/kg of additives, while hydroquinone in comparison improves the stability to 25 h in the same molar concentration. This new class of antioxidants is promising to enhance oxidative stability of biodiesel, showing the capability of such additives to be commercialized for this purpose. Practical applications: Biodiesel is obtained by different raw materials, so the composition is different according to the source. The biodiesel with higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids is more susceptible to oxidation than those with higher saturation. To solve problems caused by oxidative deterioration of biodiesel, this research aimed to synthesize a new class of antioxidants as an alternative for preventing and minimize oxidative damage of biofuels. Rapeseed biodiesel without any addition of additive was out of specification according to EN 14214, which regulates oxidative stability greater or equal to 8 h. The additives herein obtained improved significantly the oxidation stability for rapeseed biodiesel by more than 100%. Rapeseed biodiesel without any addition of additive was out of specification according to EN 14214, which regulates oxidative stability greater or equal to 8 h. The additives herein obtained improved significantly the oxidation stability for rapeseed biodiesel by more than 100%.



Structure and properties of an ethylcellulose and stearyl alcohol/stearic acid (EC/SO:SA) hybrid oleogelator system

2017-08-01T06:01:56.26186-05:00

The physical properties of stearyl alcohol:stearic acid (SO:SA) oleogels at varying oleogelator mass ratios were characterized in the presence of the polymer oleogelator ethylcellulose (EC). The large deformation properties of the combined EC/SO:SA oleogels at intermediate ratios (8:2 to 4:6) were similar to that of the corresponding SO:SA formulations. The remaining ratios exhibited a substantial increase in gel strength in the presence of EC, with the hardest composed of stearic acid (0:10). Neither polymorphism, nor thermal behavior of SO:SA were affected by EC, but increases in SFC at 10°C were correlated to harder gels. EC drastically altered the microstructure of the SOSA network producing structures made up of clusters of branching, needle-like crystals. Overall, the increase in gel strength outside the ratios where pure stearyl alcohol or stearic acid crystals were present, could be attributed to increased solids and reinforcement by the secondary EC network. Practical applications: The hybrid gelator system investigated here has potential as fat mimetic. The SO:SA ratios which provided the greatest oil-structuring ability and plasticity were 8:2 and 7:3 SO:SA. This strategy of using complementary gelators should prove useful for optimizing the functionality of oleogels for diverse food applications. Ethylcellulose improved the gelling efficiency and gel strength of the stearoyl alcohol/stearic acid oleogelator system by altering the crystalline microstructure. Ethylcellulose improved the gelling efficiency and gel strength of the stearoyl alcohol/stearic acid oleogelator system by altering the crystalline microstructure.



A new analytical and statistical approach to predict the sensory properties of deep frying fats and oils to determine the point of discard during processing

2017-07-07T02:16:24.015545-05:00

The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility and limits of analytical criteria to assess the sensory properties of used frying oils and different fried food. Over a period of 2 years, 148 used frying oils collected in restaurants bakeries, fish caterers, and industrial plants were analyzed for a wide range of parameters, including sensory tests, total polar compounds (TPC), dimerized and polymerized triacyl-glycerols (DPTG), monomeric oxidized triacyl-glycerols (MONOX), acid value (AV), para-anisidine-value (AnV), and iodine value (IV). All methods were judged for their relevance, concerning the sensory quality of used frying oils categorizing the qualities as good or bad. The binary results were statistically evaluated using logit regression. The statistical evaluation of the tests was used to calculate the probability of occurrence of off-flavors which allows determining the point of discard and finally the point where the oil is certainly totally abused. All levels of degradation for used frying oils regardless of oil type and kind of food being fried can be statistically described and used to develop a simple equation using the TPC and AV value as variables (y = 117–8 × AV − 3 × TPC) to find the point of disposal and to monitor the degradation process. The new criterion has been proven in the controlling of various industrial frying processes, restaurants and bakeries and kitchen frying. Practical applications: A simple equation of linear regression using AV and TPC as variables (y = 117–8 × AV − 3 × TPC) has been developed to monitor the level of degradation and to determine the point of disposal of used frying fats and oils much more reliable than using only one of the recommended parameters (TPC, AV, or PTG). This criterion is independent of fat composition, food to be fried, or frying process conditions and effectively helps to overcome the limitations of TPC and other major regulatory parameters related to the frying/baking [...]



Novel type of carbon-centered antioxidants arylmethyl Meldrum's acids − inhibit free radicals

2017-07-04T04:45:36.230041-05:00

Monosubstituted Meldrum's acids are found out as a new class of powerful antioxidants. These compounds act as carbon radical scavengers due to the presence of acidic hydrogen in the moiety of cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compound. The presence of phenol and benzylic moiety is favored, but these structural elements are not crucial for the antiradical activity in polar media. The antiradical and antioxidant activity of the substituted Meldrum's acids is not significantly affected by the substituents in the aromatic ring. The 5-substituted 1,3-dioxan-4,6-diones demonstrate high scavenging capacity of free radicals. The inhibition of DPPH and GO achieved even ∼100 and 80%, respectively. All substituted Meldrum's acids are better antioxidants than BHT, and activity of some of them even exceed vitamin C. It is found out that in polar media the compounds act via SPLET mechanism. Substituted Meldrum's acids turned out as powerful antioxidants for inhibition of oxidation processes of fatty acid alkyl esters, too. The oxidative stability of the last with the title compound additive was significantly higher than with BHT additive. It seems, that the antioxidant activity of the substituted Meldrum's acids in fatty acid esters is both due to benzylic position and 1,3-dicarbonyl moiety. Practical applications: Arylmethyl Meldrum's acids should be highlighted as potential antioxidants for increasing oxidative stability of various products containing, for example, esters of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. It should be admitted that the structure of the title compounds can be widely modified by substituents in the aromatic ring without remarkable loss of antioxidant and antiradical activity, but other properties (like solubility) may be improved. In order to apply the title antioxidants into products like cosmetics additional tests regarding toxicity are required. However, these antioxidants can be recommended for increasing oxidative stability for products used in technique. Mon[...]



Phospholipids modulate Caco-2 transport of EGCG3”Me from Chinese oolong tea

2017-08-09T08:00:43.102063-05:00

(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3”Me) has exhibited significant biological activities, however, it is poorly absorbed after oral intake. Phospholipids (PL) have been reported to serve as enhancing agents in absorption, therefore, this study evaluated the role of PL in transepithelial transport within a Caco-2 cell monolayer-model system and impact on EGCG3”Me stability. First, EGCG3”Me was prepared from Chinese oolong tea by column chromatography, and EGCG3”Me-PL complex was prepared. The structure of EGCG3”Me-PL was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry, and it exhibited relatively higher stability than EGCG3”Me in mimic gastrointestinal digestion conditions. Meanwhile, the presence of PL increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of EGCG3”Me-PL were significantly higher, while its efflux ratio was lower than EGCG3”Me, which indicated the promotion of bioavailability. Practical applications: For the health effects of tea polyphenols, this crucial issue encompasses dissolution, absorption, distribution, and disposition in target tissues. In our study, EGCG3” Me-PL complex may effectively improve the overall absorption and bioavailability of EGCG3”Me. It could provide information about the potential of PL in the promotion of intestinal transport of EGCG3”Me, and the investigation may be fascinated in manufacturing functional foods, containing high content of tea polyphenols with increased absorption properties. The presence of phospholipids effectively increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, and EGCG3”Me-phospholipids complex may effectively improve the overall absorption and bioavailability of EGCG3”Me. The presence of phospholipids effectively increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, and EGCG3”Me-phospholipids complex may effectively improve the overall absorptio[...]



Ethanolic coconut husk extract: In vitro antioxidative activity and effect on oxidative stability of shrimp oil emulsion

2017-08-15T03:10:28.763229-05:00

Ethanolic coconut husk extract (ECHE) was characterized and its effect on lipid oxidation of shrimp oil-in-water emulsion was studied. Condensed tannin was abundant in ECHE (492.2 and 441.9 mg catechin equivalent/g extract as determined by vanillin and BuOH-HCl assays, respectively). The major free phenolics in ECHE were tannic acid and catechins (205.98 and 103.56 mg/kg dry extract, respectively). Antioxidative activities of ECHE at different levels (50–200 mg/L) tested by all in vitro assays increased as its concentration increased (P [...]



Changes in lipids of shrimp (Acetes vulgaris) during salting and fermentation

2017-08-25T05:15:25.353244-05:00

Changes in lipids of shrimp Acetes vulgaris during production of Kapi (salted shrimp paste of Thailand) were investigated. Shrimp had lipid content of 4.21% (dry weight basis). Lipids mainly consisted of triacylglycerol (TAG) 28.03 g/100 g and sterol (ST) 24.03 g/100 g. Lipid content decreased during salting, drying and the first period of fermentation (p [...]



Lipids from visceral depot fat of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer): Compositions and storage stability as affected by extraction methods

2017-08-02T07:55:32.702905-05:00

Lipids from Asian seabass visceral depot fat (SVDF) were extracted using different methods including heating in air, heating under vacuum, autoclave, and solvent extraction. Lipid extracted by heating under vacuum had the highest yield (67.33%) (p [...]



Chemometric techniques to protect the traditional Austrian pumpkin seed oil

2017-05-26T12:12:32.268393-05:00

The aim of this work was to establish suitable chemometric techniques for establishing provenance of pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oil from the regions of Austria, China and Russia, in order to protect the authentic Austrian products from fraud and mislabelling. To achieve this goal, three different chemometric approaches, projection to latent structures (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and support vector machines (SVM) were applied on two different trace element data sets. To evaluate the reliability of the classification achieved, the results were validated on an independent test set. PLS and SVM performed similarly in many situations. Also the prediction of the discriminating techniques was in accordance with the modelling technique SIMCA. But PLS alone can be used to separate Austrian from non-Austrian pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oil samples based on trace element data. Practical applications: For various reasons, more and more consumers prefer local products with a defined geographical origin. Producers also advertise the geographical origin and are trying to increase the value of their products by praising the quality of their products through a geographical designation. Unfortunately, there is an increases of abuse in these products which also comprise the ‘Styrian pumpkin seed oil PGI’ with falsely declared geographical origin. The demand for an analytical approach how to counteract the falsification of origin of Styrian pumpkin seed oil has increased considerably. The aim of this work is to establish an analytical method with suitable chemometric techniques for establishing the provenance of pumpkin seed oil from the regions of Austria, China and Russia, in order to protect the authentic Austrian products from fraud and mislabelling. PLS, SIMCA and SVM chemometric techniques are ap[...]



Quick unreferenced NMR quantification of Squalene in vegetable oils

2017-08-25T05:16:21.222477-05:00

We present here a simple method for the rapid quantification of squalene in vegetable oils by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The method was validated by adding internal standards to several vegetable oil samples. Quantification was accomplished by exploiting the characteristic resolved signal of terminal methyl groups at 1.67 ppm, which allowed squalene quantification regardless of the hydrophobic matrix. Theoretical principles are fulfilled by the method and, despite the general belief that NMR displays intrinsic low sensitivity, acceptable accuracy ([...]



Influence of atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment on the quality of peanut oil

2017-08-28T04:55:33.405194-05:00

The effects of exposure to atmospheric pressure argon plasma on the quality of edible oil were studied. Peanut oil was exposed to the plasma that was generated in voltages ranging from 150–170 V and the variations of peroxide value, iodine value, acid value, and brightness of the resultant products were monitored. Besides, the storage stability of the radiated peanut oil was investigated as well. Plasma treatment did not change the acid value, but reduced the iodine value and increased the peroxide value and brightness of peanut oil in a voltage-dependent manner. Compared with control, exposure to the plasma generated in 170 V significantly decreased the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid by 2.14 and 2.99% respectively, but exhibited no effect on that of palmitic acid. Storage results revealed that the acid value of the treated peanut oils kept increasing in the 30-day storage period, but the peroxide and iodine values peaked on the 14th and 4th day respectively and then declined gradually. Besides, the voltage-dependent variation pattern was observed for all the three parameters monitored. Since the peroxide, iodine, and acid values of the treated peanut oil are still in the ranges allowed by the Codex Alimentarius standards, it is concluded that the atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment does not deteriorate the quality of peanut oil and this technology has potential application in the edible oil industry. A total of 5 mL peanut oil is transferred to a weighing bottle (diameter 40 mm) and exposed to atmospheric pressure argon plasma at a flow rate of 0.5 L/h for 100 s. The voltage of the power supply is set to 150, 155, 160, 165, or 170 V to explore the effects of plasma density on peanut oil quality. Treatment by the plasma generated in vo[...]



Ethanol extraction renders a phenolic compounds-enriched and highly stable jussara fruit (Euterpe edulis M.) oil

2017-07-24T07:40:25.781028-05:00

The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of extraction solvent, using either ethanol or petroleum ether, on the chemical profile and chemical stability of jussara oil. Jussara fruit oil presented high contents of antioxidant compounds, including anthocyanins. Extraction solvent significantly affected the chemical composition of the jussara oils, except for fatty acids and carotenoids, from which oleic acid and β-carotene, respectively, were predominant in both. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil showed higher contents of tocopherols (α, β, and γ), chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. Moreover, ethanol-extracted jussara oil presented higher oxidative stability and total antioxidant capacity than petroleum ether-extracted jussara oil. Because of its composition, jussara oil might present potential health benefits. Additionally, the use of the low-toxicity solvent ethanol to extract oil seems to be an important technique to afford jussara oil with improved nutritional properties and oxidative stability. Practical applications: Value-added oil was obtained from the jussara fruit (Euterpe edulis), containing, in addition to triacylglycerols, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, tocopherols, β-carotene, and chlorophyll. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil was highly stable, due to the high contents of antioxidants. Ethanol extraction proved to be a highly effective mean to obtain value-added jussara fruit oil. Ethanol and petroleum ether are used to extract jussara oil. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil is highly stable, as a consequence of the high contents of tocopherols and phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. Ethanol and petroleum ether are used to extract jussara oil. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil is highl[...]



Oxidative stability and the chemical composition of market cold-pressed linseed oil

2017-08-08T08:35:24.613494-05:00

Oxidative stability and minor components of market linseed oils were evaluated. The oils were investigated for their primary and secondary oxidation products, fatty acid composition and pigment content, and samples were also examined for their scavenging of 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content. Rancimat and pressure differential scanning calorimetry were used to assess oxidative stability. The analysed oils were of good quality, meeting the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius standard. Linseed oils were characterised by 45–65% content of α-linolenic acid. The TEAC equivalent of linseed oils ranged from 1.25 to 1.42 mM of Trolox kg−1 oil, and FAE ranged from 60.25 to 115.12 mg of ferulic acid 100 g−1 oil. The correlation between linseed oil oxidative stability as measured by the Rancimat and PDSC methods was low (r = 0.55). Based on the obtained results of oxidative stability and the content of chemical compounds, principal components analysis was conducted. PCA indicated that none of the chemical compounds correlated strongly with the oxidative stability of linseed oils as determined by the Rancimat method. However, in the case of the PDSC method, the content of primary and secondary products of oxidation had the strongest impact on the oxidative stability of linseed oils. The correlation coefficients describing the impact of different chemical compounds on induction time using the Rancimat and PDSC tests were between −0.43 to 0.45 and −0.82 to 0.72, respectively. Practical applications: The results show that linseed oils available on the market were of differing but good quality. Results of oxidative stability tests demonstrate that Rancimat and pressure differen[...]



Improvement of sensorial and volatile profiles of olive oil by addition of olive leaves

2017-09-28T11:33:32.852811-05:00

The changes caused by the addition of olive leaves (0, 5, and 10%) during the extraction of olive oil and malaxation time (20, 30, and 30 min) in the volatile profile and sensory attributes of olive oil from cv. Cobrançosa were studied. To investigate such transformations, a central composite designs from the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used, retrieving 13 runs combining leaf percentages and malaxation times. Each run was extracted in triplicate (39 olive oils overall). Sensory attributes were improved to leaves addition, mainly green and fruitiness attributes in olfactory and gustatory-olfactory sensations, but high malaxation times (>30 min) reduced pungent and bitter notes. Leaves addition increased the amounts of total volatiles, particularly the GLV's (green leaves volatiles) (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, directly correlated with the improved sensory attributes. RSM models a showed positive linear effect with leaves addition, but a negative effect with malaxation time. These results suggest the use of olive leaves as effective odorants for the olive mill industry, while enabling the reduction of malaxation times and by-product amounts. Practical applications: The results obtained clearly open new lines of research to use olive leaves, a sub-product of olive oil extraction, in a valuable way. Olive leaves can be used as natural sources of odorants for olive oils. Furthermore, their use during the extraction of olive oils from overmature olives may also lead to an improvement of the volatile fraction and provide enhanced sensory properties to the consumers, thus conferring an added value to these oils. Another important practical application is[...]



Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) emitted by fungi naturally occurring in olives during their pre-processing storage for improving olive oil stability

2017-07-17T02:41:12.926939-05:00

Extra virgin olive oil is widely consumed because of its nutritional benefits and sensory properties which are very important to be preserved in the product. Therefore, chemically synthesised compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are widely used as antioxidants in oil products. It is well known that the activity of some micro-organisms able to oxidise free fatty acids can lead to the loss of the stability of the final product. Nevertheless, several researchers have been recently motivated to evaluate the potential of micro-organisms on the production of bioactive compounds. In this paper, headspace solid micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for the characterization and investigation of Fungal Organic Volatile Metabolites (FOVCs) emitted by 14 fungal strains isolated from olives during their pre-processing storage. A wide range of volatile compounds were detected among them, BHT was produced at levels ranging between 0.3 and 13.1%. This compound could be considered for the industry as natural antioxidant to substitute the synthetic ones used for ameliorating the stability of olive oil and other fatty food products. Practical applications: As the pre-processing storage step is inevitable for several practical reasons, inducing the outgrowth of olive microflora (mainly fungi), which critically affect the physiological state of the fruit and thus the quality of the correspondent oil, this paper try to elucidate the potential of these naturally developing strains and their metabolites (FVOCs) of producing bioactive compounds mainly the BHT which could be considered by the [...]



Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

2017-08-07T06:45:23.269235-05:00

A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of three factors related to emulsion composition (fish oil content: 50, 60, and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8%; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2, and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity, and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions with a combination of NaCas and NaAlg, except when the ratio between NaAlg and aqueous phase was high (0.047 or 0.054). Viscosity of the emulsions significantly increased with increasing fish oil and total stabilizer content. Zeta potential was significantly affected by total stabilizer content. The content of primary oxidation products in the emulsions was very low (0.93 meq peroxides/kg oil). Secondary oxidation products were detected in small amounts ([...]