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Preview: Lipid - Fett

European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Wiley Online Library : European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Published: 2017-09-01T00:00:00-05:00

 



Tallow Beef Flavor: Effect of processing conditions and ingredients on 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol esters generation and sensory characteristics

2017-09-25T09:17:07.964513-05:00

The effect of processing conditions (heating temperature, reaction time and pH) and ingredients of beef flavor system (including enzymatic tallow hydrolysate, DL-methionine, L-cysteine, glucose and D-xylose) on 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD) esters concentration and sensory characteristics of beef flavors were investigated. The results indicated that DL-methionine and L-cysteine had similar effects on the content of 3-MCPD esters, promoting their formation at low concentration, whereas, reducing them when added at high concentration. 3-MCPD esters concentration increased with increasing enzymatic tallow hydrolysate and D-xylose concentration. However, the addition of glucose had no significant effect on 3-MCPD esters concentration. Considering 3-MCPD esters concentration and sensory characteristics, the optimal addition of flavor precursors was finally selected as: enzymatically hydrolyzed tallow (10 %), L-cysteine (1.2 %), DL-methionine (1.2 %), glucose (1 %) and D-xylose (0.5 %). In addition, 3-MCPD esters concentration was also strongly dependent on heating temperature, reaction time and pH. In conclusion, beef flavor was prepared using the optimal concentrations of flavor precursors and heated at 110 ºC with initial pH 7.0 for 100 min. Practical applications: This study will provide a promising way of controlling the formation of 3-MCPD esters without changing the flavor quality of savory flavors. It will promote the food safety control technology of savory flavoring from passive defense to active forewarning. Also, it will provide theoretical guidance and technical support for the sustainable and healthy development of savory flavoring industry.



Changes in physicochemical and microbiological parameters of short and long-lived veiled (cloudy) virgin olive oil upon storage in the dark

2017-09-25T09:17:04.986579-05:00

Veiled virgin olive oil is an intermediate state before sedimentation of unfiltered newly produced olive oil. Despite growing consumer interest in unfiltered veiled virgin olive oil, one of the key factors limiting wider distribution is its low physical stability. The present research describes the production of long-lived veiled virgin olive oil generated in a new storage system to prevent the rapid sedimentation of unfiltered olive oils. Chemical and microbiological analyses were conducted with three short-lived (3–5 months) and three long-lived (1 year) veiled virgin olive oils that contained different concentrations of polar phenolic compounds. The best results were demonstrated in both veiled olive oils types when the polar phenolic compounds content was greater than 130 mg caffeic acid equivalent per kg. The solid particles (98%) present in the short-lived virgin veiled oil settled onto the bottom of the canisters, producing sediments, during storage for 6 months; while only 2-6% settled in the long-lived veiled oil. The microbial activity was higher in both types of veiled virgin oil of low polar phenols content decreasing the quality of the product in the short-lived veiled oil. Practical applications: Unfiltered veiled virgin olive oils are gaining popularity among some chefs and consumers, who judge the opalescent appearance as an indicator of higher wholesomeness. Presently, large-scale production is prevented because it does not meet the expectations of consumers seeking a stable product, since, due to the sedimentation process, the opalescence usually disappears after the first weeks or months of storage. In this research, we evaluated a new storage system capable of preventing the rapid sedimentation of veiled virgin olive oils, extending the opalescence life from 3–6 months to approximately 1 year. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters, were assessed for three short-lived and long-lived veiled virgin olive oils. The best results were found for oils containing higher concentration of total polar phenolic compounds.



Production of MLM type Structured Lipids from Grapeseed Oil Catalyzed by Non-Commercial Lipases

2017-09-22T05:25:31.766718-05:00

Low calorie triacylglycerols (TAG) presenting medium-chain fatty acids (M) at positions sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acids (L) at position sn-2, are known as MLM. This study aimed at the production of MLM by acidolysis of grapeseed oil with medium-chain caprylic (C8:0) or capric (C10:0) acids. Grapeseed oil was used as source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, at sn-2 position in TAG. Reactions were performed in batch, in solvent-free systems, during 48 h. Novel non-commercial sn-1,3 regioselective lipases were used as alternative to high cost commercial biocatalysts, namely: the heterologous lipase from Rhizopus oryzae (rROL) immobilized in Amberlite™ IRA 96 and Carica papaya lipase (CPL) self-immobilized in papaya latex. The highest productions of new TAG were achieved at 40 °C, molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2, after 48 h, with both biocatalysts, with yields varying between 38 and 69 %. rROL immobilized in Amberlite IRA 96 showed a preference towards caprylic acid while CPL showed no preference towards caprylic or capric acid. First-order deactivation kinetics was observed for both biocatalysts. Half-lives at 40 °C were 166 and 118 h for rROL and 96 and 81 h for CPL, in the acidolysis of grapeseed oil with C8:0 or C10:0, respectively. Practical applications: Grapeseeds of Vitis vinifera L. are a by-product of the wine industry. Using grapeseed oil to produce added-value functional oils rich in linoleic acid (essential fatty acid) may be a way of improving the revenues of the enological and oil sectors. Both lipases, and mainly Carica papaya lipase self-immobilized in papaya latex, due to its low-cost production and easy preparation, are promising non-commercial biocatalysts for the synthesis of MLM in solvent-free media. The use of a solvent-free system, in addition of being a green option, is also preferred for economic reasons, avoiding the costs with solvent and solvent recovery. Also, the use of the stoichiometric molar ratio TAG:M of 1:2 will (i) decrease costs related with the recovery and reutilization of medium chain fatty acids in excess, product recovery and purification, and (ii) avoid biocatalyst deactivation by high amounts of free fatty acids in reaction media.



Antioxidant Hydrophobicity and Emulsifier type Influences the Partitioning of Antioxidants in the Interface Improving Oxidative Stability in O/W Emulsions rich in n-3 fatty acids

2017-09-22T05:25:30.343255-05:00

Emulsions with oils rich in n-3 long chain fatty acids, undergo rapid oxidation reactions that may have adverse effects. Therefore, protection against oxidation is necessary. The efficacy of antioxidants with different hydrophobicities (gallic acid, GA; propyl gallate, PG; ascorbyl palmitate, AP; and α-tocopherol, TC) was evaluated in a 79% oil-in-water emulsion model rich in n-3 long chain fatty acids stabilized with either Tween 65 or Tween 80. Antioxidants efficacy was compared to their partitioning in the phases of the emulsion. The order of the antioxidant protection against peroxides and secondary oxidation products was the same as for the antioxidant partitioning in the water-oil interface: AP > GA > PG > TC. The antioxidant efficacy was influenced by antioxidant (p < 0.001), emulsifier (p < 0.001) and interactions of both factors (p < 0.001). AP was the most active antioxidant, while TC was the least active; it was apparently due to a cut-off effect because of its poor partitioning in the interface. The correlation analysis indicated a negative dependency between the oxidation and the partitioning of the antioxidants at the interface; "R" values of -0.66 and -0.75 were obtained for the peroxide and p-anisidine values, respectively. These results showed that the antioxidant activity is determined by the antioxidant partitioning at the interface, the hydrophobicity of the antioxidant, and the emulsifier. Practical applications: The understanding of the efficacy of antioxidants in high-fat oil-in-water emulsions, such as mayonnaise enriched with n-3 fatty acids, but stabilized with emulsifiers other than phospholipids (i.e., lecithin or egg yolk) has been subject of growing interest in nutrition and the food industry. Here, the effects of molecular properties of antioxidants (hydrophobicity) and of emulsifier (size and number of hydrophobic groups) were studied, in order to try to elucidate the better alternatives. This study showed that the antioxidant activity is greatly determined by the antioxidant partitioning at the interface, which in turn, depends of molecular properties of both, antioxidant and emulsifier. It is clear that the affinity amongst such molecules is based uporn the amphiphilic properties of both types of molecules. These results seem to support the nonlinear or cut-off theory, recently proposed. We identified some key factors to describe such activity..



The effect of different dietary fats on the fatty acid composition of several tissues in broiler chickens

2017-09-22T05:25:20.918334-05:00

The type of fat used in formulating broiler chicken diets can affect growth performance, influence the fatty acid composition of different tissues and has consequences for bird health and nutritional value for the consumer. This study aimed to address the hypothesis of whether these effects are specifically due to the variation in the fatty acid composition of the diets, i.e. the proportion of different saturates, monounsaturates (n-7 and n-9) or polyunsaturates (n-3 or n-6), or other factors (physical properties, solid/liquid and source, plant/animal). A total of 480 male Cobb 500 broilers were fed ad libitum on one of six diets containing 4% w/w of either: beef tallow, flaxseed, corn, canola, macadamia or coconut oil (8 replicates/treatment) for six weeks. At harvest, there were no significant differences in productivity parameters nor in the crude lipid content of different tissues between dietary treatments. There were, however, substantial qualitative differences in the fatty acid profiles of all tissues. The levels of specific fatty acids in all tissues except the brain, were positively correlated with the levels of the same fatty acids in the diet however, the strength of the correlations varied between different fatty acids. Practical applications: The results of the current study demonstrate that the dietary fatty acids types and proportions largely determines the fatty acid profile in edible tissues (meat, adipose, liver and heart). The strong correlations and regressions between diet and tissue fatty acid levels validate the ability to predict the tissue fatty acid profile of broilers based on their dietary fat composition. Contrary to our hypothesis, dietary fat type had no influence on the growth parameters which makes us speculate whether such differences in similar studies only become apparent in situations where the birds are also under some level of environmental or social stress. This information will assist poultry feed manufacturers and broiler producers in making decisions about selection of fats with known nutritional and health benefits for inclusion in chicken feed.



Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity degradation kinetics during long-term storage of rapeseed oil pressed from microwave-treated seeds

2017-09-14T06:55:46.788182-05:00

The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave (MV) pre-treated seeds (2-10 min, 800W). A maximum tocochromanols (90.48 mg/100g) and phenolic compounds (mainly canolol, 1692.15 μg/g) concentration was achieved after 10 min of seeds MV pre-treatment, while the highest content of carotenoids (1017.51 μg/100g) was found in the oils pressed from seeds exposed to microwaves for 6 min. During storage, the tocochromanols and carotenoids decreased following zero-order kinetic, the reduction of phenolic compounds displayed pseudo first-order kinetic. Storage stability of tocochromanols in the oils obtained from MV pre-treated seeds was comparable to that of the control oil. Oils produced from 8 min MV pre-treated seeds showed the slowest progress of carotenoids reduction, as the values of degradation rate constant (k) were lower (14.678 μg/100g/month) than that of the control oil (18.168 μg/100g/month). The half-life (t1/2) of oils phenolic compounds increased with longer seeds exposition to MV. The decrease of the antioxidant capacity of the oil followed zero-order reaction model, with the reaction rate constant (k) ranging from 6.3×10-2 to 10.2×10−2 mmol TEAC/l/month. Practical applications: Numerous studies have shown favourable effect of oilseeds thermal pre-processing on the concentration of phytochemicals in the resulting oil. However, there is lack of information regarding storage stability of oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. As the prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry, evaluation of phytochemicals degradation based on the kinetic models will provide information on cost-effectiveness of the seeds thermal pre-treatment prior to oil cold-pressing.



The effect of dairy fat source on viscoelastic properties of full-fat processed cheese spreads

2017-09-14T06:50:20.753976-05:00

During production of processed cheese, different sources of dairy fat are used, that contain different concentrations of surface active compounds (SAC), e.g. natural cheeses (the fat is present in the form of fat globules with membranes with SAC) or butter (practically without membrains with SAC). It is known that SAC concentrations could influence of structure and therefore consistency of processed cheese. The objective of the work was to produce processed cheeses with various surface active compound contents, and to study how various SAC contents affect the viscoelastic properties of full-fat processed cheeses (dry matter content 35% w/w and fat content in dry matter 50% w/w) over the course of a 56 day storage period. The elastic, loss and complex moduli were monitored. The SAC concentration was indirectly controlled by the use of natural cheeses with various fat contents (e.g. ingredients containing fat in the form of fat globules coated in SAC) and butter (an ingredient in which SAC is practically not found at all). The various fat contents of the natural cheeses, and the balancing of this parameter in the raw material composition of the processed cheeses with milk fat (practically without SAC) did not significantly affect the consistency of the processed cheeses (P ≥ 0.05).



Convenient and Environmentally Friendly Production of Isostearic Acid with Protonic Forms of Ammonium Cationic Zeolites

2017-09-13T07:35:25.863194-05:00

Three ammonium-cationic zeolites (ferrierite, ZSM5, and zeolite β) are individually analyzed to produce branched-chain fatty acid (i.e., isostearic acid) from unsaturated linear-chain fatty acid (ulc-FA) with up to 98% conversion and 80% selectivity. The SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of zeolite, amount of water and choice of additive are found to be the key factors for the efficiency of zeolites in this particular reaction. Detailed characterization of zeolites supports the optimization parameters to produce the best results. Large scale production of isostearic acid achieving a 76% selectivity and 96% conversion demonstrates the potential of this systems' capability at the pilot scale. Variation in isomeric composition of branched-chain fatty acid (bc-FA) product is observed for the three different catalytic methods. Dimer production due to interaction with the external acidic surface of these zeolites has been observed, but it can be suppressed.



Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles from castor oil derivatives via thiol-ene miniemulsion polymerization

2017-09-11T10:05:27.621877-05:00

Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles were obtained via thiol-ene polymerization of a biobased monomer in miniemulsion. The α,ω-diene-diester monomer was synthesized through esterification reaction of a glycerol derivative, namely 1,3-propanediol, with 10-undecenoic acid, a long-chain diene carboxylic acid. In order to investigated how different monomeric structures behave towards thiol-ene polymerization in miniemulsion, two types of thiols were investigated: 1,4-butanedithiol and 2 mercaptoethyl ether. Poly(thioether-ester)s with weight average molecular weight up to 15 kDa (Mn) were obtained, depending on initiator concentration and types of surfactant and dithiol employed. Finally, biobased poly(thioether-ester) nanoparticles were submitted to cytotoxicity and hemolysis analyses. High cell viability and no significant changes in cell morphology were observed after the incubation on murine fibroblast (L929) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Lastly, hemolysis assays revealed blood compatibility and therefore polymeric nanoparticles have been shown to be a potential alternative drug delivery vector for intravenous administration. Practical applications: There is a great demand for polymeric systems that fulfill a number of requirements, such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, for biomedical applications. In this context, biobased polymers obtained from vegetable oils are a very attractive sustainable alternative to fossil-derived polymeric materials, presenting potential biodegradability and low toxicity. By thiol-ene reactions, polymeric materials containing ester groups in the main chain - which can undergo hydrolysis - can be prepared in miniemulsion, enabling their degradation in physiological environment and, therefore, being interesting for biomedical applications and material disposal. Such novel materials could be used in temporary implants, tissue engineering and drug delivery systems.



Vegetable oils acting as encapsulated bioactives and costabilizers in miniemulsion polymerization reactions

2017-09-07T01:31:33.810673-05:00

Vegetable oils with different chemical structures were successfully encapsulated and applied as costabilizers in miniemulsion polymerization reactions. The results were compared to hexadecane, a well-known costabilizer used for this type of polymerization. The great advantage of using vegetable oils is that besides acting as costabilizers, they are also encapsulated, increasing the application of the nanoparticles. Results showed that kinetics tend to be slower with argan oil, due to the higher concentration of double bonds present in the oil. When coconut oil and jojoba oil were used, the kinetic rate kept nearly the same. The different types of costabilizers did not affect the average size of the particle, and were able to keep the miniemulsion stable throughout the reaction. DSC analysis showed a decrease in the glass transition temperature when the vegetable oils were used. However, after a long period of storage, the Tg of the polymers increased. STEM images showed the formation of nanoparticles for hexadecane and the vegetable oils. However, the nanocapsule morphology appeared only when coconut oil, jojoba oil and hexadecane were used, while for argan oil no phase separation could be detected in the polymer particle. Practical applications: Miniemulsion polymerization reactions allow the production of polymeric nanoparticles in only one step with high encapsulation efficiency. To obtain a stable miniemulsion, it is necessary the addition of a costabilizer. The vegetable oils were chosen because besides acting as costabilizers the vegetable oils can increase the application of the nanoparticles since they have important characteristics and functionalities. Furthermore, the vegetable oils are biodegradable. In this work, we proposed two oils that are not composed of unsaturated fatty acids, unlike many vegetable oils commonly used in the literature.



Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

2017-09-07T01:31:22.456075-05:00

Microalgae biomass is known as a promising sustainable source of bioactive compounds. Application of microalgae biomass in food and feed products requires information regarding storage stability and optimised storage conditions to minimise unwanted deterioration which downgrades the bioactive composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0 to 56 days), storage temperature (5°C , 20°C and 40°C) and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure) used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols and EPA. Lipid deterioration occurred both due to enzyme-induced lipolysis and autoxidation. Carotenoids and α-tocopherol contents decreased during storage, but may still have prevented EPA from higher oxidative deteriorations due to their powerful antioxidant properties. Oxidation reactions, which resulted in the creation of primary and secondary volatile oxidation products, occurred mainly at the first days of storage. The resulting volatile compounds(measured by head space gas chromatography- mass spectrometry) declined further until day 56, probably due to reaction with amino acids, or decomposition to low molecular weight tertiary oxidation compounds. Storage of microalgae at low temperature is more effective than vacuum packaging. Practical applications: Microalgae are known as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds, and their industrial scale application is growing very fast. Application of microalgae biomass in food, feed or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life of microalgae biomass by choosing correct storage conditions.



Olive pomace in diet limits lipid peroxidation of sausages from Cinta Senese swine

2017-09-01T06:10:23.581201-05:00

In order to examine whether olive pomace (OP), the mean by-product of olive oil extraction, could be included in the animal diet, its effect on the raw mixture and sausages made from meat from OP-fed Cinta Senese swine was tested by comparing it with a diet supplemented with high oleic sunflower oil (SO) and a control diet (C). Proximate composition, pH, color, total culturable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lipid oxidation were evaluated in both the raw mixture and sausages. The aroma profile was also evaluated in sausages. Olive pomace affected the fatty acid composition of the raw mixture and strongly limited the lipid peroxidation of sausages, probably due to the synergistic action of 3,4-DHPEA and α-tocopherol. Olive pomace selectively promoted LAB growth, and protected the raw mixture and sausages from discoloration. The diet also affected the content of volatile organic compounds thus enabling OP sausages to be distinguished from other sausages. Practical applications: The protection of foods against lipid peroxidation is a very important aspect in terms of their quality. Achieving this naturally is a high priority for consumers, as there is an increasing demand for "low impact" and "environment-safe" production processes. The approach proposed in the present study is aimed at meeting both these objectives. Our findings demonstrate that the inclusion of olive pomace in the swine diet effectively slowed down the lipid oxidation in the sausages. The strategy we propose also meets both economic and ecological goals. Olive pomace is the main by-product of olive oil spinneret, and its re-use in another spinneret is a cost-effective way of improving the sustainability of the production process.



Use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements has insufficient clinical evidence for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

2017-08-28T05:55:55.752419-05:00

Omega-3 fatty acid supplements have been used to treat dyslipidemia. However, there is no comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that encompasses a broad range of populations with or without underlying diseases regarding their efficacy. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for trials in June 2016. A pooled weighted mean difference with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effect meta-analysis. A total of 58 trials were included in the final analysis. Compared with placebos, omega-3 fatty acid supplements significantly reduced triglyceride (TG) levels by 38.59 mg/dL (95% CI, -47.16 to -30.02 mg/dL; n = 53). In the subgroup meta-analysis, the beneficial effects on TG levels were dose-dependent up to 3.9 g of omega-3 fatty acid supplements daily and were greater at higher baseline TG levels. However, there existed substantial heterogeneity in the main and subgroup meta-analyses, overall methodological quality of included trials was low, and about 70% of the included trials had a small sample size less than 100 participants. The current meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials suggests that there is no sufficient clinical evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia. Practical applications: Further large, high-quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with a long-term follow-up are warranted to confirm the clinical efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on lipid profiles management.



Commentary: New meta-analysis confirms the long established triacylglycerol-lowering effect of omega-3 fatty acids given in supplemental form

2017-08-28T05:55:33.813547-05:00

In this issue of European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, Nam et al. [1] present the findings of a new meta-analysis of the impact of omega-3 supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) on blood lipids; much of the focus of the paper is on the effect on blood triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. Quite rightly, the analysis uses data from randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials.



Silkworm (Bombyx mori) has the Capability to Accumulate C20 and C22 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

2017-08-26T07:15:23.278622-05:00

Bombyx mori, an insect with significant economic importance in China contains a large amount of lipids among different developmental stages, especially the pupal stage. Silkworms were fed with a base diet and fish oil supplemented diet, and the FA compositions of different strains, life stages, and sexes were determined by GC-MS. No C20 or C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were detected in silkworms fed with the base diet. Females accumulated more unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) than males in the pupal stage, and the relative amount of USFAs decreased from the wandering stage to the moth stage, especially in females, suggesting that silkworms prefer the utilization of USFAs. In addition, when silkworms were fed with a diet supplemented with fish oil, which contained C20 and C22 PUFAs, they accumulated C20 and C22 PUFAs in proportion to the concentration of fish oil added to the diet. Practical applications: Currently, the main dietary source of C20 and C22 PUFAs is marine fish, however, of which the stocks are declining because of environmental pollution and overfishing. Because of its excellent capability to accumulate C20 and C22 PUFAs, silkworm could be developed as a potential new source of these long-chain FAs by transferring Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases to silkworm or its primary food, mulberry.



Classification of monovarietal Sardinian Extra Virgin Olive Oils by 1H NMR Metabolomic

2017-08-26T07:15:21.677087-05:00

The chemical composition affects the sensory properties and quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO). In addition, its knowledge can supply valuable information about the cultivar and its geographical origin. The goal of this study is to obtain a protocol in order to be able to recognize the composition of various Sardinian oils and to consequently correlate them with their production areas. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyse 100 (82 training + 18 test sets) samples of EVOO from the Bosana cultivar, collected from different growing areas in Sardinia (Italy). Growth areas were classified on the basis of FAO-UNEP aridity index. NMR data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis. NMR profiling presented a connection between environmental factors of Sardinian cultivation areas and the chemical composition of EVOO. An NMR-based metabolomic approach that used six "one-to-one" OPLS-DA models allowed us to discriminate the different influence of evapotranspiration, solar exposure and altitude on the chemical composition of Bosana EVOO. Practical applications: Detailed knowledge of NMR spectra pattern variations could have a potential impact on olive oil market. The application of the 1H NMR metabolomic, based on chemometric models, can be a useful tool in order to certificate the geographical origin of EVOO.



Immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B onto ECR1030 resin and its application in the synthesis of n-3 PUFA-rich triacylglycerols

2017-08-25T05:50:22.677491-05:00

In this study, Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was immobilized onto ECR1030 resin and the obtained immobilized preparation was used for the synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich triacylglycerols (TAG). The immobilization process was systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, the immobilized preparation of ECR1030-CALB with an esterification activity of 10058 U/g was obtained, which was comparable with the commercially available Novozym 435. Confocal microscopy images showed that CALB diffused from the surface to the center of carrier during immobilization. The basic properties of ECR1030-CALB were also investigated and it was found that the thermostability, acidic and alkaline stability, and organic solvent tolerance of ECR1030-CALB were comparable with Novozym 435. Interestingly, ECR1030-CALB showed significantly higher specificity towards EPA and DHA compared with Novozym 435, which made it suitable for the synthesis of n-3 PUFA-rich TAG. The TAG content of 74.05% was obtained under the optimized conditions, which was slightly higher than that (73.68%) obtained by Novozym 435. This is the first study for systematically studying the immobilization process of lipase using ECR1030 resin as carrier. Overall, the prepared ECR1030-CALB with excellent esterification activity, basic properties, and catalytic performance might be a promising alternative to commercial Novozym 435. Practical applications: A previous study found that ECR1030 resin was a robust and promising carrier for the immobilization of CALB. However, the detailed immobilization conditions, the basic properties, and catalytic performance of the immobilized preparations using ECR1030 resin as carrier are still unknown. Consequently, knowledge of the above unknown information for the immobilization of CALB using ECR1030 resin as carrier is of great importance for their further practical applications in lipid chemistry.



A novel method for extracting steryl glucosides from soy lecithin

2017-08-25T05:45:19.420748-05:00

In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps, was developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin—the by-product of vegetable oil refining. Phospholipase A1 was used to convert phospholipids in soy lecithin into more hydrophilic hydrolysates, from which SG and ASG were separated by solvent extractions. A 3 x 3 full factorial design was employed to investigate the effects of two parameters (enzyme dose and reaction time) on three responses (yield of extract, SG/ASG content of extract, and recovery of SG/ASG). There were significant enzyme dose—reaction time interaction effects on all the responses, except for yield of extract. The highest SG (including ASG) content of more than 90 % in the extract was achieved at enzyme dose of 0.03 g and reaction time of 16 hours, where the yield of extract obtained was 1.43 %. Practical applications: Conventionally, steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides are isolated from lipid extract and purified by chromatographic methods, which result in a small amount of high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, and thus is not economic to scale up. The method revealed in this study employed an enzymatic reaction followed by simple solvent extractions, and can be easily scaled up to produce high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, making them more affordable for researchers. In addition, the method also presents a new application for soy lecithin or lecithin of other plant origins, whose current applications are mostly related to the main component-phospholipids.



Changes in olive paste composition during decanter feeding and effects on oil yield

2017-08-23T05:46:36.332794-05:00

In olive oil production, olive paste is fed into a decanter in order to separate the oil from solids. The decanter is usually fed by a mohno or lobe pump. In this study, we analyze the composition of olive paste and pomace at the beginning, middle, and end of decanter feeding. The results show a change in paste composition with the two types of pumps. In both cases, olive paste contains a higher percentage of water and oil at the beginning of decanter feeding than at the end. This phenomenon is probably related to the different viscosity of the three components in the system. Furthermore, as the level for the recovery of olive oil is fixed, the change in the solid/liquid ratio causes product loss. This loss is demonstrated and quantified through the measurement of pomace oil content. Practical application: the work quantifies the losses, in term of olive oil, due to the transport of olive paste between the malaxer and the decanter. A monitoring and control system could be implemented allowing a continuous adjusting of the decanter setting to limit the observed phenomenon. Practical applications: The paper quantifies the effect of the olive paste transport from malaxers to decanter on the olive oil yield. The transport causes a change in the relative composition among oil, water, and solids. The decanter centrifuge is not able to separate efficiently paste with different compositions. This causes marked product losses. The presented data could lead to the development of a control system able to limit the losses.



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITIES OF FOUR MEDITERRANEAN INDUSTRIAL ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR RESULTANT DISTILLED SOLID BY-PRODUCTS

2017-08-23T05:46:34.891136-05:00

The aim of this work is to chemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant capacities of the essential oils and their resulting solid residues of four aromatic plants from the industrial distillation, including hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super), cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) and winter savory (Satureja montana L.). In general, the different in vitro antioxidant assays showed that both the oil and the industrial residue extract of S. montana followed by the residue of S. chamaecyparissus were the best antioxidants, whereas the solid residue extract of S. chamaecyparissus and H. officinalis showed the highest copper and iron chelating capacities, respectively. Therefore, distilled solid residues might well constitute a viable and profitable source of natural antioxidants with a potential application in food and non-food products. Practical applications: Solid residues from the industrial steam distillation of aromatic plants constitute an available and affordable source of phenolic compounds that can be used as natural and safe antioxidants, among others, in foodstuffs. Moreover, the exploitation of distilled plants constitutes a sustainable approach to reduce the residues generated every year from this industry, which results in environmental issues when they are not correctly managed.



A statistical model for estimating the effects of oil droplet size and oil fraction in microcapsules on oxidation of oil

2017-08-22T07:20:31.639864-05:00

Based on a two-dimensional percolation theory and an autocatalytic rate expression for oil autoxidation, a statistical model was proposed to estimate the effects of the oil droplet size and the volume fraction of oil within the microcapsule on the oxidation of microencapsulated oil, by means of computational simulations. The model could address both the unique oxidation steps for microencapsulated oil: the rapid progress of oxidation at the early stage of storage and the leveling off of the oxidation after prolonged storage. The simulation also demonstrated that the reduction of the oil droplet size retards the oxidation of microencapsulated oil as well as lowering of the oil fraction within the microcapsule. Practical applications: A statistical model was proposed to simulate oxidation process of microencapsulated oil. The simulation enable us to reasonably design oil microencapsulation.



Renewable Photopolymer Films Derived from Low-Grade Lampante and Pomace Olive Oils

2017-08-22T07:20:30.243705-05:00

Thiol-ene photoinduced copolymerization between a polythiol cross-linker and low-grade unsaturated olive oil provides an eco-efficient route to dry, flexible and rubbery films in the matter of minutes. The synthetic methodology uses low cost olive oils resulting from non-edible grades (lampante olive oil) and waste production (pomace olive oil) without prior chemical modification. The resultant photopolymer thioether cross-linked films contain up to 80-85% of renewable resources, and UV-driven drying proceeds despite the limited unsaturations' concentration. Photopolymerization is triggered with a conventional medium-pressure mercury lamp in presence of three different thiol cross-linkers: 2,2′-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol, hexanedithiol or trimethylolpropanetris(3-mercaptopropionate) and a radical photoinitiator (2-hydroxy 2-methylpropiophenone). Using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR), we show that cross-linking proceeds essentially via a step-growth thiol-ene polymerization, and to a minor extent, by a conventional photo-oxidation mechanism. Practical applications: Olive oil is the second largest produced vegetable oil, and in 2016 world production amounted to 3.5 million tons. An excess of low-grade pomace and lampante olive oils is generated annually from the conventional extraction process; however, declared unfit for human consumption, they have a limited number of uses, and it is difficult to find new outlets. Despite this excess, the development of synthetic and processing methods to convert these non-edible olive oils in useful materials has not been investigated widely. Here we report a method based on thiol-ene photopolymerization to prepare a new range of UV-curable films. Using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, this study sheds light into reaction kinetics and polymerization mechanism.



Tocopherols and polyphenols in pumpkin seed oil are moderately affected by industrially relevant roasting conditions

2017-08-22T07:20:20.613175-05:00

Traditionally, pumpkin seed oil is obtained by pressing the seeds after a roasting pretreatment, at temperatures up to 150°C. However, the appropriate temperatures and roasting times are under discussion. In this study, oils from seeds roasted at different temperatures (60°C-150°C) were compared with oil from non-roasted seeds. At higher roasting temperatures, lower roasting times were required to release the oil. Both, for tocopherols and phenolic compounds, no decreasing trend with the increasing roasting temperature was observed. In contrast, the oil from non-roasted seeds had relatively low levels of tocopherols and phenolics and lacked the typical aroma. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very low, ranging from not detected in oil from nonroasted seeds to 13.8 μg/kg in the oil from seeds roasted at 150°C. Therefore, the choice between the studied roasting conditions may depend rather on sensory evaluations than on the content of antioxidants or of PAHs. Practical applications: The process of the production of virgin pumpkin oil is based on a thermal treatment of the ground seeds, favoring the separation of the lipid fraction, and giving a typical aroma of the roasted oil. Results of this research provide important information regarding the influence of roasting conditions on the quality and safety of the oil. Roasting pumpkin seeds increased the tocopherol and phenols content in the pumpkin oil, with no significant differences in the content of PAHs. The information will be valuable and important for not only for the pumpkin oil production, but also for all the seeds submitted to a roasting treatment before extraction.



Effects of adsorption on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, lipid characteristic, oxidative stability and free radical scavenging capacity of sesame oil

2017-08-21T07:23:54.275239-05:00

Treatment with three adsorbents led to reductions of PAHs in sesame oils, and activated carbons (removal rates were 67.4% and 54.7% for Notit-8015 and WY activated charcoal, respectively) were more effective for removal of PAHs than activated clay (removal rate was 20.8%) under the experimental conditions. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol and γ-tocopherol profiles of sesame oils were not significantly influenced by addition of any adsorbents. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the contents of other minor components (phytosterols, lignans and polyphenols), oxidation stability and free radical scavenging capacity between the crude and treated sesame oils. Polyphenol and phytosterol were good predictors of oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity of sesame oils, due to significant correlations were observed (P<0.05, r = 0.941-1.000). Although adsorption process may bring disadvantage to sesame oils such as reductions of beneficial constituents related to storage stability, free radical scavenging capacity and other physiological functions, however, to eliminate the contamination of PAHs, treatment with activated carbon during sesame oil purification is highly recommended in order to reduce the risk of consumption and to assure the consumer health. Moreover, these results provided a useful guidance for sesame oil plant to improve the quality of the final oil product. Practical applications: Results of this study provided necessary information about the influence of adsorption process on safety and quality of sesame oils. Data demonstrated that adsorption was a double-edged sword to sesame oils, and treatment with activated carbon during sesame oil purification was highly recommended. Results of this study can be applied to sesame oil plants and are transferable to other flavor edible oils for which lower the risk of consumption and bring economic and social advantages to manufacturers to guarantee the oil quality and consumer health.



A simple enzymatic process to produce functional lipids from vegetable and fish oil mixtures

2017-08-21T05:55:22.351347-05:00

Functional lipids (e.g. those triacylglyerols containing EPA and DHA, besides others) are related to the prevention and treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, fatty acids located at the central bond (sn-2) of triacylglycerols are more efficiently absorbed via lymphatic route. Hence, the aim of this work is to increase the Omega-3 content at the sn-2 position of vegetable and fish oils (high oleic sunflower and sardine oil), via enzymatic interesterification. To that end, direct interesterification and a two-step treatment (in situ hydrolysis and re-esterification) were evaluated using Lipozyme TL IM and Novozyme 435. For both lipases, direct esterification led to a minor production of by-products, i.e. free fatty acids and diacylglycerols (< 10 mol%), and to an increase of EPA and oleic acid at the sn-2 position, regardless of the oil mixture composition. The best result was obtained using pure sardine oil and Lipozyme TL IM, (at sn-2 position, the content of EPA and oleic acid were doubled, while DHA presented an increase of 20%). This is an easy process by which the composition of the oils used in food fortification can be improved. Practical applications: The regiodistribution of mixtures of fish and vegetables oils is modified using two enzymatic processes with random and 1,3-specific lipases. Direct interesterification produced minor by-products (<10 mol%) compared to hydrolysis and in situ re-esterification. Final triacylglycerols possess double EPA and 20% more DHA at the sn-2 position, thus, improving the composition of oils intended for Omega-3 fortified formulations.



Development of an improved method to determine saturated aliphatic aldehydes in DHA-rich oil: a supplement to p-anisidine value

2017-08-18T07:55:40.224887-05:00

p-Anisidine value (AV) is an important and commonly-used index to determine the second oxidation statue of edible oils, but it sometimes cannot reflect the concentrations of all the secondary products, such as saturated aldehydes. An improved method for the determination of saturated aliphatic aldehydes (SAA) in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oils has been developed in this study. This method reduces the aldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone adducts (DNPhydrazones) using 2-picoline borane, which can eliminate the analytical error caused by the isomerism of DNPhydrazone derivatives. We subsequently monitored the changes of SAA content during the oxidation of DHA-rich oil. Acetaldehyde (168.8 μmol kg−1 and propionaldehyde (78.5 μmol kg−) were the two main SAAs in fresh oil, and their concentrations increased to 824.8 μmol kg− and 811.9 μmol kg−, respectively, after oxidation for 50 hours at 80 °C. Furthermore, a Michael addition reaction was found to significantly reduce the AV of oxidized oils, from 172.5 to 11.7. Moreover, the concentration of SAAs showed no significant difference and could clearly identify the low-quality oil. These results demonstrate that SAA content might be a potential index to identify oxidized oils, which could provide a good supplementary value to the traditional AV index. Practical applications: The method that has been developed in this study makes it possible to quantify saturated aliphatic aldehydes as markers of oxidation of oils, especially when the AV cannot correctly assess the levels of secondary products. It could serve as a supplement to the AV index and applied to oils, fats, and food products. This work provides quantitative data regarding the amounts of saturated aliphatic aldehydes that can be present in DHA-rich oils during the oxidation process. This data can be helpful for determining the mechanism of oil oxidation.



Separation, Purification and Characterization of Sterol Fatty Acid Esters from Lotus Plumule

2017-08-18T07:55:29.568412-05:00

In the work, a new plant resource (lotus plumule) was used to produce sterol fatty acid ester (SFAE). Acetone extraction and column chromatography were developed for the separation and purification of SFAE. Silica gel (200-300 mesh) was the best adsorbent according to the static and dynamic adsorption experiments. The adsorption of SFAE on silica gel (200-300 mesh) was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model. The column chromatography conditions (elution solvents, loading amount, column height to diameter ratio, and elution flow rate) were optimized and the purity and recovery yield of SFAE were up to 95.56 ± 1.32% and 95.70 ± 3.05%, respectively. Purification process had no significant effect on sterol composition and fatty acid composition of SFAE. Moreover, SFAE products were identified by UV and IR spectra using standard sample, as well as GC-MS. GC results showed that, ?-sitosterol (49.6 %), ?5-avenasterol (33.4 %), and campesterol (9.1 %) were the main sterols; and linoleic acid (63.1 %), behenic acid (8.3 %), and oleic acid (8.1 %) were the main fatty acids. Practical applications: SFAE was recognized by FDA as cholesterol-lowering agents, which can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The demand for high purity SFAE in food and drug industry has steadily increased in recent years, which encouraged the need to find more sources for SFAE preparation. Lotus plumule contained high levels of SFAE, which was used for production SFAE in this study. The separation, purification and characterization of SFAE, as well as the adsorption isotherm models of SFAE purification were investigated. This work provides an economic and efficient method for high purity SFAE production, which gave some available information for the value-added utilization of idle plant materials with high levels of SFAE.



Application of microwaves and megasound to olive paste in an industrial olive oil extraction plant: impact on virgin olive oil quality and composition

2017-08-17T07:46:14.486212-05:00

Traditional olive oil processing includes batch olive paste kneading for 30-60 min. Microwave (MW) treatment of the olive paste has recently shown to continuously provide faster conditioning, while megasound (MS) treatment has been shown to enhance oil extractability. The present work examined the virgin olive oil standard parameters, sensory descriptors, and phenolic and headspace composition upon treatment of oils obtained using novel process enhancement interventions and their combination in an industrial plant. Oils were obtained treating the paste with (a) malaxation for 30 min (control), (b) microwaves (6.0 kW at 2.45 GHz; 0.9 kJ/kg) (MW), (c) malaxation followed by a megasonic treatment (400 kHz + 600 kHz at 2 kW; 10 kJ/kg), (MS), and (d) microwave conditioning followed by a megasonic treatment (MW + MS). Standard parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, K232, K270, fatty acid ethyl esters) were within the international specifications. The Control and MW process provided similar phenolic composition but a post MS intervention significantly increased total phenolic content and decreased total C5 and C6 aldehydes in the MW treated paste. These results encourages further developments for a combined continuous microwave and megasonic conditioning technology to fasten the olive oil extraction, to enhance yields and total phenolic content. Practical applications: Microwave and megasounds are two technologies easily implementable on industrial olive oil extraction plant. They permit to simplify the entire plant and could replace totally the malaxers section. This new technology allows having a uniform paste treatment in continuous mode, enhancing the olive oil quality.



Quantitative indices of the oxidizability of fatty acid compositions

2017-08-17T07:25:25.375855-05:00

The correlation between a wide range of fatty acid composition indices, resulted from different groups of purified edible oils and their binary blends, and two quantitative criteria of primary (induction period of hydroperoxide formation at 60 °C) and secondary (oxidative stability index at 100 °C) oxidations was evaluated. On the basis of highly correlated linear regression models, a corrected form of calculated oxidizability index and the content of saturated fatty acids, SFA, were jointly found to be appropriate indices of primary oxidative stability of all vegetable oils whereas the ratio between palmitic and linoleic acids was mainly considered to show their secondary oxidative stability. As for the oils containing fish oil, a combination of SFA/(C18:4+C20:4+C20:5+C22:6) and monounsaturated fatty acids/(C18:2+C18:3) ratios was used to represent the primary and secondary oxidative stabilities. Among the oils containing vegetable oils and even fish oil, canola oil and its blends had the best fatty acid composition from a health point of view. Practical applications: Since edible oils have vast diversity in fatty acid compositions of very different oxidative stability, prediction of oxidizability based on the fatty acid compositions has become too complicated. Considering primary and secondary oxidation products over the course of lipid oxidation, the present study simplifies the prediction of the oxidative stability of fatty acid compositions by introducing four predictive linear regression models for vegetable and fish oils.



Deep eutectic solvents enable the enhanced production of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerols

2017-08-12T05:40:30.397363-05:00

Efficient synthesis of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol (TAG) by the esterification of glycerol with n-3 PUFA in deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reported. There was a 1.2-fold increase of TAG yield in DES compared with that in the solvent-free system. Adsorption of the produced water by DES during esterification contributed to enhance the conversion efficiency by changing the reaction equilibrium. DES also served as an effective solvent for enriching the n-3 PUFA of TAG in the upper layer of reaction media. A TAG yield of 55% was achieved under the optimal condition. Practical applications Enzymatic synthesis of n-3 PUFA-enriched triacylglycerol (TAG) is challenged by low yields. Here deep eutectic solvents show great potential for enhancing the production of n-3 PUFA-enriched TAG.



Resveratrol formulated with a natural deep eutectic solvent inhibits active matrix metalloprotease-9 in hormetic conditions

2017-07-24T05:06:05.657624-05:00

Despite the promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RES) on human health, pre-clinical an d clinical studies are frequently disappointing, probably due to its low water-solubility and poor bioavailability. Even though a hormetic mode of action was clearly established for RES, the high doses commonly used to mitigate these issues, lead to adverse effects. Common hallmarks of multiple pathologies results from pathological-enhanced endothelial permeability due to both enhanced inflammation and matrix metalloprotease-9 (aMMP-9) activities. The main aim of this work was to optimize the RES capacity to inhibit aMMP-9 by using a new class of solvents, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) for a new RES formulation as compared with dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO). To obtain the appropriate NADES, 18 compounds combinations were prepared to select those exhibiting the optimized capacity to dissolve RES. The RES-NADES 1,2-propanediol:choline-chloride:water (PCW, 1:1:1 molar ratio) and compared with RES-DMSO for their aMMP-9-inhibitory capacities. Low concentrations of RES-NADES/PCW formulation exhibited both a biocompatible solubility and a strong increased aMMP-9-inhibitory activity, at least 10-fold, higher than RES-DMSO, reaching its hormetic mode of action. Following in vivo validations, some particular NADES could potentially be considered as the new generation of formulation for druggable compounds. Practical applications: Formulation of resveratrol in Natural Deep Eutectic solvents (NADES) optimizes its capacity to inhibit active matrix metalloprotease-9. The Resveratrol-NADES 1,2-propanediol:choline-was the most efficient and low concentrations exhibited both a biocompatible solubility and an increased aMMP-9-inhibitory activity, at least 10-fold, higher than RES-DMSO. Consequently, the NADES/PCW formulation allowed resveratrol to reach its hormetic mode of action. Following in vivo validations, some particular NADES could potentially be considered as the new generation of formulation for druggable compounds.



Improvement of sensorial and volatile profiles of olive oil by addition of olive leaves

2017-07-19T08:12:15.239675-05:00

The changes caused by the addition of olive leaves (0, 5, and 10%) during the extraction of olive oil and malaxation time (20, 30, and 30 min) in the volatile profile and sensory attributes of olive oil from cv. Cobrançosa were studied. To investigate such transformations, a central composite designs from the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used, retrieving 13 runs combining leaf percentages and malaxation times. Each run was extracted in triplicate (39 olive oils overall) Sensory attributes were improved to leaves addition, mainly green and fruitiness attributes in olfactory and gustatory-olfactory sensations, but high malaxation times (>30 min) reduced pungent and bitter notes. Leaves addition increased the amounts of total volatiles, particularly the GLV's (green leaves volatiles) (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, directly correlated with the improved sensory attributes. RSM models a showed positive linear effect with leaves addition, but a negative effect with malaxation time. These results suggest the use of olive leaves as effective odorants for the olive mill industry, while enabling the reduction of malaxation times and by-product amounts. Practical applications: The results obtained clearly open new lines of research to use olive leaves, a sub-product of olive oil extraction, in a valuable way. Olive leaves can be used as natural sources of odorants for olive oils. Furthermore, their use during the extraction of olive oils from overmature olives may also lead to an improvement of the volatile fraction and provide enhanced sensory properties to the consumers, thus conferring an added value to these oils. Another important practical application is the extraction process. In our work, we advise to optimize both the percentage of leaves and the malaxation time as much as possible, as they facilitate both sensory and volatile fractions of the extracted olive oils.



Phenolic compounds obtained from alkyl oleates as additives to improve the oxidative stability of methyl rapeseed biodiesel

2017-07-14T05:11:31.447147-05:00

Phenolic antioxidants have limited solubility in biodiesel, so this research developed new antioxidants by addition of hydroquinone and catechol on unsaturated fatty acid esters, which improved significantly the oxidative stability of rapeseed biodiesel. This new compound class is more soluble in biodiesel than hydroquinone and catechol, in same molar concentrations. The aging of biodiesel was studied using Metrohm model 743 Rancimat and PetroOxy devices and it was possible to observe an improvement on oxidation stability in both testing using these new antioxidants. Especially the additives 2MB3 and 4MB3 improved the induction period (IP) of rapeseed methyl ester (RME-B100), from 4 h to 63 h and 65 h respectively with 30 mmol kg-1 of additives, while hydroquinone in comparison improves the stability to 25 h in the same molar concentration. This new class of antioxidants is promising to enhance oxidative stability of biodiesel, showing the capability of such additives to be commercialized for this purpose. Practical applications: Biodiesel is obtained by different raw materials, so the composition is different according to the source. The biodiesel with higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids is more susceptible to oxidation than those with higher saturation. To solve problems caused by oxidative deterioration of biodiesel, this research aimed to synthesize a new class of antioxidants as an alternative for preventing and minimize oxidative damage of biofuels.



Polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LipiGo®) increases fatty acid and neutral sterol excretion in guinea pigs fed with hypercholesterolemic diets

2017-07-10T01:40:34.151493-05:00

This study aimed to evaluate the hypolipidemic properties of a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising β-glucan-chitin-chitosan (BCC). Guinea pigs (n=8 per group) were fed high-fat and hypercholesterolemic diets (17 g/ 100 g of fat, 0.2 g/ 100 g of cholesterol), containing 12 g/ 100 g of either cellulose (CEL) as negative control, oat bran as a source of β-glucan (BOB) or BCC. Food intake and body weight were monitored for 4 weeks and fatty acid (FA), neutral sterol (NS) and bile acid (BA) excretion were determined. BCC, but not BOB, reduced body weight gain and plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, without altering food consumption. This effect correlated well with the capacity of BCC to reduce apparent FA absorption (78.36 ± 7.41% vs 89.51 ± 3.93% in control group), mainly due to an increase of saturated fatty acid (SFA) excretion and, to a lower extent of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). NS excretion was also increased by BCC, although no effects were observed on BA excretion. Therefore, results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of BCC can be mainly ascribed to its capacity to increase FA and NS excretion. Practical applications: This research provides evidence on the hypolipidemic effect and mechanism of action of Lipigo®, a polysaccharide-rich hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising β-glucan-chitin-chitosan (BCC). Particularly, results show that BCC can effectively increase the excretion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and neutral sterols (NS), having a beneficial effect on plasma lipids. This information can be of interest for the development of food supplements in the field of diseases associated with high fat intake such as cardiovascular diseases and obesity.



Occurrence, Determination and Assessment of Mineral Oils in Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils

2016-01-13T05:21:23.17622-05:00

Mineral oil hydrocarbon contaminations can often be found in oilseeds, oils and fats as these matrices are good keepers to accumulate them from all kind of sources along the production chain. In addition seeds and vegetable oils contain naturally occurring hydrocarbons in various compositions. These naturally hydrocarbons can serve for a proof of authentication and they have to be taken into account for the analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons as contaminants. In this review the many sources of contamination like environmental effects, production machinery and packaging materials are referred to and reported data for contaminated vegetable oils like sunflower, olive and palm oil and in addition raw materials and feed are focused on. This is of special importance for the food survey and for the production as it is a challenging task to survey the many routes of contamination along the production chain and during storage in order to improve the food quality. There is still discussion where to fix a reasonable limit for such contaminants in oils and fats, where levels are often very high compared to levels found for migration from packaging materials into low fat products. For the later ones draft limits have been discussed, but it will be a challenge to reduce mineral oil hydrocarbon contamination in oils and fats to a similar extend. In addition the determination of low levels of hydrocarbon contamination is demanding and validation of sophisticated coupled LC-GC methods in collaborative trials is still in development. Practical Applications: An overview about the analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbon contaminations of oilseeds, oils and fats is given. For seeds and vegetable oils also contain naturally occurring hydrocarbons in various compositions, reference data on these naturally hydrocarbons are provided. The many sources of contamination like environmental effects, production machinery and packaging materials are referred to and vegetable oils like sunflower, olive and palm oil and in addition raw materials and feed are focused on. The arguments for a reasonable limit for such contaminants in oils and fats are discussed.



Solid lipid microparticles of hardfats produced by spray cooling as promising crystallization modifiers in lipid systems

2015-09-25T23:53:41.936557-05:00

Spray cooling (SC) is a simple and quick technique without the use of solvents that can be applied for the production of microparticles of different materials with diameters in the micrometre range. In this work, the SC technique was evaluated to obtain solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) of fully hydrogenated vegetable oils (hardfats) of soybean, cottonseed, palm and crambe. SLMs were produced using a laboratory-scale SC, varying the temperature of the hardfat (70 to 85 °C), SLM solidification temperature (0 and 24 °C), nozzle diameter (0.7 to 1 mm) and air pressure (1.25 to 1.75 kgf/cm2). The melting point and preferential polymorphisms of the soybean, cottonseed, palm, and crambe hardfats were, respectively, 69.5 °C (β), 63.2 °C (β'), 60.4 °C (β') and 73.8 °C (β' + β). The analysis of the morphology and particle size distribution showed that all SLMs had a spherical shape, with mean diameters ranging from 60.15 to 2013.99 μm (soybean), 101.25 to 302.85 μm (cottonseed), 56.12 to 2514.32 μm (palm) and 66.10 to 877.93 μm (crambe), depending on the process conditions. It was verified that the atomization process changed the polymorphic habit of all hardfats to the α form. These results indicate that the SC technique may be applied to obtain SLMs of hardfats. Practical applications Solid lipid microparticles, which are composed of fully hydrogenated vegetable oils and obtained by the spray cooling technique, have the potential to modulate or optimize conventional fat crystallization processes for several different industrial purposes.



Alkyl-Branched Fatty Compounds: Hydro-Alkylation of Non-Activated Alkenes With Haloalkanes Mediated by Ethylaluminum Sesquichloride

2017-09-18T01:06:26.205745-05:00

The general method for the cationic hydro-alkyl addition to the nonactivated CC double bond of alkenes mediated by ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3) has been importantly improved and simplified by using haloalkanes (primary, secondary, tertiary) instead of alkyl chloroformates as alkylating agent and performing the reaction without any additional solvent. The protocol is especially suited to perform the hydro-alkylation of internal double bonds. Reaction of the haloalkane with Et3Al2Cl3 gives an alkyl cation which is added to the alkene; hydride transfer from Et3Al2Cl3 to the adduct carbenium ion gives the saturated addition product. Primary halo alkanes give the same addition product as the respective secondary halo alkane because of 1,2-H shift yielding the secondary carbenium ions. In the case of 1-alkenes triethylsilane has to be used as additional hydride donor to avoid di- and oligomerization. Special interest has been focused on alkylation of unsaturated fatty compounds, which are important renewable feedstocks, mostly (Z)-configured such as methyl oleate, high oleic sunflower oil, neopentyl glycol dioleate, but also (E)-configured, that is, dimethyl (E)-icos-10-enedioate, and with terminal double bond such as methyl 10-undecenoate. The respective alkyl branched fatty compounds were obtained after simple work-up with excellent to good yields. The protocol was scaled up without problems to >0.5 mol. The ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3)-mediated reaction of non-activated alkenes with haloalkanes gives the respective hydro alkylation product in excellent to good yields. The reaction protocol allows the synthesis of well-defined alkyl branched oleochemicals, as for example methyl 9(10)-isopropylstearate, and can easily be scaled up. The ethylaluminum sesquichloride (Et3Al2Cl3)-mediated reaction of non-activated alkenes with haloalkanes gives the respective hydro alkylation product in excellent to good yields. The reaction protocol allows the synthesis of well-defined alkyl branched oleochemicals, as for example methyl 9(10)-isopropylstearate, and can easily be scaled up.



Oolong Tea Polyphenols–Phospholipids Complex Reduces Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced Mice Model

2017-09-14T07:45:28.146527-05:00

In this study, the anti-obesity effect of oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex (OTC) was investigated. OTC was prepared with oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) and phospholipids, and exhibited higher stability than OTP in vitro. Then high fat diet-induced obesity human flora-associated (HFA) mice model were obtained, and the administration of both OTP and OTC alleviated the changes of the serum and liver levels induced by high fat diet dramatically. The numbers (log10 cell mL−1) of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium histolyticum in obesity models fed with OTC after 8 weeks were 8.28 ± 0.03, 8.21 ± 0.01, 7.23 ± 0.02, and 7.05 ± 0.03 compared with 8.21 ± 0.02, 8.07 ± 0.02, 7.31 ± 0.02, and 7.10 ± 0.01, respectively, in the control. Together, it confirmed the potential of phospholipids in the promotion of intestinal transport of polyphenols, suggesting OTC may have prebiotic-like activity to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders. Oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex show modulatory effect on the intestinal microbiota of high fat diet-induced obesity mice model, and may have prebiotic-like activity contributing to the prevention of obesity. Oolong tea polyphenols–phospholipids complex show modulatory effect on the intestinal microbiota of high fat diet-induced obesity mice model, and may have prebiotic-like activity contributing to the prevention of obesity.



Using a pseudophase model to determine AO distributions in emulsions: Why dynamic equilibrium matters

2017-09-14T07:40:32.703313-05:00

For decades, explorations with ground state, thermal reactions combined with pseudophase kinetic models and methods for interpreting the results have provided insights into the properties of the different regions of homogeneous association colloids. More recent successful determination of antioxidant (AO) distributions by this approach is providing new insights into AO efficiency in opaque, well-mixed two-phase intact emulsions and eliminating the need to separate the phases. The chemical probe reacts with AOs exclusively in the interfacial region of the emulsion, permitting simplification of the kinetic treatment, and determining its distribution between the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. AO distributions are obtained from the two partition constants, POI and PWI, of the AOs between the oil-interfacial and aqueous-interfacial regions, respectively. POI and PWI values are obtained by fitting the observed rate constant, kobs, versus surfactant concentration profiles with an overall kinetic approach or model we call the “pseudophase chemical kinetic method.” However, because emulsions break up and reform, and reactants and other components diffuse at various time scales within and between the oil, interfacial, and water regions, kobs could also depend on reactant diffusion coefficients. Here we demonstrate that reactant diffusion is generally orders of magnitude faster than most thermal reactions and reactant distributions between the multiple oil, aqueous, and interfacial droplets and regions of emulsions are in dynamic equilibrium throughout the multiphase systems during the time course of the reaction. Thus, kinetic probes are powerful tools for determining structure-reactivity, for example, the HLB, relationships governing AO distributions and efficiencies in emulsions. Practical applications: The analysis presented here demonstrates that one of the basic assumptions of the pseudophase chemical kinetic model that we have developed has a solid foundation in the properties of emulsions. That is, we can determine the distributions of reactants between oil (O), interfacial (I), and aqueous (W) regions of the emulsions because the diffusivity coefficients of reactants within emulsions are orders of magnitude greater than the rate of the reaction between the antioxidant and the 4-hexadecylbenzenediazonium probe. Consequently, we can use the same kinetic model in emulsions as we have used in homogeneous microemulsions. The method permits determination of the partition constants of many antioxidants between the O-I and W-I regions of the emulsions and from them their distributions. The method provides new insights into the relationships between antioxidant hydrophobic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and its efficiency in emulsions and a natural explanation for the cut-off effect observed with increasing antioxidant HLB. Interpreting chemical reactivity in emulsions requires that reactive components A and B be in dynamic equilibrium, that separate second order rate constants, k defined for the oil, int[...]



Synthesis of Dimer Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by Catalytic Oxidation and Reductive Amination: An Efficient Route to Branched Polyamides

2017-09-12T04:40:59.962773-05:00

A novel and versatile route toward dimer fatty acid methyl esters (dimer FAMEs) via catalytic oxidation and reductive amination is described. The oxyfunctionalization of mono-unsaturated FAMEs bearing different chain lengths (C11, C18, C22) is accomplished by a co-catalyst-free Wacker Oxidation process in a high pressure reactor. The applied catalytic system of palladium(II) chloride in a dimethylacetamide/water mixture enabled the formation of keto-FAMEs in the presence of molecular oxygen as sole re-oxidant. In a first attempt, partially renewable dimer FAMEs are synthesized by reductive amination of keto-FAME (C18) in the presence of various aliphatic and aromatic diamines and sodium triacetoxyborohydride as selective reducing agent. In another approach, the keto-FAMEs directly underwent reductive amination using Raney-Nickel in order to obtain the corresponding amino-FAMEs. Subsequently, the keto- and amino-FAMEs are used for the synthesis of fully renewable dimer FAMEs via reductive amination with sodium triacetoxyborohydride as reducing agent. In order to demonstrate a possible application for these new dimer FAMEs, three out of the thirteen synthesized dimer FAMEs are selected and studied in a polycondensation with renewable 1,10-diaminodecane using TBD as catalyst. The polyamides are obtained in molecular weights (Mn) of up to 33 kDa and are carefully characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, SEC, and DSC analysis. The synthesis of keto-fatty acid methyl esters via a straightforward co-catalyst-free Wacker oxidation process allows access to partially and fully renewable dimer fatty acid methyl esters, by using the obtained keto-fatty acid methyl esters as renewable raw materials in a reductive amination process. Some of the obtained dimer fatty acids are exemplarily studied as monomers for polyamide synthesis. The synthesis of keto-fatty acid methyl esters via a straightforward co-catalyst-free Wacker oxidation process allows access to partially and fully renewable dimer fatty acid methyl esters, by using the obtained keto-fatty acid methyl esters as renewable raw materials in a reductive amination process. Some of the obtained dimer fatty acids are exemplarily studied as monomers for polyamide synthesis.



Influence of atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment on the quality of peanut oil

2017-08-28T04:55:33.405194-05:00

The effects of exposure to atmospheric pressure argon plasma on the quality of edible oil were studied. Peanut oil was exposed to the plasma that was generated in voltages ranging from 150–170 V and the variations of peroxide value, iodine value, acid value, and brightness of the resultant products were monitored. Besides, the storage stability of the radiated peanut oil was investigated as well. Plasma treatment did not change the acid value, but reduced the iodine value and increased the peroxide value and brightness of peanut oil in a voltage-dependent manner. Compared with control, exposure to the plasma generated in 170 V significantly decreased the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid by 2.14 and 2.99% respectively, but exhibited no effect on that of palmitic acid. Storage results revealed that the acid value of the treated peanut oils kept increasing in the 30-day storage period, but the peroxide and iodine values peaked on the 14th and 4th day respectively and then declined gradually. Besides, the voltage-dependent variation pattern was observed for all the three parameters monitored. Since the peroxide, iodine, and acid values of the treated peanut oil are still in the ranges allowed by the Codex Alimentarius standards, it is concluded that the atmospheric pressure argon plasma treatment does not deteriorate the quality of peanut oil and this technology has potential application in the edible oil industry. A total of 5 mL peanut oil is transferred to a weighing bottle (diameter 40 mm) and exposed to atmospheric pressure argon plasma at a flow rate of 0.5 L/h for 100 s. The voltage of the power supply is set to 150, 155, 160, 165, or 170 V to explore the effects of plasma density on peanut oil quality. Treatment by the plasma generated in voltages 0∼170 V shows no effect on the acid value, but significantly reduces the iodine value, increases the peroxide value, and brightness of peanut oil in a voltage-dependent manner. Exposure to the plasma generated in 170 V significantly reduces the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid by 2.14 and 2.99%, respectively, but exhibits no effect on that of palmitic acid. Practical applications: Peanut oil is rich in oleic acid, linoleic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as vitamin E and other nutrients, it also has high nutritional value and pleasant, peculiar flavor. However, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) which comes from contaminated peanuts is often detected in peanut oil. An alternative that has been presented for the prevention and control of AFs in food is plasma. The plasma is a quasineutral gas of charged and neutral particles which exhibits collective behavior. The domestic and international research indicates that low temperature plasma has a good restraint of tumor cells, the promotion of gene transfection, coagulation and many other aspects. To our knowledge, the report about atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of aflatoxin has not been found in literatu[...]



Quick unreferenced NMR quantification of Squalene in vegetable oils

2017-08-25T05:16:21.222477-05:00

We present here a simple method for the rapid quantification of squalene in vegetable oils by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The method was validated by adding internal standards to several vegetable oil samples. Quantification was accomplished by exploiting the characteristic resolved signal of terminal methyl groups at 1.67 ppm, which allowed squalene quantification regardless of the hydrophobic matrix. Theoretical principles are fulfilled by the method and, despite the general belief that NMR displays intrinsic low sensitivity, acceptable accuracy (<4%) and reproducibility (<6%) can be reached when squalene is over 2000 ppm, even in “worst case scenarios.” This method may be useful in the continuing efforts to rapidly generate accurate and complete quantitative data suitable for inclusion in the identification labels of vegetable oil products. Practical applications: Unreferenced and accurate quantification of squalene in vegetable oils, was validated here by the analysis of several 1H-NMR spectra of vegetable oils and of standard doped samples. Moreover, we found that squalene can affect the NMR spectra of other quantifiable species. These data may be useful to produce more accurate and precise analyses of vegetable oil using their 1H-NMR profiles. Collectively, our data indicate that quantification of squalene in vegetable oils can be easily accomplished by 1H-NMR, opening new potentialities in NMR-based fat analysis. The ability of squalene to alter NMR spectra should be taken into account, particularly in oils with a high squalene content, such as Sicilian olive oils. Collectively, our data indicate that quantification of squalene in vegetable oils can be easily accomplished by 1H-NMR, opening new potentialities in NMR-based fat analysis. The ability of squalene to alter NMR spectra should be taken into account, particularly in oils with a high squalene content, such as Sicilian olive oils.



Can chemometrics protect pumpkin seed oil buyers from false Styrian PGI labels?

2017-08-25T05:15:56.915061-05:00

A group of scientists from Loeben Universtity is proposing the use of chemometrics in the detection of authenticity of Styrian PGI pumpkin seed oil. They have shown that pumpkin seeds from Austria and foreign countries differ in the composition of various element traces. Based on that they are able to differentiate between false and authentic PGI pumpkin seed using mathematical modeling. A group of scientists from Loeben Universtity is proposing the use of chemometrics in the detection of authenticity of Styrian PGI pumpkin seed oil. They have shown that pumpkin seeds from Austria and foreign countries differ in the composition of various element traces. Based on that they are able to differentiate between false and authentic PGI pumpkin seed using mathematical modeling.



Changes in lipids of shrimp (Acetes vulgaris) during salting and fermentation

2017-08-25T05:15:25.353244-05:00

Changes in lipids of shrimp Acetes vulgaris during production of Kapi (salted shrimp paste of Thailand) were investigated. Shrimp had lipid content of 4.21% (dry weight basis). Lipids mainly consisted of triacylglycerol (TAG) 28.03 g/100 g and sterol (ST) 24.03 g/100 g. Lipid content decreased during salting, drying and the first period of fermentation (p [...]



Sicilian Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil: Fatty acid composition and bio-economical aspects

2017-08-23T12:32:33.513451-05:00

The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil obtained comprises significant amounts of vaccenic acid along with several other unsaturated fatty acids showing several health benefits, including linolenic, trans-13-octadecenoic, gondoic, 7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoic, and gadoleic acid. The economic analysis shows the significant advantage of carrying out the extraction from fruits considered unfit for consumption. Practical applications: The fatty acid composition of Sicilian Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil is similar to that of fruits grown in Tunisia, while it has a completely different profile than the OFI fruits grown in Algeria and Morocco. Like the oil obtained in Tunisia, the Sicilian oil has a higher vaccenic acid content, but it comprises significant amounts of other unsaturated fatty acids showing highly beneficial health properties. Extracted from fruits considered unfit for consumption, its production generates €1220 additional revenues per tonne of unfit fruit thereby significantly improving the economics of OFI processing companies. The oil has several potential applications which go beyond cosmetics, especially as nutraceutical ingredient. With increasing usage and market expansion, we predict that cold press extraction will be replaced by advanced extraction methods such as extraction with supercritical CO2 maximizing for example the biophenol amount in the oil. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil obtained comprises significant amounts of vaccenic acid along with several other unsaturated fatty acids showing several health benefits, including linolenic, trans-13-octadecenoic, gondoic, 7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoic, and gadoleic acid. The economic analysis shows the significant advantage of carrying out the extraction from fruits considered unfit for consumption. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from the yellow fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica widely grown in Sicily shows several distinctive features. The oil obtained comprises significant amounts of vaccenic acid along with several other unsaturated fatty acids showing several health benefits, including linolenic, trans-13-octadecenoic, gondoic, 7Z,10Z-hexadecadienoic, and gadoleic acid. The economic analysis shows the significant advantage of carrying out the extraction from fruits considered unfit for consumption.



Hydroaminomethylation of oleochemicals: A comprehensive overview

2017-08-22T02:06:30.907966-05:00

The present review explores the historical background of the rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM) of vegetable oils and the recent developments in this field. The reaction conditions are especially discussed and commented upon. Various amines have been grafted onto alkyl chains of vegetable oils, thus giving rise to a wide range of bio-based HAM-products. A focus is on bifunctional HAM-products as they have potential as monomers in polymer chemistry. The nature of the ligands stabilizing the rhodium catalytic species is also discussed. The catalytic results obtained with phosphanes and amines are analyzed and compared. The goal of this review is to convince the reader that HAM of vegetable oils is a simple and effective synthetic pathway to access valuable functionalized bio-based compounds with industrial potential. Practical applications: Products resulting from hydroaminomethylation of vegetable oils have potential as monomers in polymer chemistry and as bio-based surface-active agents. The functionalization of the carbon–carbon double bonds of vegetable oils by amino groups is easily carried out via rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM). The functionalization of the carbon–carbon double bonds of vegetable oils by amino groups is easily carried out via rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation (HAM).



Optimization of epoxidation of ricinoleic acid methyl ester by hydrogen peroxide and phase-transfer catalyst using response surface methodology

2017-08-17T07:40:58.482425-05:00

The epoxidation of ricinoleic acid methyl ester (RAME) has been investigated using an environmentally friendly oxidant (i.e., hydrogen peroxide) and a phase-transfer catalyst ([π-C5H5N(CH2)15CH3]3[PW4O16]) in dichloroethane. The response surface methodology (RSM), based on the Box–Behnken design was used to assess individual and interactive effects of the process variables and to optimize the epoxidation reaction condition. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9544) obtained from analysis of the variance confirmed the suitability of the fitted model. The RSM analysis results indicated that the molar ratio of H2O2 to CC bonds and the reaction temperature are the most significant (P [...]



Production of chemicals from microalgae lipids – status and perspectives

2017-08-17T07:40:39.232734-05:00

The engineering of algae strains, cultivation, and further processing steps in microalgae production are considered in view of the utilization of microalgae lipids for chemicals. Insights from biofuel production trials on the one hand and existing processes for very high-value pharmaceuticals on the other hand are instructive to this end. A recent example of the production of a surfactant from chemical intermediates gained from algae oil and further opportunities are discussed. Microalgae oil lipids are discussed as an alternative source for chemicals. The tuning of lipid production in microalgae via genetic engineering and cultivation optimization for this purpose is reviewed. We further illuminate the bottlenecks of upscaling and the state of the art in industrial algae production by means of three concrete case studies. We give insights into the catalytic functionalization to high-value products. Microalgae oil lipids are discussed as an alternative source for chemicals. The tuning of lipid production in microalgae via genetic engineering and cultivation optimization for this purpose is reviewed. We further illuminate the bottlenecks of upscaling and the state of the art in industrial algae production by means of three concrete case studies. We give insights into the catalytic functionalization to high-value products.



Lipids from the marine world: Perspectives of an organic chemist

2017-08-17T07:31:14.965273-05:00

This report describes synthesis of novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs) of the 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerol type constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids. One of two TAGs was comprised of a pure EPA located at the 1,3-positions with pure DHA at the 2-position and the other had it reversed with a pure DHA at the 1,3-positions and pure EPA at the 2-positions. The similarly structured DAGEs were derived from chimyl-, batyl-, and selachyl alcohols constituting pure EPA at their sn-3 position with pure DHA at the sn-2 position as well as the opposite composition with pure DHA at the sn-3 position and EPA at the sn-2 position, the total of six such DAGE products. The syntheses of these compounds were brought about by a two-step chemoenzymatic process involving a highly regioselective immobilized Candida antarctica lipase to incorporate EPA or DHA activated as acetoxime esters exclusively into the 1,3-positions of glycerol and the sn-3 position of the 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols. The second PUFA acyl groups were subsequently introduced to the remaining 2-positions by EDCI coupling agent to accomplish the title compounds highly efficiently in very high to excellent yields (86–92%). Practical applications: The work described is based on a previously reported methodology to introduce n-3 PUFAs activated as oxime esters exclusively into the terminal 1,3-positions of glycerol and 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols to prepare reversed structured TAGs and DAGEs by use of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. The methodology is ideal for introducing isotopically labeled fatty acids into predetermined positions of TAGs and DAGEs. Novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs), constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids, were obtained by a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis comprised of an exclusive incorporation of EPA or DHA, activated as acetoxime esters, into the terminal positions of glycerol and 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols by use of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase, and a subsequent introduction of a second PUFA acyl group to the remaining 2-positions by EDCI coupling agent. Novel structured triacylglycerols (TAGs) and diacylglyceryl ethers (DAGEs), constituting EPA and DHA as the sole fatty acids, were obtained by a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis comprised of an exclusive incorporation of EPA or DHA, activated as acetoxime esters, into the terminal positions of glycerol and 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerols by use of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase, and a subsequent introduction of a second PUFA acyl group to the remaining 2-positions by EDCI coupling agent.



Ethanolic coconut husk extract: In vitro antioxidative activity and effect on oxidative stability of shrimp oil emulsion

2017-08-15T03:10:28.763229-05:00

Ethanolic coconut husk extract (ECHE) was characterized and its effect on lipid oxidation of shrimp oil-in-water emulsion was studied. Condensed tannin was abundant in ECHE (492.2 and 441.9 mg catechin equivalent/g extract as determined by vanillin and BuOH-HCl assays, respectively). The major free phenolics in ECHE were tannic acid and catechins (205.98 and 103.56 mg/kg dry extract, respectively). Antioxidative activities of ECHE at different levels (50–200 mg/L) tested by all in vitro assays increased as its concentration increased (P < 0.05). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and metal chelating activity were decreased up to 50% when heated at temperature higher than 90°C for longer than 60 min (P < 0.05). Impact of ECHE (200 and 400 mg/L) on lipid oxidation of shrimp oil-in-water emulsion was monitored throughout 12 days of storage at 30°C. Lipid oxidation of emulsion added with ECHE was retarded as evidenced by the lower conjugated diene (CD), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, and ρ-anisidine value (AnV). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) were more retained in the sample added with ECHE (200 mg/L) at the end of storage (P < 0.05). ECHE could therefore be used as a natural antioxidant, particularly in emulsion. Practical application: Coconut husk, the underutilized material from coconut processing, contains condensed tannin and free phenolic compounds with antioxidative activity. Coconut husk extract could therefore increase oxidative stability of lipids in food systems, particularly those rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid such as shrimp oil. Emulsion is generally prone to oxidation due to its large surface area of oil phase exposed to aqueous phase. Thus, coconut husk extract can be used as a natural antioxidant, which could maintain the quality of emulsion as well as other fat-based foods during the extended storage. Extract from coconut husk was prepared using 60% (v/v) ethanol. The extract rich in tannin and other phenolics showed antioxidative activities as tested by different in vitro assays. The extract could retard lipid oxidation in shrimp oil-in-water emulsion during 12 days of storage at 30°C. Thus, ethanolic coconut extract could serve as a natural antioxidant for food applications. Extract from coconut husk was prepared using 60% (v/v) ethanol. The extract rich in tannin and other phenolics showed antioxidative activities as tested by different in vitro assays. The extract could retard lipid oxidation in shrimp oil-in-water emulsion during 12 days of storage at 30°C. Thus, ethanolic coconut extract could serve as a natural antioxidant for food applications.



Phospholipids modulate Caco-2 transport of EGCG3”Me from Chinese oolong tea

2017-08-09T08:00:43.102063-05:00

(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3”Me) has exhibited significant biological activities, however, it is poorly absorbed after oral intake. Phospholipids (PL) have been reported to serve as enhancing agents in absorption, therefore, this study evaluated the role of PL in transepithelial transport within a Caco-2 cell monolayer-model system and impact on EGCG3”Me stability. First, EGCG3”Me was prepared from Chinese oolong tea by column chromatography, and EGCG3”Me-PL complex was prepared. The structure of EGCG3”Me-PL was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry, and it exhibited relatively higher stability than EGCG3”Me in mimic gastrointestinal digestion conditions. Meanwhile, the presence of PL increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of EGCG3”Me-PL were significantly higher, while its efflux ratio was lower than EGCG3”Me, which indicated the promotion of bioavailability. Practical applications: For the health effects of tea polyphenols, this crucial issue encompasses dissolution, absorption, distribution, and disposition in target tissues. In our study, EGCG3” Me-PL complex may effectively improve the overall absorption and bioavailability of EGCG3”Me. It could provide information about the potential of PL in the promotion of intestinal transport of EGCG3”Me, and the investigation may be fascinated in manufacturing functional foods, containing high content of tea polyphenols with increased absorption properties. The presence of phospholipids effectively increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, and EGCG3”Me-phospholipids complex may effectively improve the overall absorption and bioavailability of EGCG3”Me. The presence of phospholipids effectively increased the transepithelial transport of EGCG3”Me, and EGCG3”Me-phospholipids complex may effectively improve the overall absorption and bioavailability of EGCG3”Me.



Oxidative stability and the chemical composition of market cold-pressed linseed oil

2017-08-08T08:35:24.613494-05:00

Oxidative stability and minor components of market linseed oils were evaluated. The oils were investigated for their primary and secondary oxidation products, fatty acid composition and pigment content, and samples were also examined for their scavenging of 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content. Rancimat and pressure differential scanning calorimetry were used to assess oxidative stability. The analysed oils were of good quality, meeting the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius standard. Linseed oils were characterised by 45–65% content of α-linolenic acid. The TEAC equivalent of linseed oils ranged from 1.25 to 1.42 mM of Trolox kg−1 oil, and FAE ranged from 60.25 to 115.12 mg of ferulic acid 100 g−1 oil. The correlation between linseed oil oxidative stability as measured by the Rancimat and PDSC methods was low (r = 0.55). Based on the obtained results of oxidative stability and the content of chemical compounds, principal components analysis was conducted. PCA indicated that none of the chemical compounds correlated strongly with the oxidative stability of linseed oils as determined by the Rancimat method. However, in the case of the PDSC method, the content of primary and secondary products of oxidation had the strongest impact on the oxidative stability of linseed oils. The correlation coefficients describing the impact of different chemical compounds on induction time using the Rancimat and PDSC tests were between −0.43 to 0.45 and −0.82 to 0.72, respectively. Practical applications: The results show that linseed oils available on the market were of differing but good quality. Results of oxidative stability tests demonstrate that Rancimat and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) methods should not be used interchangeably for assessing linseed oil oxidative stability (r = 0.55). The initial degree of oxidation had the greatest impact on the oxidative stability of linseed oil, but none of the measured quality parameters showed a high correlation with the Rancimat induction time. Principal component analysis verified the designated correlations between induction times in the Rancimat and PDSC tests and quality features. PCA also confirmed differences between the examined linseed oils. Market linseed oils are examined to their oxidative stability using Rancimat and pressure differential scanning calorimetry, and their chemical composition. The influence of selected discriminants on the oxidative stability of linseed oil is determined. Market linseed oils are examined to their oxidative stability using Rancimat and pressure differential scanning calorimetry, and their chemical compos[...]



Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

2017-08-07T06:45:23.269235-05:00

A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of three factors related to emulsion composition (fish oil content: 50, 60, and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8%; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2, and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity, and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions with a combination of NaCas and NaAlg, except when the ratio between NaAlg and aqueous phase was high (0.047 or 0.054). Viscosity of the emulsions significantly increased with increasing fish oil and total stabilizer content. Zeta potential was significantly affected by total stabilizer content. The content of primary oxidation products in the emulsions was very low (0.93 meq peroxides/kg oil). Secondary oxidation products were detected in small amounts (<60 ng/g emulsion). Even though the optimum formulation concerning physical parameters was suggested as 61.8% fish oil content, 1.4% total stabilizer, and 1.2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50–70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high interest to food industry for the production of omega-3 fortified products. Our results show the feasibility to stabilize high fat delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions using combinations of NaCas and NaAlg. As these emulsions had high amount of fish oil, food products can be enriched with smaller amounts of high fat emulsions when compared to low fat delivery emulsions. This results in minor changes of the product's original structure. Examples for enrichment of food products with omega-3 are dressings, cream cheese, yoghurt, and mayonnaise. Optimization of emulsion composition which maximizes the physical and oxidative stabilities of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate. Optimization of emulsion composition which maximizes the physical and oxidative stabilities of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate.



Macromolecular materials based on the application of the Diels–Alder reaction to natural polymers and plant oils

2017-08-04T07:10:42.444609-05:00

The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin. The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin. The furan-maleimide thermally reversible Diels–Alder reaction applied to the elaboration of novel macromolecular materials from renewable resources (see image of polymerization and depolymerization) is reviewed on the basis of our investigations, which cover predominantly the field to this date. Different approaches are outlined, depending on the substrate and the results discussed in terms of the properties and potential applications of the ensuing linear, branched, and crosslinked polymers, with particular emphasis on their recyclability. These chemical modifications concern triglycerides and macromonomers derived from them, polysaccharides such as cellulose fibers and nanofibers, starch and chitosan, as well as natural rubber and gelatin.



Lactobacilli survival and adhesion to colonic epithelial cell lines is dependent on long chain fatty acid exposure

2017-08-03T06:35:24.056044-05:00

Lactobacilli and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are commonly consumed as functional foods. However, there is very little research into their interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between fatty acids (FA) and lactobacilli by exploring lactobacilli survival following exposure to different FA and their adhesion to epithelial cells pre-treated with different FA. Three strains of lactobacilli were cultured with 20 µM eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) or oleic acid (OA, n-9) to assess survival. Additionally, adhesion of radioactively labelled bacteria to confluent layers of three colorectal cell lines was measured following pre-treatment of the epithelial cells with 50 µM EPA, DHA, AA. or OA. Results show that exposure to FA slowed log-phase growth of two human derived strains of lactobacilli, but reduced survival of a chicken derived strain to 20%. Survival was associated with the formation of the FA cyc19:0 in the human derived strains. The chicken derived strain showed greatest adherence to epithelial cells and adhesion was increased following epithelial cell exposure to DHA. In conclusion, the survival and adhesion of lactobacilli in the intestinal tract is likely to be affected by FA content of the diet. Practical applications: The fatty acid composition of the diet has the potential to modulate the behaviour of probiotic bacteria in the gut and in probiotic foods. We showed that combining high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with certain probiotics may lead to reduced numbers of probiotic bacteria. Despite this, we showed that PUFA could enhance adhesion of some lactobacilli strains and that increasing the PUFA content of epithelial cells via the diet may aid the adherence of some potentially beneficial lactobacilli. We also highlight a potential concern for the chicken industry whereby PUFA inhibited the growth of the lactobacilli isolated from chicken. With the increasing use of PUFA in chicken feed this could lead to a dysbiosis in normal chicken microflora and requires further investigation. Overview of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) potential effects on bacteria adhesion. (1) Unabsorbed PUFA directly effects bacteria in the colon. (2) Systemic delivery of PUFA following absorption can (a) Bind peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), that can lead to production of transforming growth factor-β resulting in tolerance towards bacteria. (b) Be precursors for series 3 prostaglandins (PG) that lead to lower inflammatory responses. (c) Be prec[...]



Lipids from visceral depot fat of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer): Compositions and storage stability as affected by extraction methods

2017-08-02T07:55:32.702905-05:00

Lipids from Asian seabass visceral depot fat (SVDF) were extracted using different methods including heating in air, heating under vacuum, autoclave, and solvent extraction. Lipid extracted by heating under vacuum had the highest yield (67.33%) (p [...]



Oxidative stability of pullulan electrospun fibers containing fish oil: Effect of oil content and natural antioxidants addition

2017-08-01T06:04:20.989249-05:00

The effect of oil content and addition of natural antioxidants on the morphology and oxidative stability of pullulan ultra-thin fibers loaded with fish oil and obtained by electrospinning was investigated. Pullulan sub-micron fibers containing 10 and 30 wt% fish oil were prepared and both presented beads where the oil accumulated. The number of beads was significantly higher in 30 wt% oil-loaded fibers. Moreover, fibers containing 30 wt% fish oil had a higher oxidative stability when compared to 10 wt% oil-loaded fibers, despite its lower encapsulation efficiency (EE) value (67.1 ± 3.1%). The oxidative stability of fibers loaded with 10 wt% fish oil (EE = 88.5 ± 0.7%) was significantly improved when adding δ-tocopherol (500 ppm) and rosemary extract (500 ppm) as antioxidants. However, higher concentration of antioxidants (2000 ppm δ-tocopherol and 1000 ppm rosemary extract) did not further improve the oxidative stability of 10 wt% oil-loaded fibers, but had a pro-oxidant effect. Finally, the production of pullulan fibers containing 10 wt% fish oil from formic acid solutions increased the oxidative stability of the fibers when compared to the same type of fibers obtained from water solutions. The latter was observed for fibers without and with antioxidants (500 ppm of δ-tocopherol and 500 ppm of rosemary extract). Practical applications: Encapsulation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and addition of antioxidants are the most efficient strategies to protect these lipids against oxidation when incorporating them into food matrices. These results show the feasibility to encapsulate fish oil in pullulan ultra-thin fibers and to improve their oxidative stability by adding natural antioxidants such as δ-tocopherol and rosemary extract. Therefore, this study might open up new opportunities for further technological development in the production of omega-3 nanodelivery systems, which have potential applications in different types of fortified foods. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants. Encapsulation of fish oil in electrospun pullulan fibers stabilized by natural antioxidants.



Structure and properties of an ethylcellulose and stearyl alcohol/stearic acid (EC/SO:SA) hybrid oleogelator system

2017-08-01T06:01:56.26186-05:00

The physical properties of stearyl alcohol:stearic acid (SO:SA) oleogels at varying oleogelator mass ratios were characterized in the presence of the polymer oleogelator ethylcellulose (EC). The large deformation properties of the combined EC/SO:SA oleogels at intermediate ratios (8:2 to 4:6) were similar to that of the corresponding SO:SA formulations. The remaining ratios exhibited a substantial increase in gel strength in the presence of EC, with the hardest composed of stearic acid (0:10). Neither polymorphism, nor thermal behavior of SO:SA were affected by EC, but increases in SFC at 10°C were correlated to harder gels. EC drastically altered the microstructure of the SOSA network producing structures made up of clusters of branching, needle-like crystals. Overall, the increase in gel strength outside the ratios where pure stearyl alcohol or stearic acid crystals were present, could be attributed to increased solids and reinforcement by the secondary EC network. Practical applications: The hybrid gelator system investigated here has potential as fat mimetic. The SO:SA ratios which provided the greatest oil-structuring ability and plasticity were 8:2 and 7:3 SO:SA. This strategy of using complementary gelators should prove useful for optimizing the functionality of oleogels for diverse food applications. Ethylcellulose improved the gelling efficiency and gel strength of the stearoyl alcohol/stearic acid oleogelator system by altering the crystalline microstructure. Ethylcellulose improved the gelling efficiency and gel strength of the stearoyl alcohol/stearic acid oleogelator system by altering the crystalline microstructure.



Flaxseed oil stabilization using natural and synthetic antioxidants

2017-07-28T03:55:39.60496-05:00

The aim of this work was to identify effective and safe antioxidants (AO) for stabilization of flaxseed oil and extension of its shelf life. A number of AO (both synthetic and natural ones) as well as their compositions are currently used for inhibiting oxidation processes. Their efficacy in flaxseed oil under conditions of accelerated oxidation at 100°С was tested. The fat-soluble ascorbic acid esters displayed significant antioxidant activity. The stabilizing effect of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) was more apparent in the oil samples with higher alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content and lower oxidation resistance. AP alone ensured better stabilization efficacy than some known AP-based compositions. Kinetic data were obtained characterizing accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products in flaxseed oil added with AP during the storage at room temperature and with free access of the air. The calculated values of stabilization factor (3.7 and >6 at AP concentrations of 0.01 and 0.02%, respectively) demonstrated high inhibiting activity of AP under these conditions. It has also been found that haricot and soy beans, as well as compositions thereof, at an oil concentration of 0.8% effectively inhibit the oxidation and oxidative destruction of flaxseed oil lipids. Both AP and vegetable compositions based on legume seeds could be recommended for effective stabilization of flaxseed oil and substantial prolongation of its shelf life. Practical application: High antioxidant activity in flaxseed oil of fat-soluble esters of ascorbic acid, as well as vegetable stabilizers based on haricot and soy beans, enables significant increase of the shelf life of the oil. The use of AP alone and legume based stabilizers ensure reliable and safe protection of flaxseed oil from oxidation, and these both methods are applicable to industrial production of edible flaxseed oil and the products on its basis. The corresponding technological methods of practical application of AP and vegetable legume-based stabilizers in industrial production of oxidation-resistant edible flaxseed oil have already been developed and introduced into oil production process by the authors of this article. Additive stabilizers based on bean and soybeans effectively inhibit the oxidation and oxidative destruction of flaxseed oil lipids. High antioxidant activity in flaxseed oil of vegetable stabilizers enables significant increase of the shelf life of the oil. The use of legume based stabilizers ensure reliable [...]



Ethanol extraction renders a phenolic compounds-enriched and highly stable jussara fruit (Euterpe edulis M.) oil

2017-07-24T07:40:25.781028-05:00

The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of extraction solvent, using either ethanol or petroleum ether, on the chemical profile and chemical stability of jussara oil. Jussara fruit oil presented high contents of antioxidant compounds, including anthocyanins. Extraction solvent significantly affected the chemical composition of the jussara oils, except for fatty acids and carotenoids, from which oleic acid and β-carotene, respectively, were predominant in both. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil showed higher contents of tocopherols (α, β, and γ), chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. Moreover, ethanol-extracted jussara oil presented higher oxidative stability and total antioxidant capacity than petroleum ether-extracted jussara oil. Because of its composition, jussara oil might present potential health benefits. Additionally, the use of the low-toxicity solvent ethanol to extract oil seems to be an important technique to afford jussara oil with improved nutritional properties and oxidative stability. Practical applications: Value-added oil was obtained from the jussara fruit (Euterpe edulis), containing, in addition to triacylglycerols, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, tocopherols, β-carotene, and chlorophyll. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil was highly stable, due to the high contents of antioxidants. Ethanol extraction proved to be a highly effective mean to obtain value-added jussara fruit oil. Ethanol and petroleum ether are used to extract jussara oil. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil is highly stable, as a consequence of the high contents of tocopherols and phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. Ethanol and petroleum ether are used to extract jussara oil. Ethanol-extracted jussara oil is highly stable, as a consequence of the high contents of tocopherols and phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins.



Phenolics, fatty acids, and biological potential of selected Croatian EVOOs

2017-07-17T02:41:51.048015-05:00

Nutritional value of extra virgin olive oil is associated with its complex chemical composition. The aim of this study was to determine phenolic secoiridoids in Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from autochthonous Croatian cultivars (Drobnica, Krvavica, Lastovka, and Oblica) by qNMR, to determine simple phenolics by UPLC, as well as to analyze the fatty acid profile, the antioxidant activity, and the oxidative stability of selected oils. This is the first study on chemical and biological characterization of selected autochthonous olives varieties. Drobnica EVOO contained the highest amount of total phenols and major secoiridoid derivatives (oleocanthal, oleacein, oleuropein aglycon, and ligstroside aglycon) compared to other oils. The antioxidant activity of Drobnica phenolics was very high by FRAP and copper-induced LDL oxidation assays, while the oxidative stability of Drobnica oil by Rancimat method was very long (23 h). Practical applications: This study represents the contribution to the research of chemical and biological potential of monovarietal extra virgin olive oil from Croatia. EVOOs from selected Croatian autochthonous cultivars had very high phenolic content that is related to high inhibitory rate of copper-induced oxidation of human LDL as well as the long oxidative stability. Drobnica EVOO showed very long oxidative stability. EFSA approved health claim on olive oil polyphenols (EU, 432/2012) and selected Croatian cultivars, especially Drobnica, are of interest due to its high phenolic content and strong biological potential. Extra virgin olive oils from selected Croatian autochthonous cultivars with high amount of phenolic secoiridoids (oleocanthal, oleacein, oleuropein aglycon, ligstroside aglycon) determined by qNMR technique shows very long oxidative stability by Rancimat method (>20 h) and high biological potential.



Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) emitted by fungi naturally occurring in olives during their pre-processing storage for improving olive oil stability

2017-07-17T02:41:12.926939-05:00

Extra virgin olive oil is widely consumed because of its nutritional benefits and sensory properties which are very important to be preserved in the product. Therefore, chemically synthesised compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are widely used as antioxidants in oil products. It is well known that the activity of some micro-organisms able to oxidise free fatty acids can lead to the loss of the stability of the final product. Nevertheless, several researchers have been recently motivated to evaluate the potential of micro-organisms on the production of bioactive compounds. In this paper, headspace solid micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used for the characterization and investigation of Fungal Organic Volatile Metabolites (FOVCs) emitted by 14 fungal strains isolated from olives during their pre-processing storage. A wide range of volatile compounds were detected among them, BHT was produced at levels ranging between 0.3 and 13.1%. This compound could be considered for the industry as natural antioxidant to substitute the synthetic ones used for ameliorating the stability of olive oil and other fatty food products. Practical applications: As the pre-processing storage step is inevitable for several practical reasons, inducing the outgrowth of olive microflora (mainly fungi), which critically affect the physiological state of the fruit and thus the quality of the correspondent oil, this paper try to elucidate the potential of these naturally developing strains and their metabolites (FVOCs) of producing bioactive compounds mainly the BHT which could be considered by the industry in order to substitute the synthetic one largely used to improve the stability of olive oil and other food products. Volatiles, when coupled with the power “omics” technologies represent a new frontier in bio-prospecting. FOVCs profile of 14 fungi strains isolated from olives stored during 2, 5, and 7 days in plastic bags is determinate by HS-SPME-GC-MS. 87 FVOCs are detected representing six groups dominated by the non-terpene derivatives. Interestingly, a compound with particular interest is detected; the Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is naturally emitted by 11 strains from the 14 isolated fungi at levels ranging between 0.3 and 13.1% (for Aspergillus conicus). A result which could be considered by the industry[...]



Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of glycerol monodecanoate

2017-07-17T02:41:04.164789-05:00

Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis was carried out to prepare 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate, by esterification of decanoic acid in the presence of two distinct glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate, respectively. The process described is based on microwaves heating source with electrical power in the range of 200–400 W, involving stoichiometric proportions of decanoic acid and glycerol derivatives, and using catalytic amounts of TBAI used as organocatalyst. Conversion and selectivity rates of esterification reactions were monitored by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy. The predominantly formed ester, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate was fully characterized by infrared and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Compared with the classical heating procedures, and whatever the glycerol derivatives used, total conversions were obtained with considerably reduced reaction times. Thus, under 300 W, esterification requires only 1 min exposure from glycidol and 5 min from glycerol carbonate. The use of heating with conventional oil bath conditions needs residence times of more than 1 h (even 24 h in the case of glycerol carbonate). The microwave-assisted synthesis also notably enhances the selectivity in 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate (at 300 W, 90, and 50%, respectively), reinforcing the efficiency and the interest of the method. Practical applications: The results establish that microwave heating is well suited for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol monodecanoate from decanoic acid and two glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate. Reaction times are drastically reduced, and in both cases, marked improvements of the conversion and selectivity are recorded. The target α-monoglyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate, has various potential applications such as antimicrobial properties, bacterial inhibitory activity, or denture disinfectant. Solvent-free microwave heating conditions are applied to the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate by esterification of decanoic acid in the presence of two glycerol derivatives, glycidol, and glycerol carbonate. In both cases, conversion and selectivity gains, as well as notable reductions of reaction times are record. Solvent-free microwave heating conditions are applied to the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl decanoate by esterification of decanoic a[...]



A new analytical and statistical approach to predict the sensory properties of deep frying fats and oils to determine the point of discard during processing

2017-07-07T02:16:24.015545-05:00

The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility and limits of analytical criteria to assess the sensory properties of used frying oils and different fried food. Over a period of 2 years, 148 used frying oils collected in restaurants bakeries, fish caterers, and industrial plants were analyzed for a wide range of parameters, including sensory tests, total polar compounds (TPC), dimerized and polymerized triacyl-glycerols (DPTG), monomeric oxidized triacyl-glycerols (MONOX), acid value (AV), para-anisidine-value (AnV), and iodine value (IV). All methods were judged for their relevance, concerning the sensory quality of used frying oils categorizing the qualities as good or bad. The binary results were statistically evaluated using logit regression. The statistical evaluation of the tests was used to calculate the probability of occurrence of off-flavors which allows determining the point of discard and finally the point where the oil is certainly totally abused. All levels of degradation for used frying oils regardless of oil type and kind of food being fried can be statistically described and used to develop a simple equation using the TPC and AV value as variables (y = 117–8 × AV − 3 × TPC) to find the point of disposal and to monitor the degradation process. The new criterion has been proven in the controlling of various industrial frying processes, restaurants and bakeries and kitchen frying. Practical applications: A simple equation of linear regression using AV and TPC as variables (y = 117–8 × AV − 3 × TPC) has been developed to monitor the level of degradation and to determine the point of disposal of used frying fats and oils much more reliable than using only one of the recommended parameters (TPC, AV, or PTG). This criterion is independent of fat composition, food to be fried, or frying process conditions and effectively helps to overcome the limitations of TPC and other major regulatory parameters related to the frying/baking industry. The good correlation of the results of the equation with the sensory quality of the fried food provides a powerful predictive tool for accurate calculation of the oil disposal point. This is useful since the quality of the fried food strongly depends on the quality of the frying oil that is absorbed by the food and becomes a major ingredient i[...]



Pomegranate seed oil organogels structured by propolis wax, beeswax, and their mixture

2017-07-06T06:15:53.086671-05:00

The capability of propolis wax, beeswax, and their mixture to gel pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was studied. Samples were prepared increasing the concentration of waxes in pomegranate seed oil from 5 to 15% w/w. After propolis wax, beeswax, and PSO chemical characterization, thermal, and structural properties of wax-based organogels were studied. Both propolis wax and beeswax formed organogel thanks to the presence of crystal networks made of needle-like β′-form crystals. Based on FTIR spectroscopy, mainly van der Waals interactions were formed in the systems. Propolis wax organogels displayed lower firmness and G′ and G″ modulus in comparison to the corresponding beeswax samples. This was due to the presence of larger crystals with a less organized network. The observed behaviors were attributed to differences in chemical composition between these two types of waxes. The combined use of propolis wax and beeswax led to organogels with behavior in between the organogels with single waxes, probably as a consequence of the formation of mixed crystals. Practical applications: Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) with considerable amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be convert into structured systems by oil gelation as a novel strategy to delivery it in a system that allows its incorporation in the food matrix. The obtain data acquired in this research highlight that propolis and bees waxes and their mixture can be considered as good gelators of PSO. The final structure of the organogel can be tailored by selecting the organogelator and its concentration in the use of fat based alternative in food products need β′-form crystals such as spreads and margarines. The aim of the present research is to develop pomegranate seed oil (PSO) organogels by using beeswax, propolis wax, and their mixture. Organogels are characterized by using different techniques, including polarized light microscopy (PLM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, DSC analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, rheology, and mechanical properties. In accordance with findings, both propolis and bees waxes can be considered as good gelators of PSO. Depending on intended food application, the final structure of the organogel can be tailored by selecting the organogelator and its concentration. The aim of the present research is to de[...]



Synthesis and thermal study of polymers from soybean, sunflower, and grape seed maleinated oil

2017-07-06T06:15:45.666959-05:00

This paper presents the synthesis of some polymers from maleinated vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, and grape seed) and glycerol. First, all the vegetable oils were previously maleinated with maleic anhydride, then, the maleinated oils were esterified with glycerol to obtain the polymers; the synthetic route is simple and not use organic solvents, the results indicate that the synthesis was effortless and use inexpensive reagents, such as vegetable oils, maleic anhydride, and glycerol. These polymers could be applied in the area of adhesives and waterproofing materials. The results obtained by TGA-DTA and DSC data showed that these polymers had different thermal behaviors, which is related to the different quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in each oil structure. Finally, the FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis help to clarify the polymers structure and the reaction sites: hence, it was possible to propose a reaction mechanism and the structure. Practical applications: The polymer synthesis of each vegetable oil was similar in time and process; however, the final product presented different physical characteristics. The results obtained by TGA-DTA and DSC data showed that these polymers had different thermal behaviors, which is related by different quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in each oil structure. Finally, the FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis help to clarify the polymers structure and the reaction sites: hence, it was possible propose a reaction mechanism and the structure. The results indicate that the synthesis was effortless and use inexpensive reagents, such as vegetable oils, maleic anhydride, and glycerol. These polymers could be applied in the area of ​​adhesives and waterproofing materials. In this work synthesis of polymers from maleinated oils (soybean, sunflower, and grape-seed) is shown. Possible structure is made by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis as well as its thermal characterization by TGA-DTA and DSC. In this work synthesis of polymers from maleinated oils (soybean, sunflower, and grape-seed) is shown. Possible structure is made by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis as well as its thermal characterization by TGA-DTA and DSC.



Fatty acid metabolism and prospects for targeted therapy of cancer

2017-07-05T04:31:17.525844-05:00

Fatty acids are fundamental substrates required for energy storage, synthesis of membranes, generation of signaling molecules and lipid droplet formation in cancer cells. High levels of fatty acid metabolic activity are one of the most aberrant metabolic alterations in cancer cells. The de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway is the primary source of fatty acids in cancer cells, but cancer cells can also acquire fatty acids through the lipolytic pathway, which helps cells survive and maintain their invasiveness. Key enzymes, including ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD1) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which are involved in fatty acid synthesis and degradation, are overexpressed in cancer cells. The alterations in fatty acid metabolomics in different cancers, at different stages of cancer, and in different tissues are clinically significant. This review focuses on current research into fatty acid metabolism to explore new targets against the fatty acid metabolic pathways for anticancer therapy. Practical applications: High levels of fatty acid metabolic activity are one of the most aberrant metabolic alterations in cancer cells. Reprogramming in fatty acid metabolism plays an important role in energy storage, membrane proliferation, the generation of signaling molecules and lipid droplet formation in cancer cells. Understanding the mechanism of regulated the fatty acid metabolic pathways in cancer would reveal novel targeted therapy of cancer. To maintain the balance of the free fatty acid composition and thus promote cancer cell growth, survival, and progression, the levels of de novo fatty acid synthesis and degradation are elevated. Therefore, the targeted inhibition of key enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as ACLY, ACC, FASN, MAGL, and SCD1, and the utilization of anticancer exogenous fatty acids might constitute effective cancer therapies. ATP, adenosine-triphosphate; DAG, diacylglycerol; IHBTIS, inhibitors; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; MAG, monoacylglycerol; TAG triacylglycerol. To maintain the balance of the free fatty acid composition and thus promote cancer cell growth, survival, and progression, the levels of de novo fatty acid [...]



Partial coalescence in double (W1/O/W2) emulsions prepared with skimmed milk, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, and different fats

2017-07-05T04:30:25.141938-05:00

Partial coalescence was studied in double (W1/O/W2) emulsions prepared with skimmed milk, polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as lipophilic emulsifier, and different fats. Microstructural and rheological analyses were performed. Encapsulation efficiency (as a parameter of inner water retention) and solid fat content were estimated by differential scanning calorimetry. The presence of PGPR in dispersed lipid phase promoted partial coalescence especially at higher concentration. This promotion of partial coalescence may have been produced by the increase of collision frequency due to protein displacement by PGPR at the outer interface and/or the increase of capture efficiency due to the modification of fat crystals by PGPR. Partial coalescence was also favored when inner water droplets were released as a consequence of an osmotic unbalance between inner and outer aqueous phases. Thus, the addition of glucose in dispersed aqueous phase decreased the partial coalescence degree due to the higher encapsulation efficiency given by the balanced osmotic pressures. With respect to the effect of the employed fat on partial coalescence, the obtained data indicate that the phenomenon was favored at higher solid fat content in lipid phase. Results led to the conclusion that inner osmolality, encapsulation efficiency, and inhibition of partial coalescence were correlated. Practical applications: The originality of this work resides on boarding the subject of partial coalescence in W1/O/W2 emulsions. The studied systems are proposed as potential lipid-reduced substitutes of dairy creams, with the employment of alternative non-dairy fats such as low trans vegetable fat. The combined analysis of partial coalescence and encapsulation efficiency allowed studying their reciprocal effects and evaluating the potentiality of the systems for the encapsulation of hydrophilic compounds. The variations of relative osmotic pressures in inner and outer aqueous phases, lipophilic emulsifier concentration, and solid fat content may lead to desirable or undesirable rheological properties depending on the required texture of the food emulsion. The findings of this work could be an important step pointing to control the factors leading to partial coalescence [...]



Novel type of carbon-centered antioxidants arylmethyl Meldrum's acids − inhibit free radicals

2017-07-04T04:45:36.230041-05:00

Monosubstituted Meldrum's acids are found out as a new class of powerful antioxidants. These compounds act as carbon radical scavengers due to the presence of acidic hydrogen in the moiety of cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compound. The presence of phenol and benzylic moiety is favored, but these structural elements are not crucial for the antiradical activity in polar media. The antiradical and antioxidant activity of the substituted Meldrum's acids is not significantly affected by the substituents in the aromatic ring. The 5-substituted 1,3-dioxan-4,6-diones demonstrate high scavenging capacity of free radicals. The inhibition of DPPH and GO achieved even ∼100 and 80%, respectively. All substituted Meldrum's acids are better antioxidants than BHT, and activity of some of them even exceed vitamin C. It is found out that in polar media the compounds act via SPLET mechanism. Substituted Meldrum's acids turned out as powerful antioxidants for inhibition of oxidation processes of fatty acid alkyl esters, too. The oxidative stability of the last with the title compound additive was significantly higher than with BHT additive. It seems, that the antioxidant activity of the substituted Meldrum's acids in fatty acid esters is both due to benzylic position and 1,3-dicarbonyl moiety. Practical applications: Arylmethyl Meldrum's acids should be highlighted as potential antioxidants for increasing oxidative stability of various products containing, for example, esters of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. It should be admitted that the structure of the title compounds can be widely modified by substituents in the aromatic ring without remarkable loss of antioxidant and antiradical activity, but other properties (like solubility) may be improved. In order to apply the title antioxidants into products like cosmetics additional tests regarding toxicity are required. However, these antioxidants can be recommended for increasing oxidative stability for products used in technique. Monosubstituted Meldrum's acids act as carbon radical scavengers due to the presence of acidic hydrogen in the moiety of cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compound. The substituted Meldrum's acids demonstrate high scavenging capacity of free radicals DPPH and G[...]



Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) extracts during preservation of refrigerated salmon paste

2017-07-03T07:57:10.279114-05:00

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) is a relevant source of natural phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of crude stevia extracts on the quality and shelf-life of salmon (Salmo salar) paste. For this, polyphenol extracts obtained by water extraction, ethanol/water extraction and supercritical CO2 with ethanol extraction were evaluated in preserving salmon paste. Salmon paste was stored under refrigerated conditions (5°C) for 21 days, being primary, secondary, and total lipid oxidations monitored along storage by means of peroxide, p-anisidine, and TOTOX indices, respectively. In addition, ω3/ω6 ratio, polyene index, and α-tocopherol were monitored. Microbiological analysis comprised the investigation of aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophes. Salmon paste samples treated with ethanol/water and supercritical CO2-ethanol stevia extracts exhibited the highest (p [...]



Algerian Moringa oleifera whole seeds and kernels oils: Characterization, oxidative stability, and antioxidant capacity

2017-07-03T06:10:23.683533-05:00

The rising of global per capita food consumption has driven scientists and manufacturers into a search for new or renewed edible oil sources, while also improving their production towards maximum yield, quality, and economic feasibility. Hence, a new origin (Algerian) of Moringa oleifera seed oil was characterized in the present study in terms of its physical and chemical features on two consecutive crops. Moreover, aiming to ascertain if the industrial solvent extraction could be enhanced, extracted oils from shelled and unshelled seeds were compared. All oils under study presented a low oxidation status and an excellent resistance to oxidation. Additionally to the characteristic high average content of unsaturated fatty acids (71% oleic acid), microcomponent analyses revealed interesting amounts of phytosterols (4–5 g/kg), tocopherols (287–327 mg/kg), carotenoids (4–8 mg/kg), and phenolic compounds (11–17 mg/kg). These outcomes were within or better (stability and oxidative status) than reported data for M. oleifera seed oil from other origins, and without significant differences between crops. Apart from a slight color change and increased sterol and wax contents when extracted with shells, no other significant compositional changes were observed, including oil extraction yield, both equivalent to 37% on a kernel basis. This work sustains the high quality of Algerian M. oleifera seed oil, a still underutilized crop in this country. Also, it provides an insight on the potential use of grinded whole seeds directly for solvent extraction, reducing labor demand and cost for the industries, without significant variation on compositional and stability parameters. Practical applications: Regarding the growing demand on edible oils, and considering Algeria as a country with a large range of climatic conditions, M. oleifera cultivation for edible oil extraction could be of economic interests to the region. Based on the findings of this work, the oil extracted from M. oleifera grown in Algeria presents significantly high quality, stability, and consistency between crops. From a technological point of view, we also propose that solvent [...]



Engineering the nucleation of edible fats using a high behenic acid stabilizer

2017-07-03T01:56:23.310199-05:00

A stabilizer high in behenic acid (HBS) was used to control nucleation of edible fats. The addition of HBS led to an enhanced nucleation of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and palm oil (PO) which had lower levels of high melting triacylglycerols (HMTs) (melting point >30°C, relative to the temperature used to crystallize samples) compared to other fats. With the addition of 1.5% HBS, there was an increase in crystallization onset temperatures and density of the microstructure in these two fats. Further studies were conducted to investigate the interactions between HBS and specific homogeneous triacylglycerols (TAGs) or a mixture of triacylglycerols. HBS displayed solid-state incompatibility (eutectic behavior) with tripalmitin and tristearin, whereas it displayed compatibility (monotectic partial solid solution formation) behavior when mixed with the high-melting milk fat fraction (HMF). This suggests two mechanisms for nucleation enhancement of HBS. One mechanism would involve surface nucleation on top of pre-formed TAG surfaces, for tripalmitin and tristearin, while the other mechanism would involve additionally co-crystallization with the nucleating agent, for the case of milkfat's HMF. Practical application: HBS may be used to accelerate the nucleation of PO, AMF, and HMF. A slow crystallization behavior of PO often leads to post-hardening problems and a long α-lifetime. Thus, HBS has a potential to solve these issues. Our results showed that HBS is more effective on fats with relatively low amounts of HMTs (20–50%). In addition, the nucleation enhancing mechanism of HBS was more effective in a mixture of TAGs, rather than in pure TAGs. High behenic acid stabilizers (HBS) are used to stabilize fat-structured and oil-rich food products. It is shown that HBS interacts with high-melting triacylglycerols (HMTs) present in the fats and oils to be stabilized and reduces their free energy of nucleation, as shown in the graphical abstract. This leads to the formation of large numbers of smaller, stabilizing crystals in the system. Moreover, it also shown that HBS interacts differently with different HMTs. It displays incomp[...]



Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour promotes beneficial effects on adipose tissue but not on glycaemic profile of diet-induced obesity in mice

2017-07-03T01:55:57.90594-05:00

This study evaluated effects of integral chia flour (Salvia hispanica L.) associated with high-fat diet on glucose metabolism, fatty acid profile, and inflammatory mediators in epididymal adipose and liver tissue using experimental obesity models induced by high-calorie and -fat diets. Forty-eight mice were divided into four experimental groups: control diet (C); control diet + chia flour (CCh); high-fat and -calorie diet (H), and high-fat and -calorie diet + chia flour (HCh). Tissue cytokines, fatty acid profile, and glycaemic profile were measured. In oral glucose tolerance testing, HCh presented higher glycaemia than H at 15, 30, and 120 min. In epididymal adipose tissue, CCh showed higher accumulation of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (α-LNA) than C, while HCh showed higher accumulation of α-LNA and lower concentrations of C20:4n6 fatty acid than H. In liver tissue, CCh presented higher accumulation of α-LNA and lower concentrations of C20:4n6 fatty acid than C. We believe that 12 g of chia flour per kg of food for 10 wk is essential for prevention and treatment of obesity; however, it may be necessary to adjust chia amounts and treatment times to improve glycaemic profiles. This study provides pioneering results on the effects of chia in mice. Practical applications: With the hope of losing weight and becoming healthier, many people adopt radical diets that can be harmful to their health. Accordingly, dietary guidelines must be carefully planned by qualified health professionals, especially considering the comorbidities of diabetes and cardiovascular disease that accompany obesity. In addition, the adequate treatment of obesity increases the chances of the patients maintaining their diet and lifestyle changes, thus, allowing for greater control of their obesity. Consequently, knowledge of the appropriate dosages and effects of chia is important for the development of new tools for composing dietary guidelines for healthy individuals, especially for the treatment of obese patients. Effects of chia flour (Salvia hispanica L.) on liver tissue fatty acid (A) and epididymal ad[...]



Regulation of lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. ATCC 20888 in response to different nitrogen sources

2017-07-03T01:55:52.293748-05:00

Regulation of lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. ATCC 20888 in response to different nitrogen sources was investigated in this study. Nitrogen sources had important effects on the cell growth, lipid accumulation, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentage in total fatty acids (TFAs). Compared with sole organic nitrogen source, the combination of yeast extract and monosodium glutamate (MSG) greatly enhanced the biomass, total lipids, and DHA percentage in TFAs, but inorganic nitrogen source addition decreased the biomass and total lipids. The results showed that lipids began to accumulate rapidly with the depletion of dissolved ammonia in broth, and the time required for nitrogen exhaustion was extended with increasing nitrogen source concentration. Furthermore, the analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and malic enzyme (ME) activities during fermentation process provided insight for the revelation of regulation mechanism of lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. ATCC 20888 in response to nitrogen exhaustion in broth. Practical applications: DHA, an essential nutrient for human health, is widely used in infant formula and functional foods. DHA production by Schizochytrium sp. has recently received extensive attention as the commercial source of DHA to substitute marine fish oil. Nitrogen sources in the cultivation of Schizochytrium sp. have important effects on the cell growth, lipid accumulation, and DHA percentage in TFAs. This study provides valuable guidance for nitrogen source selection for efficient DHA-rich lipids production by Schizochytrium sp. The combination of yeast extract and MSG enhances the biomass, lipid yield, and DHA percentage in TFAs, but inorganic nitrogen source addition decreases the biomass and lipid yield. The results in this study have important significance in understanding lipid accumulation regulation in Schizochytrium sp. in response to nitrogen sources and providing guidance for DHA-rich lipid production enhancement. The combination of yeast extract and MSG enhances the biomass, lipid yield, and DHA percentage in TFAs,[...]



The true methodology for rhamnolipid: Various solvents affect rhamnolipid characteristics

2017-06-28T08:15:43.624294-05:00

Rhamnolipid, among the most effective biosurfactants, is a glycolipid-type biosurfactant primarily produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, rhamnolipid production was carried out using a strain of P. aeruginosa and it is aimed to compare rhamnolipid biopolymers obtained from various extraction methods using glycine (RG), hydrochloric acid (RH), diethyl ether (RD), ethyl acetate (RE). Comparison analyses were performed through NMR, FTIR techniques and viscosity, density measurements apart from determination of rhamnolipid yields. It can be concluded that rhamnolipid from diethyl ether for extraction is far from molecular structure to reference rhamnolipid molecule according to instrumental analyses performed. Besides, the yield of this rhamnolipid is much more than other rhamnolipids extracted through other methods but this is misleading because the value in there may be total sugar content apart from rhamnolipid. Therefore, RD extraction method can be said to be non-selective process for rhamnolipid obtained. In RH method, some functional group peaks belonging to rhamnolipid were not observed. NMR analysis showed that some CH groups were not observed in the RG method. However, especially NMR and FTIR analyses showed that rhamnolipid obtained from RE method represented more accurate rhamnolipid based on reference molecule. Practical applications: This study showed that rhamnolipid production and its comparative analyses using various solvent extraction methods. Comparison analyses were carried out through NMR, FTIR techniques and viscosity, density measurements as well as determination of rhamnolipid yields. Different solvents affect seriously characteristics of rhamnolipid, which were defined in the previous literature reports. Especially, some methods are not selective ways for mentioning true biomolecule. To avoid misleading characterization information in the literature, these extraction methods were discussed through comparison methods such as NMR, FTIR analyses, and quantification measurements. Rhamnolipid biopolymers obt[...]






Characterization of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and oils

2017-06-09T07:29:19.501484-05:00

The main objective of current study was to characterize of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and oils as a source of phytochemical, and bioactive compounds. While total phenol contents of seed extracts vary between 23.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 28.8 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, their antioxidant activities were changed between 17.6 and 22.9% (p [...]



Application of β-cyclodextrin, chitosan, and collagen on the stability of tocopherols and the oxidative stability in heated oils

2017-06-07T07:50:43.920971-05:00

Effects of beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), chitosan, and collagen on tocopherol and oxidative stability in heated oils were determined under moisture added condition at 180°C in this study. Collagen was added in the form of a mesh structure with different pore sizes (50, 100, 200, and 300 μm) whereas chitosan was added in the form of gel. Presence of 1% w/w β-CD significantly (p [...]



Total fatty acid content, antioxidant composition, antioxidant activity, and content of oil from crambe seeds cultivated with phosphorus

2017-06-07T07:50:40.216747-05:00

The objective of this study was to determine parameters of crambe oil culvtived with phosphorus (P), with respect to oil content, fatty acid composition, minor compounds, and total antioxidant activity. The experiment followed a randomized block design, with five doses of P (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg P ha−1) and four replications. All results were subjected to analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) 5% significance. The P dose had a negative linear association with δ-tocopherol and total antioxidant activity, and a positive association with stigmasterol and total carotenoids. P influenced the concentrations of β-sitosterol and campesterol, whereas the remaining variables (content, α-tocopherol, β + γ-tocopherol, fatty acids, total phenolic compounds, and chlorophyll a) were not affected. This study show a positive effect the concentrations of compounds that act as antioxidants in crambe oil, which can influence with its oxidation stability. Practical applications: Is relevant the studies concerning the oxidative stability of inedible vegetable oils, such as crambe, in terms of the composition of antioxidants and fatty acids, as this affects the conservation, storage and refining costs, and the quality of the products, considering the many uses of this oil, such as biodiesel, lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, synthetic rubber, plastic films, nylon, and adhesives, among other products. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in synthesis processes performed by plants such as, functions in cell energy transfer, respiration, and photosynthesis, with an emphasis on processes related to the flow of energy and products stored in grains. In this study, P influenced on the concentrations of compounds such phytosterols and carotenoids, which shows a positive effect in concentrations of compounds that act as antioxidants in crambe oil. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in synthesis processes performed by plants such as, functions[...]



Volatile markers of cholesterol thermal changes

2017-06-07T07:50:29.723668-05:00

The goal of the study was to determine profile of volatile compounds and asses the markers of cholesterol transformations during thermal processing using SPME-GC-MS technique. The profile of volatile compounds of cholesterol is dependent on the temperature (120, 150, 180 and 220°C) and time (30, 60, 120 and 180 min) used during processing. The highest contents of volatile compounds were observed during thermal processing of cholesterol at 180 and 220°C. The most abundant group of volatiles were carbonyl compounds, for example, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. Statistical analysis of data allowed to point out markers of cholesterol changes like degradation, oxidation, polymerisation and formation of cholestadienes. 4-methylpentan-2-ol was recognized as possible marker of cholesterol oxidation, 6-methylheptan-2-one was markers of cholesterol degradation and 4-mehyldec-2-ene and 5-methylhexanal as markers of cholesterol polymerization. Volatile components that can be associated with formation of cholestadienes were 2-pentanone and 2-methylheptane. Practical application: The method reported in this study may be used for determination of volatile compounds in thermally processed sterol standards especially cholesterol. The developed method able us to determine the profile and content of volatiles, which were used during evaluation of cholesterol changes after thermal treatment. The reported data are crucial for assessment of markers of cholesterol degradation, for example, 6-methylheptan-2-one or thermal oxidation, for example, was 4-methylpentan-2-ol. Markers of cholesterol dimerization were 4-methyldec-2-ene and 5-methylhexanal. Moreover 2-pentanone and 2-methylheptane are volatiles which presence can be associated with formation of cholestadienes. This method can be used as evaluation method for changes of sterols, without a need of determination of sterols and other compounds like oxysterol, po[...]



How clarification systems can affect virgin olive oil composition and quality at industrial scale

2017-06-01T13:21:51.086842-05:00

The effect of two different clarification systems, vertical centrifugal separator (VCS) with minimal water addition, and conical bottom settling tank (CBST), on virgin olive oil (VOO) composition and quality was studied at industrial scale for three crop years. In general, for the studied clarification systems, higher clarification values were reached for horizontal screw solid bowl (HSSB) oils with higher moisture and solid content. VCS showed higher clarification efficiency for HSSB oils with higher moisture and solid content. No notable differences were observed on the quality indices between evaluated clarification systems. Phenolic compounds showed a significant decrease when the HSSB oils were clarified by CBST. In general, a better sensory score was observed when the oils were clarified by VCS. Practical applications: The VCS with a minimal water addition could result a better option to produce VOO of improved quality, since is an efficient and quick operation that reduces the contact between oil and the remaining water and impurities content during the storage stage. This leads to prolong VOO shelf-life and conservation of positive sensory notes, due to preservation of the quality indexes and minor components. Besides, this clarification system reduces the water consumption and generated wastewater regarding to conventional vertical centrifugation, and therefore can be considered more environmentally friendly. Effect of two different clarification systems (vertical centrifugal separator with minimal water addition and conical bottom settling tanks) on the virgin olive oil quality parameters, composition, and sensory characteristics. Effect of two different clarification systems (vertical centrifugal separator with minimal water addition and conical bottom settling tanks) on the virgin olive oil quality parameters, composition, and sensory characteristics.



Chemometric techniques to protect the traditional Austrian pumpkin seed oil

2017-05-26T12:12:32.268393-05:00

The aim of this work was to establish suitable chemometric techniques for establishing provenance of pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oil from the regions of Austria, China and Russia, in order to protect the authentic Austrian products from fraud and mislabelling. To achieve this goal, three different chemometric approaches, projection to latent structures (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and support vector machines (SVM) were applied on two different trace element data sets. To evaluate the reliability of the classification achieved, the results were validated on an independent test set. PLS and SVM performed similarly in many situations. Also the prediction of the discriminating techniques was in accordance with the modelling technique SIMCA. But PLS alone can be used to separate Austrian from non-Austrian pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oil samples based on trace element data. Practical applications: For various reasons, more and more consumers prefer local products with a defined geographical origin. Producers also advertise the geographical origin and are trying to increase the value of their products by praising the quality of their products through a geographical designation. Unfortunately, there is an increases of abuse in these products which also comprise the ‘Styrian pumpkin seed oil PGI’ with falsely declared geographical origin. The demand for an analytical approach how to counteract the falsification of origin of Styrian pumpkin seed oil has increased considerably. The aim of this work is to establish an analytical method with suitable chemometric techniques for establishing the provenance of pumpkin seed oil from the regions of Austria, China and Russia, in order to protect the authentic Austrian products from fraud and mislabelling. PLS, SIMCA and SVM chemometric techniques are applied for establishing the p[...]



Curcumin and its two analogues improve oxidative stability of fish oil under long-term storage

2017-05-26T01:11:13.429956-05:00

Adding antioxidant is one of the most effective ways to prevent oil systems from oxidation. Curcumin (Cur) and its derivatives have a significant antioxidant activity as potential antioxidants. In this work, the oxidative stability of fish oil treated with three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/g) of Cur, its two synthetic analogues (compounds 14 and 25) and α-tocopherol (positive control) are determined after 70 days at 4 and 25 °C. The antioxidants are evaluated by acid (AV), peroxide (PV), conjugated diene (CD) values, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as well as polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in fish oil. Results show that Cur and α-tocopherol could protect fish oil from oxidation more effectively than compound 14 and 25 at 4 °C, whereas compound 14 and 25 could protect fish oil from oxidation more effectively than Cur and α-tocopherol at 25 °C. Temperature is an important factor on lipid oxidation in the process of fish oil storage resulted from antioxidant activity of compounds determined by temperature. Curcumin shows the decreased ability to protect fish oil from oxidation with increasing temperature. Compounds 14 and 25 show increasing ability to protect fish oil from oxidation with increasing temperature. Practical applications: Compounds 14 and 25 are potential antioxidants to extend expiration date of the fish oil product. Temperature is a key variable for fish oil storage. Compounds 14 and 25 show higher biological stability than that of Curcumin. In long-term storage at 25 °C, compounds 14 and 25 perform better antioxidant activity in fish oil than Curcumin, and tocopherol. Temperature is a key variable for fish oil storage. Compounds 14 and 25 show higher biological stability than that of Curcumin. In long-term storage at 25 °C, compounds 14 and 25 perform [...]



In vitro and in vivo analyses of Morus alba Polish var. wielkolistna zolwinska leaf ethanol–water extract—antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities in hyperlipideamic rats

2017-05-26T01:11:05.728704-05:00

We previously reported that mulberry leaf extracts possess in vitro antioxidant activity and show antihypergliceamic activity in diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to: quantify bioactive components of Morus alba (Polish variety: wielkolistna zolwinska) ethanol–water extract and to examine the effect of different doses of extract on plasma lipids and plasma antioxidant capacity in rats fed high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The composition of phenolic compounds and DNJ content by chromatography analyses in the ethanol–water extract from M. alba L. leaves as well as the results of ABTS and DPPH assays were determined. The effect of the extract addition to the diet of hyperlipidaemic Wistar rats was also measured. In the in vivo study, conducted in rats fed high-fat (∼45% energy from fat) diet for 6 weeks, we found that M. alba leaf extract supplement ingested with food (6 g/kg) decreased total cholesterol (24.1%) and LDL-c fraction (21.0%). M. alba ethanol–water extract showed a significant effect on lowering plasma total and LDL cholesterol and antioxidant activity measured by the ferric reducing ability of plasma. The extract is a good source of natural antioxidants and could be potentially used as a dietary supplement in future human studies. Practical applications: M. alba L. (Polish variety: wielkolistna zolwinska) leaf ethanol–water extract with high antioxidant activity and rich in chlorogenic acids and flavonols in in vitro analyses and shows an effect on lowering plasma total and LDL cholesterol and antioxidant activity in hyperlipideamic rats could be a dietary supplement in food for hypercholesterolemic individuals. The Morus alba (Polish variety: wielkolistna zolwinska) leaf ethanol–water extract, rich in flavonols and phenolic acids, ingested with high-fat diet by hyperlip[...]



Volatile compounds and other indicators of quality for cold-pressed rapeseed oils obtained from peeled, whole, flaked and roasted seeds

2017-05-24T06:21:01.56564-05:00

Cold-pressed rapeseed oil is among the most popular virgin oils. Different processing methods yield oils varying in chemical composition and oxidative stability. The experiment aimed at identifying the differences (mostly in volatiles) between rapeseed oil obtained from peeled seeds (RO) and oils obtained by three pre-treatment methods: pressing whole seeds (WSO), flakes (FO) and roasted flakes (RFO). Volatiles were analysed using GCxGC-ToFMS and data were processed using statistical multivariate analysis. Fatty acid composition was determined using GC-FID. The oils’ oxidative stability was measured using peroxide value. Free fatty acids’ value, absorbance at 236 and 238 nm and chlorophyll content were also determined. Also, a sensory panel evaluation was performed. PCA was found to be effective tool for differentiating the oils on the basis of their volatile compounds. RO was most similar to WSO from the second pressing. Fatty acid composition analysis yielded differences between the experimental oils and RO. RO had the highest PV, p-AV and Totox values. WSO from the first pressing (WSO1) had the highest oxidative stability. Sensory analysis found that WSO1 was most similar to RO. Both oils had an intense cabbage-like and fruity odour. The study showed that the results of volatile compounds’ analysis differs from those of sensory analysis in oils comparison. Practical applications: The results demonstrate that the rapeseed oil obtained from whole seeds may have a volatile compounds composition that is similar to that of rapeseed oil obtained from peeled seeds. PCA makes it possible to differentiate between samples varying in pre-treatment method as well as between samples subjected to the same pre-treatment method, but obtained from a second pressing. Sensory p[...]



Study on the volatile compounds generated from lipid oxidation of Chinese bacon (unsmoked) during processing

2017-05-22T06:11:20.11215-05:00

In order to investigate the generation of aroma in Chinese bacon (unsmoked), the changes of lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation (VCDFLO) during processing were analyzed. The results showed that acid lipase activity decreased during the entire process, while neutral lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) increased from raw meat to the 1 day of dry-ripening then decreased. Phospholipase increased during dry-curing then decreased during dry-ripening. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased from raw meat to the 7 days of dry-ripening thereafter decreased. Total free fatty acids increased at the end of 1 day of dry-ripening and decreased subsequently. Thirty-five VCDFLO were identified; the total peak area of these compounds increased by almost double at the 4 days of dry-ripening than raw meat and indicated 47.37–50.85% of total 78 volatile compounds in the final products. In conclusion, VCDFLO generation was attributed to lipid-related enzymes and contributed mainly to the aroma. Practical applications: Chinese bacon (unsmoked) usually produced from high intramuscular fat pork has more intense and long-lasting aroma, since intramuscular triglycerides are good precursors for most volatile compounds. Understanding the mechanism of aroma formation related to lipid oxidation could help us to improve the product quality and optimize the duration of processing. Therefore, the present work identified the characteristic flavor compounds and provided the changing regularity of these compounds at various stages to facilitate the generation of them by regulating lipases and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. The work showed that neutral lipase and lipoxygenase (LOX) played important roles during dry-curing and dr[...]



Synthesis and evaluation of cytotoxic activity of conjugated linoleic acid derivatives (esters, alcohols, and their acetates) toward cancer cell lines

2017-05-22T06:11:11.811078-05:00

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is natural unsaturated fatty acid known for the wide biological properties therefore is available in functional food and cosmetics and as a dietary supplements. In this study a series of simple derivatives of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA and a mixture of those isomers have been proposed as alternative for free CLA preparations. Obtained in high yields (>72%) ethyl esters, alcohols, and their acetates have been subjected to in vitro cytotoxic assay against human tumor cells (human promyelocytic leukemia, breast cancer, and colon cancer) and compered with stearic and linoleic derivatives. Studies showed that the growth inhibitory activities depended on the degree of unsaturation. All CLA derivatives except ethyl esters showed similar activities compared to free CLA isomers. Moreover, this study showed that trans-10,cis-12 CLA derivatives have better anticancer properties against all tested tumor cells than derivatives of cis-9,trans-11 isomer and a mixture of both isomers. Practical applications: This paper make a contribution in the field of study of biological activity of CLA derivatives and completes deficiencies in spectroscopic data of known isomers of ethyl esters of CLA isomers, conjugated octadecadienoic alcohols and their acetates. Obtained compounds can be used as a components of cosmetics and food supplements. A series of simple derivatives of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA and a mixture of those isomers are obtained in high yields (>72%). CLA derivatives: Ethyl esters, alcohols, and their acetates are subjected to in vitro cytotoxic assay against human tumor cells. Studies show that all CLA derivatives except ethyl esters show similar activities compared to[...]



Mixed oil formulations enriched in essential fatty acids and reduced ratio of n-6/n-3

2017-05-22T05:00:34.650035-05:00

In this work, a mixed oil formulation was developed to obtain a product rich in essential fatty acids and with reduced ratio of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. The formulations were optimized using techniques of multivariate mixture designs. Three formulations of different compositions were chosen and they were assessed regarding oxidative stability, sensory acceptance, fatty acid composition, phytosterols, and tocopherols. The formulation with improved sensory acceptance was composed of 85% of extra-virgin olive oil, 3% of linseed oil, and 12% of safflower oil. The new formulation showed the lowest ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids when compared to the extra-virgin olive oil, higher oxidative stability, and higher levels of phytosterols and tocopherols. Practical applications: The mixed oil formulation developed here possess practical application as a product nutritionally enriched for use as ingredient in several food products. It can also be largely used in industrial scale to enrich food products with high contents of essential fatty acids, phytosterols and tocopherols, helping to obtain final products with a more adequate n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio and promoting health benefits through its consumption. In this study, a mixed oil formulation which contains high levels of essential fatty acids and reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 to be used as ingredient in foods is developed. The main parameters related to oxidative stability, chemical composition, and sensory acceptance of the final product are evaluated. In this study, a mixed oil formulation which contains high levels of essential fatty acids and reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 to be used as ingredient in foods is developed. The main pa[...]



Avocado oil characteristics of Mexican creole genotypes

2017-05-12T09:00:59.012097-05:00

Mexico is a major avocado producer and exporter, mainly the Hass variety, while the Mexican creole genotypes remain unexplored. We investigated the physicochemical characteristics, phenolics, and bioactivity of oils from six different Mexican avocado genotypes to increase their consumption and utilization. Oil content varied significantly among Mexican genotypes and increased linearly with dry matter content. Oils from Mexican creole genotypes varied significantly in UV absorbance and generally exhibited low secondary oxidation. Avocado oil displayed two intense fluorescence peaks at 675 and 720 nm (chlorophyll concentration) and two broad bands centered at 465 and 510 nm (oxidation products). The antioxidant activity of avocado oils was independent of total phenolic content and influenced the anti-inflammatory (COX) activity and selectivity. Three thermal structural transitions occurred in avocado oils between −30 and 20°C. Thermal oxidation by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that avocado oils from Mexican genotypes exhibited higher thermal stability than those of Hass. Multivariate data analysis performed on 18 oil characteristics using principal component and cluster analysis demonstrates that fluorescence emission was the major factor segregating Mexican avocado genotypes. Mexican creole avocado is an important beneficial resource for the diversity of its oil quality compared to Hass variety. Practical applications: Mexican creole avocado oil exhibited superior distinctive physicochemical characteristics than Hass avocado variety. The fluorescence emission can be considered as the predictive attribute to characterize and identify the o[...]



Design of flavonoid microparticles with channel forming properties to improve oxidative stability of sunflower oil

2017-04-21T06:30:52.042652-05:00

Quercetin (Q) and epicatechin (E) microparticles were designed using an oil-insoluble polymer (inulin [In]) as encapsulating agent and with or without an oil-soluble polymer (soy protein isolate [SPI]) by spray-drying. Encapsulation efficiencies were significantly higher for the E systems than for Q systems, suggesting that the spatial arrangement may affect the hydroxyl groups availability to form hydrogen bonds. The microencapsulated flavonoids were added to sunflower oil (SO) in order to evaluate its oxidative stability. The induction period (IP) of SO, determined in Rancimat at 60°C, significantly increased when Q-microparticles with or without SPI were added, showing those with SPI the highest IP value. In the case of E systems, the IP of SO increased only when E–In microparticles with SPI were added. These results suggest that SPI may favor the diffusion of flavonoids to the lipid medium by the formation of channels into the microparticles. The channels formation was observed for Q–In–SPI and E–In–SPI by a confocal laser scanning microscopy study. Additional oxidation studies under conditions of lower oxygen availability resulted in overall more retarded oxidation and no clear effect of SPI incorporation was observed. Practical application: The results show that it is possible to design flavonoid microparticles with antioxidant activity in bulk oils. The inclusion of a lipid-soluble polymer such as soy protein isolate in the microparticles favors the flavonoid release from the microparticles to bulk oil by channel formation. Epicatechin (E) and quercetin (Q) microparticles designed with inulin (IN, encapsulating agent[...]



Synthesis and characterization of a new biobased poly(urethane-ester) from ricinoleic acid and its use as biopolymeric matrix for magnetic nanocomposites

2017-04-21T03:35:47.998339-05:00

This work presents a new biobased poly(urethane-ester) synthesized from ricinoleic acid (RA), 1,6-diisocyanatehexane, and glycerol through bulk polymerization. RA-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, previously obtained through coprecipitation technique, were introduced in situ to produce a magnetic nanocomposite. DSC analyses revealed that the glass transition (Tg) of the biobased poly(urethane-ester) was equal to −75°C, and for the magnetic biobased poly(urethane-ester) the Tg was reduced in approximately 3°C. DTG analyses were used to measure the thermal stability and the amount of magnetic nanoparticle dispersed into the polymeric matrix, indicating that the polymeric materials exhibit good thermal stability and the fraction of nanoparticles dispersed into the biobased poly(urethane-ester) matrix was equal to 2.19 wt%. Infrared spectroscopy and NMR were used to recognize functional groups in structures and follow the reaction evolution. Magnetic force, hysteresis loops and XRD essays used to provide magnetic features of the materials, showed that crystallite size of the mono domains was equal to 7.6 nm and that magnetic materials exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. GPC was used to evaluate average molar mass of polymer, determined equal to 2569 Da and molar mass dispersity equal to 2.4. Practical applications: Introducing magnetic nanoparticles into polymeric matrix leads to composites with unique properties, allowing different applications. Besides, the use of vegetable oils to produce polymer has many advantages such as biocompatibility and renewability. Due to their physico-chemical and [...]



Highly efficient extraction of EPA/DHA-enriched oil from cobia liver using homogenization plus sonication

2017-03-28T07:35:22.868355-05:00

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is a species of marine finfish with emerging global potential for offshore aquaculture. The fillet processing by-product, cobia liver, can be considered an accessible source of EPA/DHA-enriched oil. Oils are mainly extracted with hexane in the oil industry; however, extractability is greatly decreased in wet biomass as the hydrophilic surface hinders the penetration of hexane into the tissue matrix. In this study, the feasibility of agitated extraction (AE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), homogenizer extraction (HE), and homogenizer extraction plus sonication (HES) was evaluated. HE and HES showed higher extraction efficiency than AE, UE, or SE. The highest yields: 45.7% and 50.2%, were obtained from using HE for 2 min and HES for 120 min, respectively. Both yields were close to the fat content of cobia liver, indicating that the lipids were effectively extracted. The fatty acid profiles revealed that the highest contents of 5.2% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 19.7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were obtained from HE and HES, respectively. These results demonstrated that HE and HES were highly efficient and the most useful among all tested methods for lipid extraction from wet biomass. Practical applications: Increasing the value of low quality processing waste is important in the food and nutraceutical industries. Cobia liver, comprising 5% of total fish mass, is a potential source of EPA/DHA-enriched fish oil. EPA and DHA decompose easily when exposed to high temperatures for a long time. HE has an advantage over traditional ext[...]



Cover Picture: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 9∕2017

2017-09-01T01:11:41.035058-05:00

Food and fuel from Canadian oilseed grains: Biorefinery production may optimize both resourcesYoun Young Shim, Kevin Falk, Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, and Martin J.T. ReaneyDOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201600358Genotype by environment interaction matrix for oil yield: Brassica species produce glucosinolates that are antinutrients when present in animal feeds but are potentially valuable industrial or food compounds. Oilseed composition prior to processing is determined by both plant genotype and environment. Optimum utilization is possible when processes are designed to separate antinutrients from compounds that have desired nutritional value.






Contents: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 9∕2017

2017-09-01T01:11:41.555815-05:00







Behavior of lipophilic bioactives during olive oil processing

2017-03-30T04:35:40.023542-05:00

In the last few years, much attention has been paid to health effects of bioactive compounds in food products, their retention in the final product, accordingly optimization of food production design, and valorization of waste streams. One such food is olive oil, which contains hydrophilic, lipophilic, and amphiphilic bioactive compounds (phenols, squalene, phytosterols, tocopherols, etc.) having anticancer, anticholesterol, and antioxidant activities. These bioactives are distributed between the product and waste streams according to their solubility and mass transfer behavior and thermal stability during olive oil processing. This review focuses on the behavior of lipophilic bioactives, squalene, sterols, and tocopherols, during olive oil processing using a systematic approach. Herein their content in the olive fruit, distribution between its anatomic parts, and the effect of process methods and parameters on the lipophilic bioactive content of olive oil were reviewed. The loss of squalene, α-tocopherol, and β-sitosterol were calculated based on the process data available in the literature (19, 36, and 48%, respectively). Loss of β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were higher than that of oil (2–20%) and squalene, which is explained considering the distribution of these compounds within the olive fruit and at the cellular level, and their interactions. Practical applications: Findings of this review, particularly the information on the distribut[...]



Integrated approach for the eco design of a new process through the life cycle analysis of olive oil: Total use of olive by-products

2017-04-03T01:15:36.837997-05:00

The disposal of waste is one of the main problems faced by the majority of the olive growing agribusiness: olive oil by-products require specific management. In this work, the result of life cycle analysis shows that the major problem is related to the management of mill waste water. The formation of compost from the depleted pomace is bound to the emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the traditional way of waste recovery is no longer the best alternative. In this context, we propose a complete process for total use of olive by-products during the process of olive oil extraction. The project presents a pulp olive oil rich in natural antioxidants, stone olive oil for cosmetic application and an olive paste with a smoky taste for food consumption. The proposed system contributes to lower the environmental impact, improve the quality of the oil, and promote the development of new and useful by-products. Practical applications: A new facility composed of a destoner and a two phase extraction system is proposed to improve the working capacity and contribute to lower the environmental impact during all the process of olive oil production. The proposed new system produces, on the one hand, an olive pulp that gives an extra virgin olive oil rich in natural antioxidants and an olive paste with a smoky taste for food consumption, and on the other hand, stones that gives an olive oil for cosmetic application and a raw material t[...]



Effect of hydroxytyrosol, walnut and olive oil on nutritional profile of Low-Fat Chicken Frankfurters

2017-05-02T11:03:27.598646-05:00

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol extract (HXT, 50 ppm), walnut paste (2.5 g/100 g) and extra olive oil (as substitute of animal fat, 20 g/100 g) on fatty acid profiles, mineral content and sensory analysis of chicken frankfurters. Low-fat chicken sausages produced with olive oil as fat replacement, walnut and HXT extract remained stable without a significant loss of sensory attributes during storage at 4°C for 21 days. The sausages with HXT were found to decrease rancid odour, and the samples with walnut were darker, compared with control. Whereas positive correlations were established between rancid odour, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and negative correlations were found between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), rancid odour and thibarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); no significant correlations were established between TBARS and MUFA. Sausages with walnut or olive oil contained significantly larger (P [...]



Influence of refining processes on content of bioactive compounds, rheology, and texture of olive pomace oil for use in topical formulations

2017-04-07T06:17:48.949464-05:00

Retaining the bioactive ingredients of olive pomace oil is a crucial step in ensuring their functional or pharmaceutical value. To help select the best method for retaining bioactive compounds in olive pomace oil, three refining processes, namely, chemical, classical physical, or molecular distillation, were compared at different temperatures. For each method, the contents of triacylglycerols, fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic, and linolenic acids), triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic acids), and unsaponifiable matter (squalene, aliphatic, sterols, and terpenic) were studied. We observed that physical refining by molecular distillation provided oils with interesting amounts of bioactive compounds, especially triterpenic acids. Of these oils, the samples submitted to a temperature of 190°C exhibited a greater albeit low acidity compared with the other oils obtained by chemical and classical physical refining but exhibited higher amounts of all bioactive compounds. Conversely, the molecular distillation refining process had only a slight effect on the values of the consistency index. The firmness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness parameters from texture profile analysis indicated that in general, all deodorized oils had high smoothness and spreadability but low adhesiveness. Molecular distillation was concluded to be the best refining process. Nevertheless, it is n[...]