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European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Wiley Online Library : European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology



Published: 2018-02-01T00:00:00-05:00

 



Novel Method for the Synthesis of Cholesteryl Glucosides starting from Disaccharides

2018-02-24T05:50:24.899873-05:00

Steryl glucosides (SG) and acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) are natural components of plant cell membranes and present in different concentrations in various plant foods. Currently, their positive effects on human health are under investigation. The present work presents a new and efficient synthesis method for cholesteryl glucosides starting from disaccharides. A five-step synthesis protocol was done to obtain the desired product in 35% overall yield. In the first step, the hydroxy groups of the starting material sucrose are protected using benzyl ethers. After the subsequent acidic hydrolysis the obtained pyranosyl moiety of the disaccharide is transformed to its trichloroacetimidate derivative. Next, the formation of the glycosidic bond to cholesterol is performed and catalytic transfer hydrogenation in order to remove the protecting groups leads to the desired product. In this context, APCI-MS-TOF has turned out to be an excellent analytical tool for the high sensitive analysis of SG as well as intermediates. Practical applications: Due to the comparatively high amounts of SG and ASG in seeds and oils, not only the food industry but also in biodiesel production, these natural compounds are of increasing interest. However, analysis of the compounds is difficult, commercially available pure standard materials are costly and their synthesis often requires time-consuming work-up procedures. The described preparation method allows the synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides which can be used as reference or standard material for the quantitative analysis of phytosteryl glucosides in plant derived samples. The general synthesis method could be also applied to other SG and ASG derivatives.



A sustainable tandem catalysis approach to plant oil based polyols via Schenck-Ene reaction and epoxidation

2018-02-23T00:30:24.253283-05:00

Novel polyols were synthesized in a one-pot, tandem reaction approach. First, singlet oxygen was used as oxidant in the photochemical Schenck-Ene reaction to obtain allyl hydroperoxides of triglycerides, which were reacted in situ to the corresponding epoxy alcohols catalyzed by titanium(IV) isopropoxide. Subsequent acidic epoxide ring-opening with perchloric acid yielded a triglyceride-based polyol. Under basic conditions applying aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, cleavage of the ester bonds of the triglyceride and epoxide ring-opening occurred simultaneously resulting in a fatty acid-based polyol. Practical applications: Polyols, especially also based on renewable fatty acids, are valuable monomers for the synthesis of polyurethanes, polyester- and alkyd-resins. With the here reported method, a maximum of three hydroxyl groups per double bond of the unsaturated triglyceride can be introduced, which cannot be realized with the methods reported to date.



Application of Temperature Modulated Optical Refractometry for the Characterization of the Crystallization Behavior of Palm Oil

2018-02-22T08:26:10.486991-05:00

The phase behavior of fats is mainly determined using DSC. Here, the application of temperature modulated optical refractometry (TMOR) was examined to monitor the phase transitions of palm oil with different degrees of saturation. Studying the phase behavior by both methods revealed systematic differences. At identical scan rates, TMOR yielded up to 2 °C higher crystallization temperatures and identified consistently lower temperatures for melting phenomena. Because the prism serves as heating surface and defines the sample volume considered for the measurement a more direct heat transfer with TMOR is assumed. The sample depth above the prism relevant for the determination is only one micron. Hence, a direct heat transfer is ensured and thermal lag is practically eliminated causing the above-mentioned differences. Because the TMOR signal is averaged over a defined prism surface area data for inhomogeneous samples can be generated. Although actual values for thermal expansion coefficients appear meaningless the combination of the TMOR signals allows to accurately determine the relevant phase transitions. The identification of different polymorphic forms and levels of solids in palm oil will be studied prospectively building on the promising results reported to identify if TMOR can become a valuable extension of the fat technologists’ toolbox. Practical applications: The new temperature modulated optical refractometry could extend the mainly used differential scanning calorimetry. It works highly accurate at small scan rates (<5 K/min) in comparison to the DSC. The new method could provide a deeper insight into samples during heating and cooling due to additional temperature undulation as well as the possibility to perform quasi-isothermal measurements.



Improved characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acids desaturases and elongases by co-expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a protozoan acyl-CoA synthetase

2018-02-22T08:25:49.263672-05:00

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable host for the expression and characterization of eukaryotic enzymes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis, such as elongases and desaturases. The yeast allows a correct subcellular localization of these proteins, provides electron donors required by desaturases and is unable to synthesize PUFA that could interfere in the enzymes characterization. Unfortunately, S. cerevisiae incorporates very long chain PUFAs inefficiently, which could interfere in the characterization of enzymes using these substrates. Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS) are involved in fatty acids uptake, and catalyze the synthesis of the corresponding CoA thioesters. ACS provides the substrates for elongases, acyl-CoA desaturases and acyl transferases. Transferases are required to synthesize phospholipids which in turn, are substrates for acyl-lipid desaturases. Expression in yeast of Trypanosoma brucei ACS1 notably improved the uptake of a wide variety of PUFA. Co-expression of ACS1 with Elo5 elongase from Leishmania major or Des4 desaturase from T. brucei showed respectively, 2 and 5.6 fold increases in the uptake of the PUFA substrates and 2.4 and 3.5 fold increases in substrate conversion. It also allowed to produce significant amount of Des4 desaturase product for further analysis, whereas it was obtained in trace amounts when the enzyme was expressed alone. Practical applications: In this report, the use of yeast strains expressing ACS1 is proposed as a useful tool in the characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acids desaturases and elongases. Furthermore, this model could be used for the production of nutraceutical PUFA.



W/O nano-Emulsions with Olive Leaf Phenolics Improved Oxidative Stability of Sacha Inchi Oil

2018-02-22T08:25:23.825872-05:00

Natural phenolic compounds have been drawn a wide attention to replace the synthesis antioxidants due to the food safety issues, while, natural phenolic compounds are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibit hydrophilic capacity, limiting their applications directly in lipid systems. In this work, olive leaf phenolics (OLP) were extracted by ultrasound from five cultivars and the optimal cultivar was chosen to prepare W/O nano-emulsions of Sacha Inchi oil (SIO, containing more than 90% polyunsaturated fatty acids). The droplet size could reach 2.15±0.13 nm and remained stable without phase separation during 30-day storage. Oxidative stabilities of SIO containing 0.02%, 0.05% and 0.1% OLP (w/w) were evaluated by Rancimat test and accelerated storage test. The release of OLP by preparation of W/O nano-emulsions was capable of controlling the oxidative progress of SIO, by prolonging the induction time, preventing the production of primary and secondary oxidative products and also the deterioration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols. Practical applications: Sacha Inchi oil (SIO) contains approximately 90% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) associated with poor oxidative stability. Olive leaf phenolics (OLP) are considered as a great and cheap source of natural phenolic compounds. This study aimed to select the optimum source of OLP from five cultivars and to prepare a W/O nano-emulsion of OLP. By diluting the W/O nano-emulsion of OLP into SIO, effect of different concentrations OLP on the oxidative stability of SIO was evaluated through thermal oxidative stability and storage oxidative stability in an accelerated storage test. Results indicated that the capacity of OLP to retard the SIO oxidation depended on the incorporated concentration, which means that it is doable to adopt OLP, an abundant and cheap material, to improve the stability of edible oil with high PUFAs in the industry.



Odour Detection Threshold Determination of Volatile Compounds in Topical Skin Formulations

2018-02-22T08:21:22.119767-05:00

Several studies have shown that lipid oxidation can occur in topical skin formulations, but the impact of the individual volatile compounds on off-odour has not yet been determined. In this study, lipid oxidation was investigated in prototype skin care formulations. Firstly, lipid oxidation volatile compounds that increased in concentration during storage were identified. The results showed that the concentration of six volatile compounds increased above previously reported odour detection threshold values in water. These volatile compounds were selected for odour detection threshold value determination and also odour description by a trained sensory panel. In one case, the odour detection threshold value was 50 times higher (less detectable) in skin care products than in water, whereas for other volatile compounds the odour detection threshold value was only 1.5 times higher. The odour description of the volatile compounds was, in most cases, different from that reported in literature. The observed differences are hypothesised to be due to a masking effect of the base odour of the skin care product(s), a volatile-retaining power of the base matrix and to a cocktail effect of the combined odours from different volatile oxidation products. Practical applications: In this study, the impact of volatile compounds on off-odour was explored in prototype skin care formulations. The odour detection threshold value and odour description were determined for butanal, pentanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl furan, 2-pentyl furan and 1-heptanol in prototype skin care formulations.



Bitterness Reduction of Cold Pressed Grapefruit Seed Oil by Adsorbent Treatment

2018-02-22T08:21:20.614378-05:00

The goal of this study was to remove bitterness of cold pressed grapefruit seed oil by adsorbent treatments. The oil was treated with amberlites XAD7, IR120, and IRA400 resins, and natural zeolite, sepiolite, and montmorillonite at 3% (w/w) level. Oil physicochemical properties, oil flavonoid, phenolic acid and phytosterol compositions, oil sensory descriptive analysis, oil consumer preferences as well as properties of the adsorbents were determined. The largest surface area, pore radius, pore volume and oleic acid adsorption capacity were observed for natural sepiolite, zeolite and XAD7 amberlite. Adsorbent treatment usually reduced oil viscosity, free acidity, and soap content. In removal of flavonoids, natural sepiolite, zeolite and XAD7 resin were the most successful. Reductions from 3.0 to 60.0% were quantified. Phytosterol composition was not changed significantly by adsorbent treatment. Quantitative sensory descriptive data showed that natural sepiolite at first, followed by natural zeolite and amberlite XAD7 reduced bitterness and throatcatching scores almost by half, but consumer preference test results showed that these reductions were not enough for consumers to accept the taste/flavor of the treated oils. Hence, bitterness removal from grapefruit seed oil still remains as a research challenge. Practical applications: To utilize cold pressed grapefruit seed oil for direct human consumption, the inherent bitterness needs to be removed. This study showed that almost half levels of sensorially perceived bitterness could be removed by natural sepiolite, zeolite and amberlite XAD7 adsorbents. Although consumers found the treated oils still bitter, the treated oils could be used in formulated food preparations or in blend with other vegetable oils.



Oxidation of Fish Oil Oleogels Formed by Natural Waxes in Comparison with Bulk Oil

2018-02-22T08:20:42.538546-05:00

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oleogel (or organogel) technology as a new method to prevent oxidation of fish oil by immobilizing oil and to provide useful information on oxidation of oleogels for their application in actual food products. Four different natural waxes, rice bran wax, sunflower wax, candelilla wax, and beeswax were used to prepare fish oil oleogels. Peroxide value, conjugated diene value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured after storing oleogels at 35 °C and 50 °C, respectively. All 3% wax-fish oil oleogels showed slower oxidation than the bulk fish oil at 35 °C. Beeswax was not as effective as other waxes during storage at 50 °C due to its lower melting point. The color penetration measurement method was developed as a convenient method to predict the oxidation rate of oleogel. Cooling oleogel at a faster rate could significantly reduce the oxidation rate of the oleogel. A larger amount of wax is not recommended to increase the protective effect, which can give a negative effect due to the prooxidant activity of wax. The oleogel technology may be applied to reduce oxidation of food products and nutritional supplements containing omega-3 oil. Practical applications: This study clearly showed that the oleogel technology can be used to prevent oil oxidation by immobilizing oil in food products. This technology can be used for commercial products such as fish oil supplements to prevent oil oxidation during production, transportation, and storage. The information presented in this study can also be used for new omega-3 oil fortified food products such as margarine, spreads, shortening, cookies, and other related products. The oleogel technology can be easily applied as a drop-in method. Natural waxes used as oleogelator are inexpensive and widely available, and most of them are already used in many food products.



Differential effect of cis-eicosenoic acid positional isomers on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells

2018-02-22T08:20:24.065817-05:00

Cis-eicosenoic acid-rich fish oil have shown beneficial health effects towards obesity related metabolic dysfunctions. Six bioavailable cis-eicosenoic acid positional isomers (c-20:1 PIs) were examined for their effects on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Cells were cultured using experimental (c-20:1 PIs-added, 50 µM) or control (oleic acid (c9-18:1, 50 µM) or no fatty acids) medium. The treatment of c-20:1 PIs, significantly (p<0.05) decreased the cellular triglyceride content compared to that of c9-18:1. Cells absorbed c-20:1 PIs at significantly (p<0.05) different percentages and has altered the fatty acid metabolism. The c15-20:1 comparatively down-regulated the transcriptional factors for adipogenesis (peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma and CCCAT enhancer binding protein alpha) and lipogenesis (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1); thus, showed comparative anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effect. In conclusion, c-20:1 PIs affected differently on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and the position of the double bond in c-20:1 influenced on their functionality. Practical applications: The control of the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in adipocytes via improving the composition of dietary fat is useful as a prevention measure for obesity and subsequent diseases. This study demonstrated the beneficial effect of cis eicosenoic acid (c-20:1) positional isomers particularly c15-20:1 in controlling the adipogenesis and subsequent lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Thus, food rich in 20:1 positional isomers, such as fish oil, plant seeds and nuts are useful as functional foods for the prevention of obesity and could also use as effective weight loss supplements.



Analytical determination of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in olive oils. Comparison with other vegetable oils

2018-02-19T06:20:24.031599-05:00

Olive oil is mainly consumed in Mediterranean basin and is an important source of lipids, antioxidants and vitamins. Vitamin E (tocopherols) and phylloquinone (vitamin K1), are present in oils. If vitamin E was the subject of numerous studies, it was not the case of phylloquinone. The aim of this work was to uncover the latest advancements on phylloquinone contents in olive and vegetable oils. A bibliometric study, from Google Scholar and Web of Science databases, on the determination of phylloquinone content in vegetable oils made it possible to count a large number of scientific papers related to food matrices but few articles on olive and vegetable oils. The analysis of relevant works allowed to compare the phylloquinone content of olive oils to the other vegetable oils. The different steps of oil sample preparation before their analysis were reviewed. A compilation of analytical conditions and methods was realised and it was be found that liquid chromatography with post reduction column and fluorescence detection was the technique most appropriate. On the base on their phylloquinone content, two oil groups were highlighted; olive oil belonged to the oil groups (canola, soybean, pumkin, avocado and cottonseed) having higher values (60-348 µg/100g) of phylloquinone. Practical applications: Phylloquinone (or vitamin K1) content in vegetable oils and particularly in olive oils was little documented. Phylloquinone exists under E and Z forms in oils. The recommended daily intake (for women and men) varies between 55 to 120 μg/day for patients without anticoagulant medication. The knowledge of the two isomers content in vegetable oils is important in nutrition and heath fields because only E isomer is bioactive.



STORAGE STABILITY OF DHA IN ENRICHED LIQUID EGGS

2018-02-15T07:31:41.466348-05:00

The oxidative stability of liquid eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids and liquid regular eggs stored under refrigerated temperature, was investigated. Oxidized lipids can alter both nutritional and sensorial properties of foods. The extent of lipid oxidation was evaluated by quantification of total lipids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and peroxide value (PV), but also by assessment of total tocopherols and γ-tocopherol losses. Additionally, the development of fishy off-flavor was evaluated. Results highlighted significant differences between omega and regular liquid eggs stability. Although, the oxidative changes were observed in both types of liquid eggs, more susceptible to oxidation were omega liquid eggs. Practical applications: Food enrichment with essential nutrients contributes to human health by providing the proper intake of essential nutrients. The results of this study suggest that fortification of eggs with highly unsaturated fatty acids should be in conjunction with the addition of natural antioxidants to retard undergoing oxidative changes.



One-pot catalytic copolymerization of unsaturated plant oils or fatty acid methyl esters with ethylene

2018-02-03T06:25:27.408649-05:00

Until now natural fatty ester acid esters with their internal C=C-bonds could not be used as substrates for catalytic polymerization reactions. It was always necessary to convert them to terminal unsaturated fatty acid esters first. Therefore we now developed a two-catalyst system consisting of an isomerization catalyst and a Brookhart polymerization catalyst. With this system of isomerizing copolymerization (IsoCoP) it is possible to copolymerize high oleic plant oils or fatty acid methyl esters with ethylene in a one-pot reaction. The resulting polymers have molecular weights above 30 kDa and can contain more than 20 weight percent plant oils. The copolymers of fatty acid methyl esters are soluble in organic solvents. The predominant part of the copolymers from plant oils is usually soluble. The insoluble fraction is soluble after hydrolysis indicating a rare cross-linking of polyolefin chains by triglycerol units. The catalytic system is effective yielding polymers with a productivity of up to 100 kg polymer per mole catalyst and pretty robust. Plants oils need to be purified only by a simple filtration over alumina before copolymerization. Practical applications: The possibility to copolymerize plant oils with ethylene leads to a new class of polymers and may enhance the usage of plant oils for plastics greatly. The new polymers might be used e.g. for tackifiers or primers.



Influence of Oxidised Oils on Digestibility of Caseins in O/W emulsions

2018-02-03T06:20:30.674145-05:00

The impact of lipid oxidation on protein modifications in emulsions and the consequences on protein digestibility remains unclear. In this study, this impact was evaluated in casein (6 mg/mL) based emulsions containing oxidised soybean or fish oil (3 %) in presence (0.3 %) or absence of the emulsifier Tween 20. Emulsions were prepared using oils at three oxidation levels and subsequently the impact on protein digestibility was evaluated after 24 hours incubation at 4°C. Remarkably, protein digestibility increased in emulsions containing medium and highly oxidised fish oil: 70 ± 0.4 % and 73 ± 0.4 % of the proteins were digested respectively, whereas protein digestibility in emulsions containing low oxidised fish oil amounted to 63 ± 0.4%. Protein digestibility in emulsions containing soybean oil stabilised by Tween 20 was not influenced by the oxidation level of the oil used. A remarkable tendency is observed for the malondialdehyde content of the emulsions depending on the presence of Tween 20. For soybean oil based emulsions, malondialdehyde concentrations were consistently higher in the presence of Tween 20. On the other hand, for the fish oil based emulsions an opposite trend was observed, except at the highest oxidation level evaluated, for which no significant differences could be detected. We concluded that the composition of the interface in emulsions depends strongly upon the degree of oil oxidation and the presence of other emulsifiers. If the oil is more oxidised, less protein is present in the interface restricting the impact of lipid oxidation products on the proteins and hence their digestibility. Practical applications: This research was done to highlight the relevance of the interfacial composition in food emulsions and its influence on dairy protein digestibility. The Food industry must be aware of the oil quality and the presence of emulsifiers in foods emulsions that allow to preserve the stability and nutritional characteristics of these food emulsions.



Characterization and Polymerization of Epoxidized Methacrylated Castor Oil

2018-01-31T06:21:13.229726-05:00

In this study, synthesis and polymerization of epoxidized methacrylated castor oil (EMETCO) was demonstrated. EMETCO was synthesized in two step. Castor oil (CO) was methacrylated with methacryloyl chloride at the first step. Then the methacrylated castor oil (METCO) was epoxidized by Prilezhaev reaction. Structure of EMETCO was determined by 1H NMR and IR techniques. EMETCO was copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA), styrene (ST) and methacrylic acid (MA). Thermal and mechanical properties of the synthesized polymers were evaluated. Among the polymers synthesized EMETCO-ST-MA polymer gave the highest storage modulus at 2.25 GPa. On the other hand, EMETCO-AA copolymer exhibited the lowest storage modulus at 350 MPa. Moreover, EMETCO-ST copolymer showed the lowest 5 % weight loss temperature while EMETCO-MA exhibited the highest 5 % weight loss temperature at 280 °C. Practical applications: Epoxidized Methacrylated Castor Oil is a bio-based epoxy acrylate monomer. The low viscosity and two different functional group makes this material suitable for many polymerization reactions and applications. This compound would be used as a replacement materials for many industrial monomers such as styrene, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil or prepolymers in the future.



Enzymatically modified shea butter and palm kernel oil as potential lipid drug delivery matrices

2017-12-14T05:56:02.242369-05:00

Drug formulations based on lipids can enable a significantly better delivery of a pharmaceutically active substance and thus enhance their bioavailability. However, natural fats and oils usually have properties, which do not allow their direct use for drug delivery. Therefore, we have modified palm kernel oil (PKO) and shea butter (SB) via lipase-catalyzed transesterification using either glycerol – to create a diglyceride enriched lipid – or using hexanoic acid via acidolysis – to alter their fatty acid composition – and hence to improve drug solubility of Celecoxib serving as model compound. The most suitable enzyme was immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Novozyme TL IM). The solubility of Celecoxib was determined in SB, pharmaceutical grade SB, glycerol-modified SB, hexanoic acid-modified SB, PKO, glycerol-modified PKO and hexanoic acid-modified PKO. Incorporation of one or two equivalents of hexanoic acid enabled higher Celecoxib solubilization than the diglyceride rich oil. Although structured SB and PKO (15.8 ± 0.4 mg/mL) do not differ significantly (p < 0.05) as per the amount of Celecoxib dissolved, the use of the modified oils enhanced Celecoxib solubility in SB (15.5 ± 1.3 mg/mL) in comparison to Shea butter (7.9 ± 0.5 mg/mL). The lipase-catalyzed modification also improved the miscibility of the oils with surfactants such as Tween 20 and resulted in reduced droplet sizes (<70 nm at oil:surfactant ratios of 1:2 and 1:1) and reduced polydispersity index values of the resulting emulsions. Practical Applications The structured triglycerides synthesized in this work on the basis of natural shea butter oils could function as suppository bases and oil phase in oral and parenteral lipid-based formulations for improving the solubility and absorption of poorly soluble drugs. As various lipases with distinct selectivity are available for the enzymatic synthesis of structured triglycerides useful for this purpose, further tailor-designed formations should be accessible.



Determination of Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) in Skin Care Products by Gaschromatography-Mass Spectrometry Employing an Enhanced Matrix Removal (EMR) Lipid Clean-Up

2018-02-21T07:40:40.974176-05:00

A new application of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, and Safe) extraction followed by enhanced matrix removal-lipid cleanup and GC-MS analysis is proposed for skin care products. The method is applied to determine methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN), a preservative frequently used in cosmetic products before being banned for its allergic reactions, so as to unmask its now-prohibited use. The new validated procedure consists in extracting the cosmetic products with acetonitrile, removing the lipid matrix and then water and solid particles from the organic mixture by two dispersive solid-phase extractions (dSPE) in sequence and, lastly, analyzing the extracts in GC–MS. Compared to classic liquid–liquid extraction with chloroform, the method has superior features in terms of applicability to cosmetics, ease of use, working times optimization and, above all, reduction of analytically interfering lipidic constituents. Practical Applications: The use of EMR-Lipid dSPE system followed by GC-MS analysis allows to trace and quantify a minimal amount of a banned preservative, MDBGN, in so-called “complex” matrices, such as cosmetic creams, managing them in a simple and efficient way. Therefore, this system can be proposed for further applications of extractive procedures, advantageously alternative to the classic liquid-liquid extractions, in the field of cosmetics analysis. The EMR-Lipid dSPE system shows the following advantages: much simpler use, as the system provides tubes already packaged with the clean-up phase, optimization of the working times, and noticeable reduction of extraction impurities allowing cleaner extracts to be obtained. A new application of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, and Safe) extraction followed by enhanced matrix removal-lipid cleanup and GC–MS analysis is proposed for skin care products. Compared to classic liquid–liquid extraction with chloroform (upper part), the method has superior features in terms of applicability to cosmetics, ease of use, working times optimization and, above all, reduction of analytically interfering lipidic constituents (lower part). A new application of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, and Safe) extraction followed by enhanced matrix removal-lipid cleanup and GC–MS analysis is proposed for skin care products. Compared to classic liquid–liquid extraction with chloroform (upper part), the method has superior features in terms of applicability to cosmetics, ease of use, working times optimization and, above all, reduction of analytically interfering lipidic constituents (lower part).



Optimization of Novel Oil Extraction Technique From Canola Seeds: Lecithin-Based Microemulsion

2018-02-21T07:40:38.321851-05:00

Nowadays, solvent (hexane) based oil extraction is a widely used commercial technique and there are a number of environmental, economic, and health related concerns. Overcoming such serious issues is driving research to develop alternative safe methods. In the present study, a novel technique, using lecithin-based microemulsion system, is developed for canola oil extraction. At first, pseudoternary phase diagrams of canola oil/lecithin/propanol/water microemulsions are constructed and the effect of temperature on microemulsion formation was evaluated. So that, (lecithin/propanol)/water microemulsion premixes ([2:1]50:50 and [2:3]80:20) are selected for optimization (temperature, exposure time, premix:canola seeds ratio, and agitation rate) of oil extraction from canola seeds using one factor at a time design. Based on “one factor at a time” design, the highest extraction yield (82.6% wt) achieved at 60 °C, 60 min, 6:1 premix:canola seeds ratio without agitation; the premix composition was (lecithin/propanol)/water (2:1)50:50. From quality point of views, the microemulsion-based extracted oils has lower peroxide value, higher acidity, as well as low phosphorous and lecithin contents in comparison with hexane extracted one. This technique confirms its simultaneous extraction, recovery, and solubilization capabilities which can be used for oil extraction and food formulation. Practical Applications: For many decades, vegetable oils are commonly extracted by mechanical pressing or extraction with solvents such as hexane. Hexane, a highly volatile and flammable solvent which requires expensive equipment for safe operation, is classified as a hazardous air pollutant and occupational exposure to n-hexane can cause neurological symptoms and other health defects. Overcoming these serious issues is driving research to develop alternative safe methods such as microemulsion technique. This study introduces a novel technique using lecithin-based microemulsion systems for extraction of edible oils from oilseeds. This technique, as a low energy consuming method, has great potency for being used as a safe and green oil extraction technique which is the developing direction for not only the dominant oil resources but also nutrient lipids which can be easily dissolvable in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. Accurate ratios of canola seeds, lecithin, 1-propanol and water at a moderate temperature were used to create a nano-size canola oil lecithin-based microemulsion which was then simply demulsified at lower temperature in order to separate the extracted oil (see picture). This technique as a low energy consuming, straightforward and environmentally friendly method could be used for solublization and extraction of oil from various sources. Accurate ratios of canola seeds, lecithin, 1-propanol and water at a moderate temperature were used to create a nano-size canola oil lecithin-based microemulsion which was then simply demulsified at lower temperature in order to separate the extracted oil (see picture). This technique as a low energy consuming, straightforward and environmentally friendly method could be used for solublization and extraction of oil from various sources.



Phospholipid Complex of ICA and ICA II Prepared by Wet Media Milling for Improving Bioavailability

2018-02-20T09:30:42.442709-05:00

In order to enhance the lipophilicity and thus oral bioavailability of icariin (ICA) and icariside II (ICA II) of total flavonoids of epimedium (TFE), a total flavonoids of epimedium–phospholipid complex (TFE-PLC) is prepared by wet media milling. The stabilizers Aerosi and SDS are used to formulate TFE-PLC nanosuspensions (TFE-PLC–Ns) to improve the dispersion of TFE–PLC. FTIR and DSC data confirms the formation of TFE-PLC. The oil solubility of ICA and ICA II in the complex in octanol is improved nearly four times over that in TFE. The logP of ICA in TFE-PLC is significantly increased with a value from 1.61 to 2.02 at pH 4.5, and ICA II, from 3.24 to 4.77. The mean diameter of the TFE-PLC-Ns is reduced from 6.166 to 0.424 μm, and its dissolution is improved over TFE. In the in vivo evaluation, TFE-PLC-Ns exhibits a considerable enhancement with larger AUC0–t and shorter Tmax than TFE and TFE-PLC. The relative bioavailability of ICA in TFE-PLC and TFE-PLC-Ns are 181.75 and 249.05%, respectively, and for ICA II are 401.63 and 684.70%, respectively. Therefore, it suggests that TFE-PLC-Ns has possibilities in enhancing oral bioavailability of TFE, which may be due to its improved lipophilicity and wettability. Practical Applications: The oral bioavailability of ICA and ICA II in TFE are very low due to their poor lipophilicity and cell permeability. Here, TFE-PLC-Ns is proposed, which is prepared by wet media milling for improving lipophilic properties and oral bioavailability. In addition, some proofs of TFE-PLC are investigated in detail, and TFE-PLC-Ns significantly increased the oral bioavailability of ICA and ICA II in TFE. Therefore, the authors recommend a potential drug vehicle of TFE-PLC-Ns for oral administration of ICA and ICA II, and a novel method of phospholipid complex preparation for industrial manufacture. In this article, the total flavonoids of epimedium–phospholipid complex (TFE-PLC) is prepared to enhance the lipophilicity of icariin (ICA) and icariside II (ICA II) in TFE. Aerosi and SDS are used to formulate TFE-PLC nanosuspensions (TFE-PLC-Ns) to improve the dispersion of TFE-PLC. And finally, TFE-PLC-Ns exhibits enhanced oral bioavailability of ICA and ICA II compared with them in TFE and TFE-PLC. In this article, the total flavonoids of epimedium–phospholipid complex (TFE-PLC) is prepared to enhance the lipophilicity of icariin (ICA) and icariside II (ICA II) in TFE. Aerosi and SDS are used to formulate TFE-PLC nanosuspensions (TFE-PLC-Ns) to improve the dispersion of TFE-PLC. And finally, TFE-PLC-Ns exhibits enhanced oral bioavailability of ICA and ICA II compared with them in TFE and TFE-PLC.



Sea Salts Flavored with Mediterranean Herbs and Fruits Prevent Cholesterol and Phospholipid Membrane Oxidation and Cell Free Radical Generation

2018-02-20T03:51:13.353838-05:00

The authors evaluated and compared, with respect to normal salt, the antioxidant activity of commercial sea salts flavored with Mediterranean herbs and fruits in chemical models of lipid peroxidation and in cell cultures. Salts flavored with myrtle, rosemary, and a mixture of herbs/plants preserves liposomes from Cu2+-induced oxidation. Methanol extracts obtained from all flavored sea salts significantly reduces the reactive oxygen species generation in Caco-2 cells, while extracts obtained from myrtle, rosemary, and mixed herbs/plants salts prevents cholesterol oxidative degradation (140 °C). 1H NMR spectroscopy led to the identification of carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids in salt extracts. The phenol content of flavored salts is estimated by the Folin–Ciocalteu procedure and HPLC–DAD analyses. The results of this work assess the potential antioxidant role and health benefits of the use of flavored sea salts in foods instead of normal salt. Practical Applications: This preliminary study evidences that the addition of sea salts flavored with Mediterranean herbs and fruits to food products could represents a strategy to preserve salt-induced lipid oxidation and a source of antioxidants with potential health benefits. Four sea salts flavored with Mediterranean herbs/plants and fruits inhibit cholesterol/liposomes oxidation and reduce cell ROS generation. Four sea salts flavored with Mediterranean herbs/plants and fruits inhibit cholesterol/liposomes oxidation and reduce cell ROS generation.



Preparation and Characterization of Hydrogenated Castor Oil-Based Coating Wax

2018-02-19T07:11:09.285199-05:00

A synthesis method is developed from a reaction between hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) and ethylenediamine to prepare a product to coat paperboard. For highest conversion rate, a molar ratio of 1:3 of HCO and ethylenediamine reacted at 130 °C for 2.5 h. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirm the obtained product is a wax combining HCO with two amide groups. The melting point of the diamide wax is 130 °C. The hardness of the wax is harder than that of other waxes (over eight times to beeswax and over four times to paraffin wax) except carnauba wax. In addition, the cohesiveness of the HCO diamide wax is slightly poorer than that of others. In coating paperboard application, the performance of diamide wax in compression force of all treatments is similar to that of carnauba wax and better than that of other waxes although soaking allows paperboard coated with the wax to have wax loss and compression force loss. The results show that the HCO wax with diamide group can be a good coating material on paperboard. Practical Applications: The synthesis method is used to prepare a good coating material. The HCO material is confirmed to be diamide wax after structure confirmation by FTIR and NMR. This diamide wax shows good physical properties and plays well in coating paperboard for its high adhesive rate and good compression force with or without soaking or heating. It also shows a good adhesive ability while heating. The application test presents that the HCO-based diamide wax is good substitute for other wax such as carnauba wax for coating. A synthesis method by the reaction between hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) and ethylenediamine is used to prepare a coating material. After conducting several attempts, a molar ratio of 1:3 of HCO and ethylenediamine reacted at 130 °C for 2.5 h to acquire the final product. The HCO product is confirmed to be diamide wax after structure confirmation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The properties of diamide wax are evaluated by texture analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry. By evaluating the coating ability on paperboard, results show that the diamide wax is a good coating material. A synthesis method by the reaction between hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) and ethylenediamine is used to prepare a coating material. After conducting several attempts, a molar ratio of 1:3 of HCO and ethylenediamine reacted at 130 °C for 2.5 h to acquire the final product. The HCO product is confirmed to be diamide wax after structure confirmation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The properties of diamide wax are evaluated by texture analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry. By evaluating the coating ability on paperboard, results show that the diamide wax is a good coating material.



Solid Fat Content Determination of Dispersed Lipids by Time-Domain NMR

2018-02-19T07:10:23.107117-05:00

Time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) is used to determine the solid fat content (SFC) of dispersions stabilized by a high molecular weight hydrocolloid (gum arabic, GA) containing a high melting lipid (tristearin, SSS). Since the lipid is molten prior to homogenization for the preparation of the dispersion it recrystallizes during cooling and storage. It is known that the recrystallization in a disperse system differs from bulk lipids and TD-NMR can be a helpful tool to investigate the phenomenon. SFC measurement by TD-NMR is well established and widely used in food science for oils, spreads, and seeds. In the case of dispersions, however, the situation is more demanding due to the quasi-continuous phase. A suitable TD-NMR method has to account for that and can be realized when combining longitudinal and transverse relaxation properties to separate the signal contribution of the quasi-continuous phase and the solid lipid and liquid lipid dispersed phase. Signal from water and emulsifier is eliminated by magnetization inversion with an initial 180° pulse and a subsequent dedicated inversion delay. The emulsifier shows a longitudinal relaxation similar to the aqueous phase. With a carefully chosen inversion delay, both signal contributions of water and emulsifier can be suppressed, and a quantitative determination of the SFC is possible via dedicated data processing. Practical Applications: The method can be applied in characterization, stability tests and quality control of complex food emulsions and solid lipid particles, which are recently under development as drug carrier systems. TD-NMR is used to determine the solid fat content (SFC) of dispersions with high water content, a hydrocolloid as emulsifier and fat. Since the fat is molten prior to homogenization it recrystallizes during cooling. It is known that recrystallization in a dispersed system differs from bulk and TD-NMR is a helpful tool to investigate the phenomenon. The situation is demanding due to the quasi-continuous phase. With magnetization inversion, a preset 180° pulse, and a carefully chosen inversion delay, signal contributions of water, and emulsifier can be suppressed, and a quantitative determination of the SFC is possible. TD-NMR is used to determine the solid fat content (SFC) of dispersions with high water content, a hydrocolloid as emulsifier and fat. Since the fat is molten prior to homogenization it recrystallizes during cooling. It is known that recrystallization in a dispersed system differs from bulk and TD-NMR is a helpful tool to investigate the phenomenon. The situation is demanding due to the quasi-continuous phase. With magnetization inversion, a preset 180° pulse, and a carefully chosen inversion delay, signal contributions of water, and emulsifier can be suppressed, and a quantitative determination of the SFC is possible.



Obesity and Male Infertility: Role of Fatty Acids in the Modulation of Sperm Energetic Metabolism

2018-02-19T03:02:52.741973-05:00

Obesity in men of reproductive age is increasing worldwide, impacting negatively on reproductive potential, sperm function, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Changes in modern eating behaviors are needed to invert the negative correlation between lifestyle and sperm quality. It is known from the literature that fatty acids are able to modulate lipid metabolism by complex mechanisms involving a sequence of interdependent and cross-regulated molecular events. Although a great deal of data is currently available on the dietary modulation of lipid metabolism, little is known about the nutritional regulation of sperm energetic metabolism. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as modulators of sperm function and quality are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an impairment or improvement in sperm bioenergetics are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fats influence sperm function. The administration of a high-fat diet, low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, caused a significant increase in body weight hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia, along with a significant reduction in sperm quality. In contrast, unsaturated fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. The understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of male infertility related to obesity led us to depict a possible framework for the molecular action of fatty acids on sperm quality during dysmetabolic conditions. Practical Applications: In this review major data from the literature about the spermatozoa targeting of dietary fatty acids are described and critically analyzed, because now dietary fatty acids are the current focus of research in the field of nutrition and reproduction in males. Such knowledge will eventually translate into the development of new attractive therapeutic approaches for male infertility related to alterations in lipid metabolism. Dietary fatty acids are involved in the nutritional modulation of sperm energetic metabolism. Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) seem to correlate with defective sperm energy metabolism and reduced sperm quality. Administration of PUFA, especially n-3 PUFA, determines an increase in sperm concentration, and motility, associated to an increase in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes involved in gamete energetic metabolism and to a reduction in oxidative damaeg Dietary fatty acids are involved in the nutritional modulation of sperm energetic metabolism. Diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) seem to correlate with defective sperm energy metabolism and reduced sperm quality. Administration of PUFA, especially n-3 PUFA, determines an increase in sperm concentration, and motility, associated to an increase in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes involved in gamete energetic metabolism and to a reduction in oxidative damage.



Residual Olive Paste as a Source of Phenolic Compounds and Triterpenic Acids

2018-02-19T02:56:30.851136-05:00

The two-phase centrifugation system of olive oil extraction produces huge amounts of olive pomace called alperujo that could be a good source of bioactive substances. However, alperujo is currently stored in open air ponds before it is dried and submitted for extraction of the residual oil. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of phenolic and triterpenic acids in alperujo during its storage and extraction processes on an industrial scale. Alperujo is stored in large open air ponds, dried and the residual oil is extracted with hexane over a course of a year for two consecutive olive seasons.The storage of alperujo did not cause great changes in the content of these substances in the paste although the pomace olive oil is enriched in triterpenic compounds, mainly oleanolic acid. By contrast, the drying and extraction steps gives rise to a great reduction in the concentration of phenolic compounds. Likewise, triterpenic acids are very stable during the extraction process, and an enrichment of them is detected in the extracted alperujo that can reach up to 7–8 g kg−1 in these substances, particularly maslinic acid. Practical Applications: There are many studies, methods, and patents to extract bioactive substances from olive by-products, particularly from the fresh olive pomace called alperujo. However, this study is the first to explore the stored and extracted alperujo as a good source of phenolic and triterpenic substances. Specifically, triterpenic acids were very stable during the storage and drying steps and extracted alperujo was highly enriched in them. This research will contribute to the valorization of olive by-products. Extracted alperujo is a very good source of triterpenic acids. Extracted alperujo is a very good source of triterpenic acids.



Improving Storage Stability of Pistachio Oil Packaged in Different Containers by Using Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Essential Oils

2018-02-19T02:55:38.564848-05:00

In this study, the antioxidant capacity of rosemary (REO) and peppermint (PEO) essential oils along with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is investigated on oxidative stability of pistachio oil packaged in glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The essential oils (EOs) and their mixture are added at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations into the oil stored for 80 days at 60 °C under darkness. In order to evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants, peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid, total phenolic compounds, oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes and trienes, free fatty acids (FFAs), and iodine value is measured at intervals of 20 days. The results show that natural antioxidants can reduce PV and FFA levels about five- and threefolds compared to control, respectively. The OSI in raw pistachio oil (16 h) reduces to 5 h, while in treated sample by REO the reduction is only to 13 h after storage. Generally, the results reveal that in all measured parameters, following order can be observed for antioxidant activity: 3000 ppm REO>3000 ppm PEO>100 ppm BHT >1500 ppm REO >1500 ppm mixed >1500 ppm PEO > control. Moreover, the findings show that glass container is better than PET to retard oxidation process. Practical Application: Pistachio oil is known as a functional and commercial oil that is susceptible to oxidation due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids. In this work, rosemary and mint essential oils as natural antioxidant are applied for improving oxidation stability of pistachio oil. Antioxidant capacity of rosemary (REO) and peppermint (PEO) essential oils is investigated on oxidative stability of pistachio oil packaged in glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The essential oils are added at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations into the oil stored for 80 days at 60 ºC under darkness. The results reveal that in all measured parameters, following order can be observed for antioxidant activity: 3000 ppm REO >3000 ppm PEO >100 ppm BHT >1500 ppm REO >1500 ppm mixed >1500 ppm PEO > control. The findings show that glass container is better than PET to retard oxidation process. Antioxidant capacity of rosemary (REO) and peppermint (PEO) essential oils is investigated on oxidative stability of pistachio oil packaged in glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The essential oils are added at 1500 and 3000 ppm concentrations into the oil stored for 80 days at 60 ºC under darkness. The results reveal that in all measured parameters, following order can be observed for antioxidant activity: 3000 ppm REO >3000 ppm PEO >100 ppm BHT >1500 ppm REO >1500 ppm mixed >1500 ppm PEO > control. The findings show that glass container is better than PET to retard oxidation process.



Evaluation of Olive Pomace in the Production of Novel Broilers With Enhanced In Vitro Antithrombotic Properties

2018-02-19T02:55:35.748537-05:00

Several attempts have been made not only to improve nutritional value of broilers but also to attenuate dependence on raw materials such as corn in compounded broilers feed. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of diets enriched with olive pomace (OP) on Ross 308 broilers growth performance, sensory characteristics, and nutritional value in terms of cardioprotection. Broilers are fed four experimental diets containing 0% OP (control group), 2.5% OP (group A), 5.0% OP (group B), and 7.5% OP (group C). The obtained broiler meat samples are evaluated for their lipid and phenol content and their in vitro antithrombotic properties according to biological assay in human platelets. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth rate compared to the ones of control group. Additionally group B exhibited significantly more potent (P < 0.05) in vitro antithrombotic properties (EC50 = 10.5 ± 0.92) compared to the ones of control group (EC50 = 420 ± 21.3). Grilled broiler meat of group B is found to have acceptable sensory properties. The overall conclusion of this paper is the potential use of OP in compounded broilers feed in the production of functional broilers meat. Practical applications: The objective of this research is to assess the use of olive industry by-products as functional feed ingredients. For this purpose, broilers were fed experimental diets containing olive pomace (OP). Our results suggest that OP can be used in broiler feed to produce functional broilers meat with increased in vitro antithrombotic properties. These scientific data could have considerable practical value toward the valorization of OP and increasing the sustainable production of functional broiler meat and therefore the overall food security. Valorization of olive industry by-products (A) in the farming of Ross 308 broilers (B) and the cardioprotective properties of the functional broilers as means of reduced platelet aggregation in humans (C). Valorization of olive industry by-products (A) in the farming of Ross 308 broilers (B) and the cardioprotective properties of the functional broilers as means of reduced platelet aggregation in humans (C).



Deacidification of Crude Hazelnut Oil Using Molecular Distillation – Multiobjective Optimization for Free Fatty Acids and Tocopherol

2018-02-14T08:05:28.850306-05:00

Hazelnut oil is a good source for its high oleic acid and tocopherol contents. Since tocopherols are beneficial compounds in human diet, preservation of tocopherols in oil plays a great role in refining process. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum molecular distillation conditions for deacidification of crude hazelnut oil at which free fatty acids (FFAs) are removed while tocopherols are preserved as much as possible. A short-path distillation column is used with evaporation temperatures ranging from 110 to 190 °C and vacuums from 0.05 to 5 mmHg for deacidification. Multiobjective optimization is performed for minimizing tocopherol loss and maximizing FFA removal simultaneously. Results reveal that higher temperature and vacuums achieve more deacidification in residual oil. FFA content is reduced to 2.05% at 190 °C and 0.05 mmHg. On the other hand, tocopherol concentrations are considerably affected at this condition while they remain almost stable at other conditions. Optimized conditions for removal of FFAs and protecting of tocopherols in crude hazelnut oil are calculated as 188.65 °C and 0.14 mmHg. For verification, an additional distillation is carried out at the calculated conditions, and the results are found very close to that of optimized conditions. Practical Applications: Physical refining or vacuum distillation process is a substitute to conventional refining which causes excessive neutral oil losses during neutralization. However, heat treatment for long periods of time may inevitably cause degradation of beneficial compounds such as tocopherols. For this purpose, this study focuses on optimizing molecular distillation conditions at which maximum tocopherol and minimum FFA could be obtained simultaneously. Outcomes would be useful for industrial physical refining plants dealing with optimum points for the same purpose. Deacidification of crude hazelnut oil using molecular distillation – multiobjective optimization for tocopherol and FFA Deacidification of crude hazelnut oil using molecular distillation – multiobjective optimization for tocopherol and FFA.



Enhancing the Catalytic Performance of Candida antarctica Lipase B by Immobilization onto the Ionic Liquids Modified SBA-15

2018-02-12T08:10:22.565192-05:00

In this study, mesoporous silica SBA-15 is modified by imidazole based ionic liquids (IL) with three different side-chain length of cations and two different anions. Prepared supports (IL-SBA-15) are characterized by small-angle powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and then used to immobilize Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). The enzymatic properties of the obtained IL-SBA-15-CALB are evaluated, and the catalytic selectivity toward diacylglycerols (DAG) production in glycerolysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) reaction is also studied. Compared with the parent SBA-15 immobilized CALB (SBA-15-CALB), the IL modification gives a maximum improvement of enzymatic activity from 1855 to 5044 U g−1; in addition, the selectivity toward the diacylglycerols (DAG) production also increases, with the DAG/MAG ratio increasing from 3.72 to 11.99, and the DAG content increasing from 53.6 to 67.2 wt%. Practical applications: Immobilization of lipases facilitates the separation of products and the recovery of lipases for reuse. The present study shows that CALB immobilized on the IL modified SBA-15 is potential for DAG production through glycerolysis, due to its considerable reusability as well as its high glycerolysis activity and selectivity toward DAG production, it could be considered for practical applications. Glycerolysis of corn oil catalyzed by ionic liquids modified SBA-15 supports CALB to produce diacylglycerols. SBA-15 is modified by ionic liquids, and then employed as carrier for Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilization. The obtained solid lipases are used to catalyze glycerolysis for diacylglycerols (DAG) production. Compared with the parent SBA-15 immobilized CALB (SBA-15-CALB), ionic liquids modification gives a maximum improvement of enzymatic activity from 1855 to 5044 U g−1; in addition, the selectivity toward the DAG production is also increased, with the DAG/MAG ratio increasing from 3.72 to 11.99, and the DAG content increasing from 53.6 to 67.2 wt%. Glycerolysis of corn oil catalyzed by ionic liquids modified SBA-15 supports CALB to produce diacylglycerols. SBA-15 is modified by ionic liquids, and then employed as carrier for Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilization. The obtained solid lipases are used to catalyze glycerolysis for diacylglycerols (DAG) production. Compared with the parent SBA-15 immobilized CALB (SBA-15-CALB), ionic liquids modification gives a maximum improvement of enzymatic activity from 1855 to 5044 U g−1; in addition, the selectivity toward the DAG production is also increased, with the DAG/MAG ratio increasing from 3.72 to 11.99, and the DAG content increasing from 53.6 to 67.2 wt%.



Influence of High Pressure Homogenization on Free Fatty Acid Formation in Nannochloropsis sp.

2018-02-12T07:16:27.610846-05:00

Although Nannochloropsis lipids have many potential applications in biofuels and high value products, their extraction is limited by the tough cell wall of this species. High pressure homogenization (HPH) can be used to improve the extraction efficiency. However, this can possibly induce free fatty acid (FFA) formation, which has a negative impact on oil quality. In this study, the HPH pressure and number of passes are varied in a full factorial design to study the impact of these factors on FFA formation, lipid extraction efficiency, and fatty acid profile. It is found that substantial amounts of FFA are formed during HPH treatments when compared to the non-disrupted biomass. The FFA formation is mostly influenced by the number of passes applied, which can explained by a combined effect of the longer time residing as a wet paste and the temperature increase during the treatment. The large amount of FFA formed during the least intensive HPH treatment is in contrast with only a slight increase of the lipid extraction efficiency, which indicates that minor damage to the cell is sufficient to induce lipolytic reactions. The relative fatty acid profile after HI extraction is not influenced by the HPH treatment. Practical Applications: These results have important implications for the application of HPH treatments on microalgae with the aim to improve the extraction efficiency. It is demonstrated that more intensive HPH treatments with several passes are necessary to improve the extraction efficiency of Nannochloropsis lipids. However, the least intensive HPH treatments (1 pass at 400 bar) already induced the formation of substantial amounts of FFA. Consequently, to produce a biomass with a low FFA content and a high lipid extraction efficiency, a compromise should thus be made. High pressure homogenization (HPH) can efficiently be used to improve the extraction effiency of interesting compounds from Nannochloropsis cells. However, this treatment also induces the formation of free fatty acids (FFA), which have a negative influence on oil quality. High pressure homogenization (HPH) can efficiently be used to improve the extraction effiency of interesting compounds from Nannochloropsis cells. However, this treatment also induces the formation of free fatty acids (FFA), which have a negative influence on oil quality.



Enzymatic Inter-Esterification of Binary Blends Containing Irvingia gabonensis Seed Fat to Produce Cocoa Butter Substitute

2018-02-12T07:10:35.616706-05:00

In order to investigate Irvingia gabonensis seed fat (IGF) as a potential cocoa butter alternative (CBA), its melting behavior is first compared to that of cocoa butter (CB). It is then modified by blending 90% of this fat with 10% of a liquid oil either rapeseed oil (RO) or groundnut oil (GO) or palm super olein (PSO) or Dacryodes edulis pulp oil (DPO). Those blends are then enzymatically interesterified in order to improve their melting profiles. The binary blend that shows a similar profile with CB and palm kernel stearin (PKS) is chosen as the best potential new speciality fat. Compatibility between the new speciality fat and CB is evaluated by constructing phase diagrams from NMR and XRD data. The interesterified blends with 90% of IGF and 10% of DPO is chosen as the new speciality fat because its profiles is close to that of CB and shows similar characterics to PKS. The results indicate that the specialty fat produced from IGF and DPO could be used as CBS in confectionery industries (alone or mixed in low proportion with CB). Practical Applications: Fractionnated and/or hydrogenated lauric fats are frequently used by confectionery industries to substitute CB. Results from this study demonstrate that an interesterified blend made of 90% IGF and 10% of DPO can be used also as CBS. The use of these two tropical oils (Irvingia gabonensis seeds fat and Dacryodes edulis pulp oil) as new sources of CBS constitutes a promizing way for their valorization at an industrial scale. Irvingia gabonensis seed fat (IGF) is a naturel lauric fat source with a high quantity of lauric acid (≈37%). Its melting profile, which is similar to cocoa butter (CB), is too high for a direct use in its native state in confectionery application. When IGF is blend to Dacryodes edulis pulp oil and after enzymatically interesterified, its profile is close to that of CB. This result indicated that the interesterified blend can be used as cocoa butter subtitute in confectionery industries (alone or mixed in low proportion with CB). Irvingia gabonensis seed fat (IGF) is a naturel lauric fat source with a high quantity of lauric acid (≈37%). Its melting profile, which is similar to cocoa butter (CB), is too high for a direct use in its native state in confectionery application. When IGF is blend to Dacryodes edulis pulp oil and after enzymatically interesterified, its profile is close to that of CB. This result indicated that the interesterified blend can be used as cocoa butter subtitute in confectionery industries (alone or mixed in low proportion with CB).



Olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Galega vulgar) Seed Oil: A First Insight into the Major Lipid Composition of a Promising Agro-Industrial By-Product at Two Ripeness Stages

2018-02-12T07:10:24.559379-05:00

Olive seeds are promising industrial by-products whose study acquires relevance both for valuing their biotechnological potential and for discriminating the origin and/or the edaphoclimatic conditions of olives. Herein, the fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles of total lipid extracts and neutral lipid fractions from olive seeds (Olea europaea L. cv. Galega vulgar), at two ripeness stages, are analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches. In both olive seeds (green and ripe), the predominant FA are C18:1(n-9) (56%), C18:2(n-6) (17%), and C16:0 (18%). The seeds also contained the essential FA C18:3(n-3) (0.11%). Ripeness led to a decrease of saturated FA and an increase of unsaturated FA. In total lipid extracts, major FA (C18:1(n-9) and C18:0) could distinguish green from ripe olives (p < 0.05). In neutral lipid fractions, besides major FA (C18:1(n-9) and C16:0), minor ones (C14:0, C18:3(n-3), C20:0, and C22:0) could distinguish ripeness stages (p < 0.05). The relative amount of nine TAG is significantly different between green and ripe olives (p < 0.05), of which six are minor TAG. Olive seeds and their oil are a good source of n-9 monounsaturated FA, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FA, being n-3 higher in ripe olives. The ripeness stage can be distinguished by minor FA and minor TAG using MS. Practical Applications: Considering the high proportion of unsaturated and essential FA that make up olive seeds/olive seed oil, and knowing how these proportions shift according to olive ripeness, will allow different industries to explore several potential applications of these promising agro-industrial by-products. Besides, profiling the FA and TAG composition of olive seed oil by MS-based lipidomic approaches reveals that both the highest and the lowest abundant lipid molecules within these classes might be used as potential biochemical markers to discriminate these oils based on fruit ripeness stage. Olive seed oil is rich in mono- (56%) and in polyunsaturated (17%) fatty acids (FA). During ripeness, saturated FA decrease and unsaturated increase. Minor FA of neutral lipid fraction can distinguish green and ripe olive seed oils. Less abundant triacylglycerols allow discriminating seed oils from different ripeness stages. Based on its major lipid composition, olive seed oil has several potential applications within different industries. Olive seed oil is rich in mono- (56%) and in polyunsaturated (17%) fatty acids (FA). During ripeness, saturated FA decrease and unsaturated increase. Minor FA of neutral lipid fraction can distinguish green and ripe olive seed oils. Less abundant triacylglycerols allow discriminating seed oils from different ripeness stages. Based on its major lipid composition, olive seed oil has several potential applications within different industries.



Properties of Liposomes Containing Natural and Synthetic Lipids Formed by Microfluidic Mixing

2018-02-09T09:00:34.438289-05:00

Vesicle formation by a staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer is investigated in comparison to a sonication-extrusion method. Experiments focused on the incorporation efficiency of lipid components, on dye entrapment efficiency, and on the barrier properties of the vesicle bilayers produced. The microfluidic method produces vesicles largely under the control of thermodynamic factors. As a result, the molecular parameters of the lipids (chain length, chain volume, head group area) directly control vesicle diameter. A hydrophobic branched chain sulfonate lipid is incorporated by microfluidic mixing but not by sonication-extrusion. The vesicles produced by microfluidic mixing can be used to study ion transport by known ionophores and appear to have directly comparable barrier properties to those produced by sonication-extrusion. Vesicles containing the branched chain sulfonate are highly permeable. The microfluidic mixing method produces predominantly unilamellar vesicles. Practical Applications: The microfluidic device examined offers a new method to reproducibly produce vesicles that are directly controlled by the molecular components of the lipid mixture. The authors show that this method produces vesicles that are equivalent to currently used methods in the study of synthetic ion channels and carriers. Looking forward, thermodynamically controlled self-assembly will find application in the creation of new membrane systems and assemblies where the vesicles themselves are the building blocks in more extensive structures, and the active components in inter-vesicle functions. A staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer reproducibly gives size-controlled unilamellar vesicles having low-permeability bilayer membranes. A staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer reproducibly gives size-controlled unilamellar vesicles having low-permeability bilayer membranes.



Oligomeric Composition of Palm Olein-Based Polyols: The Effect of Nucleophiles

2018-02-09T08:56:13.663618-05:00

Increasing environmental concerns have led to significant breakthroughs in developing vegetable oil-based polyols, including palm olein-based polyols (POoPs). The effect of nucleophiles (water, monol, linear, and branched diols) on oligomeric compositions and properties of polyols derived from epoxidized palm olein (EPOo) is investigated. Conversions of EPOo to POoPs are confirmed by FTIR analysis, oxirane oxygen content, and hydroxyl number measurements. GPC calibrated against polyether polyols is used to determine the formation of oligomers of the polyols. Functionalities of POoPs prepared with linear diols are higher than the branched diol determined using GPC and VPO. Lower degree of oligomerization is observed in polyols prepared with water and methanol compared to polyols made with diols. POoPs prepared using water, methanol and 1,2-propanediol (PG) produces 100% secondary hydroxyls polyols, while reaction with linear diols, polyols with mixture of primary and secondary hydroxyls in the range of 26–36% and 64–74%, respectively are produced. Viscosity and glass transition temperature of POoP PDO, prepared from 1,3-propanediol (PDO) are higher than POoP PG, prepared from PG, 7789 mPa.s and −15.2 °C compared to 3649 mPa.s and −20.8 °C, respectively. Practical Application: The POoPs described in this study, that is, polyols from epoxidized palm olein ring-opened with water, methanol, 1,2-ethanediol (EG), 1,2-propanediol (PG), 1,3-propanediol (PDO), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), 1,5-pentanediol (PTDO), and 1,6-hexanediol (HDO), provide selection of a wider range of vegetable oil-based polyols for development of partially biobased polyurethane products such as binders, elastomers, and flexible foams. GPC chromatograms of oligomeric compositions of palm olein-based polyols. GPC chromatograms of oligomeric compositions of palm olein-based polyols.



Reduction of Chlorophyll in Cold-Pressed Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil by Ultrasonic Bleaching and Enhancement of Oxidative Stability

2018-02-08T07:31:10.798137-05:00

The effects of ultrasonic bleaching on chlorophyll reduction and oxidative stability of cold-pressed Cannabis sativa (hemp) seed oil is investigated using three different clays, Sepiolite, activated Bentonite, and an industrial clay. The chlorophyll content is significantly reduced (p < 0.05) from 56.3 μg g−1 in the untreated oil to 14.8 μg kg−1, 9.9 μg kg−1, and 7.8 μg kg−1 in oils treated with Sepiolite, activated Bentonite, and industrial clay, respectively. Oxidative stability is enhanced in all ultrasonically-treated oils by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Peroxide Value (PV) with the highest reduction (97%) observed in the presence of industrial clay (PV = 0.11 mEq kg−1). A corresponding reduction in Conjugated Dienes (CD) is also found in the treated samples ranging from 0.073–0.095% compared to 0.102% for the control. During accelerated storage at 60 °C, increase in PVs and CDs are significantly (p < 0.05) slower for the ultrasonically treated oils in the presence of clays compared to the control. Accelerated storage at 40 °C shows that the PV is greater in hempseed oil bleached with Sepiolite clay compared to a combination of Sepiolite and ultrasonic bleaching. Based on these results it is evident that the rapid removal of chlorophyll from cold pressed hempseed oil is enhanced by a combination of bleaching clay and ultrasonic treatment. Practical Applications: Ultrasonic treatment of cold pressed hempseed oil combined with bleaching clays proves very effective in reducing chlorophyll content. The method is not only rapid and clean but requires significantly less bleaching clay. Hempseed oil treated in this way exhibits greater oxidative stability making it more attractive for industrial and consumer use. The results of ultrasonic bleaching suggest its potential for prolonging the shelf-life. Utilizing the ultrasonic bleaching technique as an alternative to conventional bleaching would be beneficial to the edible oil industry. The results of ultrasonic bleaching prove effectiveness in reducing chlorophyll content in cold-pressed hempseed oil and suggest its potential for prolonging the shelf-life. The results of ultrasonic bleaching prove effectiveness in reducing chlorophyll content in cold-pressed hempseed oil and suggest its potential for prolonging the shelf-life.



Lipid Degradation During Salt-Fermented Antarctic Krill Paste Processing and Their Relationship With Lipase and Phospholipase Activities

2018-02-08T07:30:44.677074-05:00

In this study, lipid degradation during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste is studied by evaluating changes in physicochemical parameters, lipid content, and fatty acid composition, phospholipase (phospholipase A1 [PLA1], phospholipase A2 [PLA2], phospholipase C [PLC], and phospholipase D [PLD]) and lipase activities. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are an important source of free fatty acids (FFAs) in Antarctic krill paste, causing an increase in FFA content in the early stage of processing, while phospholipids are intensely hydrolyzed during the mid-late stages. Lipase activities remains constant, while PLA2 and PLD activities increases during all stages of processing. The relative activities of PLA2 and PLC highly correlates with a decline in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). A high correlation is also observed between relative PLD activity and increased phosphatidic acid (PA). These results suggest that lipase, PLA2, and PLD contribute to the degradation of lipids during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste. Practical Applications: Due to their abundance of Antarctic krill, fermentation technology can be applied to transform them into a popular condiment. The present study aimes to investigate changes in lipid composition throughout krill salt-fermentation, and to evaluate their potential effects on fermented krill product. Knowledge of lipase activities during processing is essential to improve the quality of the end products and to further elucidate the complicated mechanisms of lipid degradation. The study of lipid degradation during processing and storage of krill products is of great concern in order to obtain products of high quality and health. Lipid degradation during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste is studied by evaluating changes in physicochemical parameters, lipid content, and fatty acid composition, phospholipase and lipase activities and the study provides information that Lipase, PLA2, and PLD contribute to the degradation of lipids during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste. The study of lipid degradation during processing and storage of krill products is of great concern in order to obtain products of high quality and health. Lipid degradation during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste is studied by evaluating changes in physicochemical parameters, lipid content, and fatty acid composition, phospholipase and lipase activities and the study provides information that Lipase, PLA2, and PLD contribute to the degradation of lipids during the processing of salt-fermented Antarctic krill paste.



Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of the Iodine Value and Saponification Number of Edible Oils by FTIR Spectroscopy

2018-02-08T07:25:25.865176-05:00

A rapid method is developed to facilitate the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of edible oils using disposable polyethylene (PE) films as sample support for the determination of the iodine value (IV) and saponification number (SN). For direct IV analysis, quantification is achieved using the cis and trans double band region (3206–2992 cm−1) by a partial least squares calibration model, whereas, SN is directly determined using the area in carbon chain skeleton vibration absorption region (781–650 cm−1). The proposed method is applicable to various edible oils ranging in IV from 7.0 to 190.0 g 100 g−1 and SN from 162.7 to 222.0 mg g−1 with good precision and accuracy (relative standard deviations 0.39 and 0.32%, respectively) relative to the AOCS standard methods but with markedly less sample preparation and analytical effort. Practical Applications: Standard titration methods for determining the IV and SN of edible oils are labor intensive and require complex solvents and reagents. The PE-film-based FTIR method is more sensitive than attenuated total reflectance-FTIR method and free from problems associated with the viscosity of oils, which is practical and easy to operate. The method can further simplify and facilitate simultaneous FTIR IV and SN analyses and is applicable to various edible oils over a wide range. A PE-film-based FTIR method is developed to determine the iodine value (IV) and saponification number (SN) of edible oils. The regions 3206–2992 cm−1 and 781–650 cm−1 are selected for IV and SN analysis, respectively. In the graphical abstract the IV and SN calibration and validation figures are presented. A PE-film-based FTIR method is developed to determine the iodine value (IV) and saponification number (SN) of edible oils. The regions 3206–2992 cm−1 and 781–650 cm−1 are selected for IV and SN analysis, respectively. In the graphical abstract the IV and SN calibration and validation figures are presented.



Determination of Physical Properties and Crystallization Kinetics of Oil From Allanblackia Seeds and Shea Nuts Under Different Thermal Conditions

2018-02-07T08:11:14.587044-05:00

In this study, the fatty acid content, melting and cooling profiles, crystallization properties at different cooling rates and kinetics of crystallization of Allanblackia seed oil (ASO) and shea nut oil (SNO) are investigated. The fatty acid content is determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The melting and cooling profiles, crystallization, and crystallization kinetics are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the fat morphology is investigated using polarized light microscopy. The GC/MS results showed that ASO contains a high amount of saturated fats as compared with SNO. The DSC analysis revealed that ASO has a high melting temperature of 35.3 ± 2.1 °C and crystallizes earlier (16.8 ± 0.3 °C) in the constant rate cooling experiments. The crystallization patterns of both oils are observed to be dependent on the cooling rate. Under isothermal conditions, it is observed that both ASO and SNO shows high and low melting peaks with the low melting peak disappearing as the crystallization progressed. The Avrami model is used to estimate the crystallization kinetics of the oils under the isothermal conditions and it is inferred that ASO has a faster nucleation and subsequent crystal growth as compared with SNO. At room temperature SNO formed overlapping fat crystal particles while ASO gave distinct crystallized fat fractions during the crystallization at room temperature, as shown by the polarized light microscopy. Practical Application: The high melting temperature, the rate and the nature of crystallization of Allanblackia seed oil gives it good material functionality and desired plasticity, properties associated with possible industrial application. Additionally, the presence of high stearic acid content makes the Allanblackia seed oil a healthy choice for food, hence, it can be used as a substitute for cocoa butter in the food industry. The appearance of fat crystals during the crystallization at isothermal conditions at 16 °C of the Allanblackia seed oil. The appearance of fat crystals during the crystallization at isothermal conditions at 16 °C of the Allanblackia seed oil.



Thermal, Mechanical, and Morphological Properties of Rigid Crude Glycerol-Based Polyurethane Foams Reinforced With Nanoclay and Microcrystalline Cellulose

2018-02-07T08:10:25.10573-05:00

The enhancement of mechanical and thermal properties of rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) achieved through a cost-effective and sustainable approach remains an ongoing interest in both industry and academia. In this study, water-blown rigid polyurethane (PU) foams based on crude glycerol (CG) polyol are developed and halloysite nanotubes (HN) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) with different loadings of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0% are incorporated to improve the performance of the foams, respectively. Effects of different loadings of HN or MC on the viscosity of CG polyols and the foaming process are investigated. CG-based polyurethane (CGPU) foams and their foam composites (CG-HN PU foams and CG-MC PU foams) are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that HN is easier to disperse uniformly in the CG polyol than MC and CGPU foams with 1.0% of HN and MC shows significantly improved performance. Their compressive strength increases by 3.8 and 12.5%, respectively, as the HN and MC loadings increases from 0 to 1.0%. The thermal conductivities of CG PU foams reinforced with 1.0% of HN and MC are 37.79 and 37.94 mWm−1K−1, which are lower than that (38.24 mWm−1K−1) of CGPU foams without the addition of fillers. Moreover, compared to CGPU foams, both CG-HN PU foams and CG-MC PU foams show improved thermal stabilities, and the latter is higher than the former. Practical Applications: Different fillers (HN and MC) are used to reinforce the CG-based polyurethane, and water-blown rigid PU biofoam composites with improved properties are prepared. The use of fillers (HN and MC) has the potential for the production of advanced CG-based rigid PU foams. Water-blown rigid crude glycerol-based polyurethane foams (PU) reinforced with halloysite nanotubes (HN) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC). The results reveal that HN is easier to disperse uniformly in the CG polyol than MC and CGPU foams with 1.0% of HN and MC show significantly improved performance. The thermal conductivities of CG PU foams reinforced with 1.0% of HN and MC are 37.79 and 37.94 mWm−1K−1, which are lower than that of CGPU foams without the addition of fillers. Moreover, compared to CGPU foams, both CG-HN PU foams and CG-MC PU foams show improved thermal stabilities. Water-blown rigid crude glycerol-based polyurethane foams (PU) reinforced with halloysite nanotubes (HN) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC). The results reveal that HN is easier to disperse uniformly in the CG polyol than MC and CGPU foams with 1.0% of HN and MC show significantly improved performance. The thermal conductivities of CG PU foams reinforced with 1.0% of HN and MC are 37.79 and 37.94 mWm−1K−1, which are lower than that of CGPU foams without the addition of fillers. Moreover, compared to CGPU foams, both CG-HN PU foams and CG-MC PU foams show improved thermal stabilities.



Recent Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for Lipid Overproduction

2018-02-07T07:20:32.783219-05:00

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica have been receiving growing attention due to its excellent lipid accumulation capacity. Microbial lipid have attracted widespread interest due to their broad applications as dietary supplements, cosmetic additives, oleochemicals, and renewable starting materials for the production of fossil fuel. With the development of whole-genome sequencing, many effective genetic tools, including transformation systems, promoter systems, genomic integration and genome editing tools, have been applied in Y. lipolytica to enhance the overproduction of lipid. It can be genetically engineered for high lipid production via the upregulation of synthetic precursor and lipid synthesis pathways, the downregulation or disruption of competing pathways such as β-oxidation, and elimination of inhibitory factors. In this review, the lipid metabolism, available genetic tools, and recent advances in metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for the overproduction of lipid and lipid-derived chemicals is summarized. Future prospects of lipid biosynthesis in Y. lipolytica are discussed in light of the current progress, challenges, and trends in this field. Guidelines for future studies are also proposed. Practical Applications: General concerns about climate change, oil price crisis, and the increasing study for renewable energy are driving bio-lipid as promising alternatives to fossil fuel. Over the past few decades, microbial lipid have been widely applied in dietary supplements, cosmetic additives, oleochemicals, and renewable starting materials for the production of fossil fuel. The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica have become an attractive metabolic engineering host for the production of microbial lipids due to its ability to synthesize them in large quantities. This review illuminates the lipid biosynthesis and degradation of Y. lipolytica, and summarizes the metabolic engineering efforts which have targeted a variety of biosynthetic biosynthetic pathway to efficiently convert carbon source to lipid in oleaginous Y. lipolytica. Schematic diagram of lipid and triacylglyceride biosynthesis, including the native and heterologous biosynthesis pathways of fatty acids in Y. lipolytica. Schematic diagram of lipid and triacylglyceride biosynthesis, including the native and heterologous biosynthesis pathways of fatty acids in Y. lipolytica.



Physicochemical Properties of Enzymatically Produced Palm-Oil-Based Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) With Cocoa Butter Mixture

2018-02-02T07:00:36.149416-05:00

Ternary-blend of palm mid-fraction/palm kernel oil/palm stearin shows comparable palmitic (P), oleic (O), and POP compositions to cocoa butter (CB) which is selected to produce cocoa butter substitute (CBS) using enzymatic interesterification. This study aims to investigate physicochemical properties of CBS and compatibility of CBS/CB. Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, melting profile, solid fat content (SFC), polymorphism, and crystal morphology are determined using GC, HPLC, DSC, pNMR, XRD, and PLM. Ternary-blend and commercial stearic/oleic acids are mixed to produce blend (80% ternary-blend/15% stearic/5% oleic) with three major fatty acids composition comparable to CB. Interesterified blend under optimized conditions of 4% lipase (w/w), incubation time of 6 h at 60 °C shows a melting endotherm at 33.5 °C, similar to CB. The composition of triacylglycerols (POSt and StOSt) of interesterified blend is significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to non-interesterified blend. SFC and polymorphism of interesterified fat are different from CB at 24 °C. Subsequently, the CBS (interesterified blend) is added into CB at varying concentrations (w/w). A total of 5–20% of CBS/CB shows similar melting behavior and polymorphism to CB. A desirable monotectic effect is observed at 15–25 °C for these blends. Therefore, interesterified blend is potentially used as CBS to be added up to 20% with CB for chocolate production. Practical Applications: Palm-based CBS is feasible to be used in chocolate production at 5–20 wt.%. Ternary-blend of palm mid-fraction/palm kernel oil/palm stearin shows comparable palmitic (P), oleic (O), and POP compositions to cocoa butter (CB), which is selected to produce cocoa butter substitute (CBS) using enzymatic interesterification. This study aims to investigate physicochemical properties of CBS and compatibility of CBS/CB. An interesterified blend is explored that can potentially be used as CBS to be added up to 20% with CB for chocolate production. Ternary-blend of palm mid-fraction/palm kernel oil/palm stearin shows comparable palmitic (P), oleic (O), and POP compositions to cocoa butter (CB), which is selected to produce cocoa butter substitute (CBS) using enzymatic interesterification. This study aims to investigate physicochemical properties of CBS and compatibility of CBS/CB. An interesterified blend is explored that can potentially be used as CBS to be added up to 20% with CB for chocolate production.



Enhancing the Bioaccessibility of Phytosterols Using Nanoporous Corn and Wheat Starch Bioaerogels

2018-02-01T08:00:32.353197-05:00

Bioavailability of phytosterols is very low due to their crystalline structure and poor water solubility, limiting their potential health benefits. In this study, a novel approach to forming low crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles is developed using nanoporous starch aerogels, namely wheat starch aerogels (WSAs) and corn starch aerogels (CSA), in combination with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) to improve the bioaccessibility and in turn bioavailability of phytosterols. Starch aerogels with outstanding properties (WSA with a surface area of 62 m2 g−1 and pore size of 19 nm; CSA with a surface area of 221 m2 g−1 and pore size of 7 nm) were used as a mold to form phytosterol nanoparticles. The highest phytosterol impregnation capacity is obtained with CSA monolith (195 mg phytosterols/g CSA). Impregnation into powder or monolithic forms of the aerogels resulted in different phytosterol morphology where the monolithic form prevented formation of large plate-like phytosterol crystals. Impregnation into WSA monolith (WSA-M) generated low crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles (70 nm). Bioaccessibility of the phytosterols increased by 20-fold when impregnated into WSA-M. The hydrolysis of CSA (30–39%) was lower than that of WSA (55–59%) during simulated digestion, which negatively affected the release of phytosterols. Practical applications: Practical applications include: i) a novel process that can decrease the size and crystallinity of phytosterols and thus improve their bioavailability; ii) a blueprint to apply to other water insoluble food bioactives; and iii) the transfer of green technology to food manufacturers. Longer-term, this novel approach will (i) improve the health benefits of water-insoluble bioactives; ii) enable food manufacturers to add water-insoluble bioactives into low- and high-fat foods to produce health-promoting foods; iii) improve public health through diet; iv) enhance the cost-benefit ratio of water insoluble bioactives; v) avert toxic chemicals and environmental pollution; and vi) lower the costs of handling, storage, and transportation of bioactives. Bioavailability of phytosterols is very low due to their crystalline structure and poor water solubility, limiting their potential health benefits. Our novel approach to forming first-of-its-kind low-crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles are developed using nanoporous starch aerogels in combination with supercritical carbon dioxide to improve the bioaccessibility and in turn bioavailability of phytosterols. The novel low-crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles are 20-folds more bioaccessible compared to the crude phytosterols after simulated digestion. Bioavailability of phytosterols is very low due to their crystalline structure and poor water solubility, limiting their potential health benefits. Our novel approach to forming first-of-its-kind low-crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles are developed using nanoporous starch aerogels in combination with supercritica[...]



On the Discrimination of Models for the Viscometric Properties of Myristic, Palmitic and Stearic Acids and Their Binary Mixtures

2018-01-25T08:40:39.222839-05:00

Fatty acids have a great importance in several industrial activities like the manufacture of ingredients for foods, paints, soap, detergents and a wide array of other products in the fast moving consumer goods industry. Processing of fatty acids requires a good knowledge of transport properties, such as viscosity. This work presents a compilation of experimental values of the viscosity of three long-chain saturated fatty acids, namely: myristic, palmitic and stearic acid. First, a study of the dependence of the viscosity of these fatty acids with temperature is presented comparing results with previously existing data in literature and validating data and models statistically. Then, a thorough analysis of the viscosity of binary mixtures of the aforementioned fatty acids was conducted. To do so, such property was measured over the entire range of compositions in increments of the molar fraction of the components of 0.1 at temperatures ranging from above the melting points of the fatty acids to 373.15 K and correlation with respect to composition and temperature with the Jouyban–Acree model. Last, the so-called viscosity deviations were computed and correlated with Redlich–Kister equations to explain the variation as a function of the molar composition of the corresponding mixture. Discrimination of different models to correlate the experimental data was made on the basis of different statistical criteria. Practical Application: Good knowledge of transport properties such as viscosity is important to understand the physics and processing of materials. Contrary to simply using a viscometer, here cone and plate rheometry is used to accurately determine the viscosity of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids and their binary mixtures, which have high melting points compared to other liquids. In addition, the presentation of statistical discrimination tools like information criteria is highly relevant to understand the goodness of fit of models and the selection of the most statistically relevant equations without using more parameters than strictly necessary. The viscosities of pure myristic, palmitic and stearic acids as well as their binary mixtures are determined and a discrimination of models is performed to understand the most appropriate number of parameters to describe the behaviour. The viscosities of pure myristic, palmitic and stearic acids as well as their binary mixtures are determined and a discrimination of models is performed to understand the most appropriate number of parameters to describe the behaviour.



Effect of Polar and Non-Polar Compounds from Oxidized Oils on Oxidative Stability in Corn Oil

2018-01-24T05:10:32.507164-05:00

The effects of polar and non-polar compounds recovered from oxidized corn oils on oxidative stability in bulk oils are evaluated in the presence or absence of an antioxidant, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The balance of antioxidant and prooxidant compounds in oils is confirmed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) spectroscopic method. Polar compounds accelerated the depletion of headspace oxygen content and increased the conjugated dienoic acid value and p-anisidine value in oils with or without 200 ppm TBHQ, which implies that polar compounds from oxidized lipids are prooxidants. However, added non-polar compounds showed no prooxidative properties in oils, irrespective of the presence of TBHQ. The antioxidant-prooxidant balance (APB) value, which is calculated as the ratio of the loss of DPPH in isooctane to that in methanol, may reflect the content balance between antioxidant and prooxidative oxidized lipid products in oils. Low APB values indicate that oils are in a highly oxidized state. Practical Applications: Polar compounds from oxidized oils act as prooxidants. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the polar content in frying oils accurately. Using modified DPPH methods, not only the content of antioxidants but also prooxidative polar compounds in oils can be determined simultaneously. Modified DPPH methods can predict the oxidative stability of frying oil and help to extend the shelf-life of fried foods in the food industry. Polar compounds from oxidized oils function as prooxidants. Non-polar compounds do not act as prooxidants nor antioxidants. Modified 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods can predict the oxidative stability of frying oil. Polar compounds from oxidized oils function as prooxidants. Non-polar compounds do not act as prooxidants nor antioxidants. Modified 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods can predict the oxidative stability of frying oil.



Triacylglycerol Profile of Summer and Winter Bovine Milk Fat and the Feasibility of Triacylglycerol Fragmentation

2018-01-22T02:05:56.74224-05:00

Bovine milk fat (MF) is considered to be one of the most complex fats, as it can consist of 400 FA which are non-randomly esterified into the TAG molecule. This study aims to determine specific differences on MF TAG profile between summer and winter cow's milk, and to study the feasibility of TAG fragmentation on non-chemically hydrogenated MF using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS with post source decay. The most notable discrimination between summer and winter MF is seen in polyunsaturated TAG, which are more abundant in summer. The feasibility of MF TAG fragmentation in non-chemically hydrogenated TAG is assessed using bulk MF and TAG previously separated according to degree of unsaturation. This last approach shows to be the most suitable. We show that sample concentration and abundance ratio with neighboring TAG affects TAG fragmentation. Non-chemically hydrogenated MF TAG has not been previously fragmented. Furthermore, this is the first time that the conditions affecting TAG fragmentation in MF are reported. Practical Application: TAG constitute the fundamental unit of fat crystals. Hence, fat crystal network is affected by variations in TAG profile. Understanding the variability of MF TAG profile between seasons may help to explain differences on crystallization behavior seen through the year in industrial processes. Moreover, TAG fragmentation allows determination of FA composition of individual TAG. This information is needed when studying the mechanism of FA acylation into TAG. For instance, when studying the effect of genetic variation of diacylglycerol acyl transferase isomer one in cows. The reported technique increases the capacity of MALDI-TOF MS in lipidomic analysis. This study aims to determine specific differences in milk-fat triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles between summer and winter cow's milk, and to study the feasibility of TAG fragmentation on non-chemically hydrogenated milk fat using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS with post source decay. This study aims to determine specific differences in milk-fat triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles between summer and winter cow's milk, and to study the feasibility of TAG fragmentation on non-chemically hydrogenated milk fat using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS with post source decay.



The Potential of Waxes to Alter the Microstructural Properties of Emulsion-Templated Oleogels

2018-01-16T07:26:06.174233-05:00

In this research two oleogelation methods, in casu wax-based oleogelation and emulsion-templated oleogelation, were combined. Emulsion-templated oleogels are known to have a high elastic modulus. However, they also exhibit limited structure recovery after applying shear. Oil partially leaking out of the oleogels greatly limits their application potential in food products. Wax-based oleogelation on the other hand, requires high wax concentrations to attain the required level of structuring, causing a waxy mouthfeel upon consumption. Still, contrary to emulsion-templated oleogels, wax-based oleogels do demonstrate high levels of structure recovery after shear. The goal of this research is to enhance the structure recovery of the emulsion-templated oleogels by gelling the oil within the structured protein network with low concentrations of candelilla wax, preventing a waxy mouthfeel. The microstructure of the emulsions and corresponding oleogels is elucidated with polarized light microscopy and cryo-SEM. The newly developed oleogels are characterized rheologically using oscillatory and shear recovery measurements and by performing temperature sweeps. The addition of waxes in the emulsion-templated oleogels did not significantly influence the gel strength, but did strongly reduce the shear sensitivity of the oleogels, as was determined with shear recovery measurements and confirmed with oil binding tests. Practical Application: To assess the true potential of these newly developed oleogels, a shortcrust pastry is developed using the emulsion-templated oleogels as an alternative for a vegetable oil-based margarine. Creep-recovery tests on the doughs revealed that the emulsion-templated oleogels had a better structuring capacity compared to the doughs prepared with wax-based oleogels. However, neither of the two oleogel types were capable of attaining a similar level of dough structuring compared to the vegetable oil-based reference margarine. In conclusion, combining several oleogelation methods can increases their application potential by exploiting some of the advantages while attenuating some of the disadvantages of both alternative oil structuring techniques. This research article investigates the combination of emulsion-templated liquid oil structuring with proteins (top, left) with wax-based oleogels (top, right). The waxes are allowed to crystallize within the oil cells of the emulsion-templated oleogel. These oleogels were subsequently used to prepare shortcrust pastries. This research article investigates the combination of emulsion-templated liquid oil structuring with proteins (top, left) with wax-based oleogels (top, right). The waxes are allowed to crystallize within the oil cells of the emulsion-templated oleogel. These oleogels were subsequently used to prepare shortcrust pastries.



Binary Mixtures of Tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) and 1,3-Dipalmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSP): Polymorphism and Kinetic Phase Behavior

2018-01-16T07:25:26.634617-05:00

The kinetic phase behavior and phase transformation paths of tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) and 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycerol (PSP) mixtures are investigated at 10.0 °C min−1 (fast cooling) and 1.0 °C min−1 (slow cooling) cooling rates, and re-heating at 5.0 and 1.0 °C min−1. Mixtures with 0.1 XPSP increments are studied in terms of polymorphism, crystallization, and melting. At the higher cooling rate, all samples crystallized in the α polymorph, while at the lower cooling rate, samples containing XPSP ≤ 0.3 crystallized in the α polymorph and samples containing XPSP > 0.3 crystallized in the β′ polymorph. During heating, all samples transformed to a more stable β′ form and melted finally in the β form (XPSP ≤ 0.3) or in the β′ form (XPSP > 0.3). Kinetic phase diagrams are determined from the DSC heating thermograms and XRD patterns obtained during cooling and heating and displayed an eutectic behavior with an eutectic point at XPSP = 0.3 irrespective of the rate at which the samples are cooled and re-heated. The eutectic temperature is independent of the cooling and heating rates used. This study shows that PSP has a strong effect on the physical properties of PPP–PSP mixtures and dominates a large part of the phase behavior of the PPP–PSP binary system. At lower PSP concentration, the mixtures transform to the most stable β form, but at increasing PSP concentration the mixtures stabilize in the β′-phase which is preferred in many food application because this results in a smooth texture. Practical Application: The results of this study are useful for the food industry as they can help in understanding the functionality of hard fat-based structuring agents in end applications and in developing new triacylglycerol-based crystallization and structuring agent for specific food applications PPP–PSP mixtures, either cooled or heated at lower or higher rate, all samples display different type of phase behavior: α- to β′-phase development via recrystallization from the melt for mixtures having low PSP concentration, an α- to β′-phase development via solid–solid transformation, a β′2- to β′1-phase development via solid–solid transformation, and a β′- to β-phase development via solid–solid transformation with an apparently typical eutectic behavior, with an eutectic concentration (XE) of about XPSP = 0.3. The eutectic temperature is not affected by the processing conditions applied. In the XPSP ≤ XE side of the phase diagram, the transition is different, being more β stable and is strongly affected by increasing PSP content (XPSP > XE side), which are more β′ stable. PPP–PSP mixtures, either cooled or heated at lower or higher rate, all samples display different type of phase behavior: α- to β′-phase development via recrystalli[...]



Antioxidant Activity, In Vitro Digestibility and Stability of Flaxseed Oil and Quercetin Co-Loaded Submicron Emulsions

2018-01-15T10:50:44.801002-05:00

Flaxseed oil and quercetin have received extensive attention in food industry. However, their poor solubility in water and stability are major limitations for their application in functional foods. In this work, we encapsulated flaxseed oil and quercetin into submicron emulsions by high pressure homogenization method to overcome their shortcomings in application. The loading of flaxseed oil in submicron emulsions was 10% and the solubility of quercetin in water is increased by at least 1300 folds. In vitro antioxidant study indicated that the addition of flaxseed oil could increase the antioxidant activity of quercetin. During in vitro digestion, the smaller the particle size of submicron emulsions, the faster the digestive rate of flaxseed oil and the higher the bio-accessibility of quercetin. Furthermore, accelerated oxidation study revealed that quercetin could protect flaxseed oil effectively. Besides, metallic ions stability study illustrated that the influence of Na+ on the emulsion stability is smaller than that of Ca2+ and high Ca2+ concentration could lead to stratification of the submicron emulsions. The storage stability shows that the prepared submicron emulsions can be stored for 8 weeks at three different temperatures. Hence, submicron emulsion can be a promising vehicle for delivery of flaxseed oil and quercetin. Practical Applications: Submicron emulsions can be used to improve the water solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic nutrients. The combination of flaxseed oil and quercetin in submicron emulsions can compensate for their individual shortcomings in application and exert synergistic beneficial actions on human health. Furthermore, this technology is easy in operation and can be realized in industry. Flaxseed oil and quercetin co-loaded submicron emulsions can be applied in milk and liquid beverages in food industry. Submicron emulsions are fabricated to enhance the delivery of flaxseed oil and quercetin. The smaller the particle size of submicron emulsions, the faster the digestive rate of flaxseed oil and the higher the bio-accessibility of quercetin. Quercetin can protect flaxseed oil against oxidation effectively. The antioxidant effect of quercetin is found to be better than commonly used antioxidants. Submicron emulsions are fabricated to enhance the delivery of flaxseed oil and quercetin. The smaller the particle size of submicron emulsions, the faster the digestive rate of flaxseed oil and the higher the bio-accessibility of quercetin. Quercetin can protect flaxseed oil against oxidation effectively. The antioxidant effect of quercetin is found to be better than commonly used antioxidants.



HPLC-DAD, ESI–MS/MS, and NMR of Lycopene Isolated From P. guajava L. and Its Biotechnological Applications

2018-01-15T10:50:40.331599-05:00

Psidium guajava L. have been reported to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Its carotenoids have been highlighted by their high antioxidant capacity, which offers several benefits for human health. In this sense, lycopene isomers need to be identified. In this work, the comprehensive chemical characterization, by HPLC-DAD, MS/MS, and NMR, of lycopene isolated from P. guajava L., antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lycopene extracts and isolated lycopene are evaluated. The FTIR results reported a structure with Z configuration, confirmed by UV-Vis, with λmax = 448, 473, and 505 nm for 5-Z lycopene. Furthermore, MS/MS positive ionization shows one fragment m/z 309 [M-227]+, relatively abundant for isolated lycopene. Experimental and Theoretical NMR studies revealed that guava may contain 5-Z lycopene because of the similarity found among the peaks. Lycopene extracts presented higher antioxidant activity than isolated lycopene, from both P. guajava L. and tomato, when measured by ABTS and ORAC (r2 = 0.9995 and r2 = 0.9992, respectively). In addition, lycopene extract shows antibacterial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus, and L. innocua, presenting MBC values of 20 mg mL−1. These results suggest that lycopene extract have potential applicability for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Practical Applications: Lycopene from P. guajava L. is characterized by HPLC-DAD, MS, NMR, FTIR, and X-Ray, presented antioxidant capacity by ORAC and antibacterial efficacy against food pathogens. Lycopene is isolated from P. guajava L., and lycopene extracts produced are characterized by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS. Lycopene isolated from P. guajava L. following the process may be 5-Z isomer of lycopene. Lycopene is isolated from P. guajava L., and lycopene extracts produced are characterized by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS. Lycopene isolated from P. guajava L. following the process may be 5-Z isomer of lycopene.



Corn Lecithin for Injection from Deoiled Corn Germ: Extraction, Composition, and Emulsifying Properties

2018-01-15T10:50:33.639391-05:00

Although the lipid fraction of corn germ is rich in lecithin, this material is usually discarded with the residual pulp during industrial corn oil extraction processes. In this study, corn germ, after deoiling by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), is used as a raw material to prepare corn lecithin for injection. The physicochemical properties, phospholipid composition, fatty acid composition, and emulsifying properties of the corn lecithin for injection is analyzed. The phospholipid and phosphatidylcholine contents in the prepared corn lecithin are 95.96% and 78.37%, respectively. Linoleic acid (45.99%) and oleic acid (22.31%) is the main unsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to n-3 PUFA (i.e., n-6/n-3) of 6.00 is in accord with World Health Organization recommendations. Emulsions stabilized with the corn lecithin for injection is optically characterized and microscopically inspected, and the droplet size distribution is determined. The results shows that an increase in the corn lecithin concentration lead to a decrease in droplet diameter and an increase in emulsion stability. Furthermore, the corn lecithin for injection creates a more stable emulsion than injection-grade egg yolk lecithin. Practical Applications: The use of lecithins as emulsifiers for parenteral emulsions was advocated because these materials, typically obtained from egg yolks or soybeans, can be readily metabolized. In this study, we explore the possibility of recovering an important value-added substance, corn lecithin for injection, which is separated from the corn germ waste generated during corn oil production. The corn lecithin for injection has excellent potential for use as a natural emulsifier in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. In this study, the possibility of preparing high purity corn lecithin for injection from corn germ that is deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) is examined. The physicochemical properties, phospholipid composition, fatty acid composition, and emulsifying properties of the corn lecithin for injection is analyzed. Through these efforts, a valuable by-product of corn oil manufacture is recovered that serves as an attractive, alternative source of injection-grade lecithin for a wide variety of industrial uses. In this study, the possibility of preparing high purity corn lecithin for injection from corn germ that is deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) is examined. The physicochemical properties, phospholipid composition, fatty acid composition, and emulsifying properties of the corn lecithin for injection is analyzed. Through these efforts, a valuable by-product of corn oil manufacture is recovered that serves as an attractive, alternative source of injection-grade lecithin[...]



Synthesis of Bio-Based Polyurethanes from Jojoba Oil

2017-12-27T05:01:36.10865-05:00

Jojoba grows easily in harsh conditions and is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters as a primary seed storage reserve. Jojoba oil is composed by two mono unsaturated hydrocarbon chains linked by an ester moiety and represents 50% of the weight of seeds. Hence, this atypical oil is, for the first time, dedicated to the synthesis of innovative polymer materials. Novel partially biobased polyurethanes materials are obtained with various structures. New biobased diol is first achieved by addition of mercaptoethanol by thiol-ene coupling on jojoba oil and characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The functionalized oil is used to synthesize polyurethane prepolymers by catalyst-free reaction with various diisocyanates: 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate. After the addition of chain extenders, the obtained polyurethane materials are characterized by 1H NMR, TGA, DSC, and DMA analyses. Various PUs are obtained in terms of flexibility and thermal stability. Practical Applications: The synthesized jojoba oil-based PUs exhibit a good flexibility. Hence, these biobased PUs could replace petroleum-based polyurethanes in industry and particularly as coatings, binders or compounds for automotive and aircraft industries. Innovative greener polyurethanes are achieved from jojoba oil with one-step thiol-ene reaction and various diisocyanates.



Content of Erucic Acid in Edible Oils and Mustard by Quantitative 13C NMR

2017-12-18T04:34:12.942249-05:00

High content of erucic acid in foods and edible oils is a major concern. The excessive consumption of erucic acid has been linked to heart diseases. Therefore, accurate, rapid, and direct analysis of the erucic acid content is particularly crucial. However, most of the analytical methods involve time-consuming sample preparation and chromatography analyses. As a result, quantitative 13C NMR is developed and the total content of erucic acid in a wide variety of edible oils and mustard products are analyzed within 58 min. Meanwhile, the positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols and mustard products can be done effortlessly. An additional peak, namely, erucic acid peak is detected at 173.19 ppm has not been reported previously. Apart from that, the detection limit of erucic acid (0.98% [m m−1]) and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9977) both are investigated by the current method. The total content of erucic acid shows an excellent quantitative relation between reference method (gas chromatography) and quantitative 13C NMR. In this study, mustard oil and few mustard products exceed the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (European Union: 5%, United State: 2%). Practical Applications: Erucic acid in mustard products and edible oils are determined. The excessive consumption of erucic acid can cause some healthy problems. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the tolerable intake of erucic acid. The results of this study can be applied to monitor and quantify the erucic acid content quickly in a wide variety of edible oils and mustard products without any laborious chemical derivatization prior to the analysis. Quick determination and quantification of erucic acid in dietary oils including mustard and its products, is achieved using quantitative 13C NMR. Besides that, regiospecific data of the oisl and products are also available from the same analysis. Quick determination and quantification of erucic acid in dietary oils including mustard and its products, is achieved using quantitative 13C NMR. Besides that, regiospecific data of the oisl and products are also available from the same analysis.



Influence of Polymorphism on the Solid Fat Content Determined by FID Deconvolution

2017-12-05T02:00:52.157289-05:00

One of the most important quality parameters of a fat, is its solid fat content (SFC). The standard method to determine the SFC is pNMR using a f-factor. This factor is determined with three standards. However, this contribution shows that SFC standards are not required when using deconvolution methods. At first, data acquisition is optimized. These experiments revealed that the deconvolution method worked better, if more sample is present in the detection zone of the NMR, due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Regarding deconvolution, a bi-Gaussian model and a model combining a Gaussian and Abragamian function are compared. Both models are able to fit the free induction decay (FID) data. Furthermore, the corresponding SFC values are comparable with the SFC values of the f-factor method when analyzing SFC standards or fats which are preprocessed using the AOCS tempering protocol. Upon evaluating the influence of the polymorphic states of cocoa butter, it became clear that the f-factor standards resemble fats containing α-polymorphs. As a further consequence, the f-factor method fails when β-polymorphs are present to a large extent. Overall this study shows that the deconvolution method is superior to the f-factor method since it does not require any standards and is less affected by the polymorphic state. Practical Applications: This work shows that the solid fat content (SFC) of a fat can be calculated without the use of calibration standards. If deconvolution would replace the standard used pNMR method, it could potentially reduce the preparation time for the measurements, because no calibration is necessary. Next to this, it also lowers the cost of SFC determination, because no standards should be bought. Deconvolution also gives insight in the behavior of the different components present in the sample, for example, T2-values. There above, research toward deconvolution of pNMR signals is necessary as it could potentially also determine the presence of different fat crystal polymorphs present in samples. One of the most important quality parameters of a fat, is its solid fat content (SFC). The standard method to determine the SFC is pNMR using a f-factor. However, this contribution shows that SFC standards are not requires when using deconvolution methods. At first, data acquisition is optimized. These experiments revealed that the deconvolution method worked better, if more sample is present in the detection zone of the NMR, due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Regarding deconvolution, a bi-Gaussian model and a model combining a Gaussian and Abragamian function are compared. Both models are able to fit the free induction decay (FID) data. One of the most impo[...]



Estimation of the Volume of Blood in a Small Disc Punched From a Dried Blood Spot Card

2017-11-23T09:28:29.107196-05:00

A specialized dried blood spot (DBS) collection system (PUFAcoat™) in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has enabled the measurement of numerous analytes in minimal volumes of blood. The current study aimed to determine the volume of blood in 3 and 6 mm discs obtained from our DBS system. The volume of blood in 3 and 6 mm discs obtained from DBS cards is estimated using four different methods: (i) gravimetric analysis; (ii) LC-MS/MS; (iii) a hemoglobin colorimetric assay; and (iv) GC. Differences in the estimated volume are compared between methods, and variations in estimated blood volume within and between individuals are determined. The average volume of blood in a DBS disc is calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.4 μL and 8.7 ± 1.9 μL for 3 and 6 mm discs, respectively. This estimate is similar between direct and indirect analytical methods and between DBS samples with different starting volumes independent of the method, but there is considerable variation in the volume of blood in comparably-sized DBS discs from different individuals. Current methods enable the estimation of the blood volume in a small disc obtained from a DBS but a method that can both accurately measure volume and store blood on a DBS is required. Practical Applications: This study demonstrates that it is possible to evaluate the volume of blood contained in a small disc punched from a dried blood spot (DBS) card using a range of different methods, but there is considerable variation in the estimate of volume in samples collected from different individuals. These variations could potentially result in overestimation or underestimation of endogenous levels of various metabolites if presuming a fixed volume, which may be clinically significant. Although there are several ways to correct for blood volume contained on a DBS, the practicality and the universality of these methods are questionable. Ideally, the development of a tool to better determine the volume of blood and/or to precisely spot a volume of blood is required to ensure accuracy when expressing the results of DBS analyses per unit of blood. The volume of blood in a 3 or 6 mm disc obtained from a DBS needs to be known to accurately quantify endogenous levels of metabolites per unit of blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The volume of blood in a 3 or 6 mm disc obtained from a DBS needs to be known to accurately quantify endogenous levels of metabolites per unit of blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.



The Study of Ultrasound-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Oil From Peanut Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology

2017-11-20T03:06:25.769738-05:00

The present study evaluates the suitability of ultrasound pretreatment in n-hexane solvent as well as enzymatic treatment with cellulase enzyme to extract oil from peanut seed powders. To optimize this process, the effects of ultrasonic time (0–70 min), cellulase enzyme concentration (0–2%) and pH (4–5.5) are investigated on peanut oil extraction yield (EY) as well as the quality attributes of the extracted oil containing total phenolic content (TPC), peroxide value (PV), and color parameters of L, a, and b using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction using n-hexane solvent (UAEE) is found as ultrasonic pretreatment time of 33.23 min, cellulase concentration of 1.47%, and pH of 4.61 before incubation process at temperature of 56 °C for 120 min. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) represented considerable interspaces, holes, and porous structure of peanut meal after optimal UAEE treatment compared to that after shaking incubation extraction using n-hexane solvent (SIE). It is found that the peanut oil extracted by optimal UAEE treatment had considerable high levels of L color parameter and TPC and significantly more EY and b color parameters than those extracted by SIE, ultrasound-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (UAAEE), and aqueous shaking incubation extraction (ASIE) treatments. Practical Applications: This paper describes an innovative oil extraction method of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic process using n-hexane solvent. This new extraction technique makes it possible to increase the extraction yield, total phenolic content, and yellowness of extracted peanut oil. The results illustrated that ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction using n-hexane solvent method was a far more efficient extracting technique than the individual shaking incubation extraction using n-hexane solvent, ultrasound- assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction and aqueous shaking incubation extraction treatments and would be a promising alternative for conventional oil extraction techniques. Comparison of two treatments of optimal ultrasound-enzymatic extraction and individual shaking incubation extraction of oil from peanut seed powders. Comparison of two treatments of optimal ultrasound-enzymatic extraction and individual shaking incubation extraction of oil from peanut seed powders.



South African Cactus Pear Seed Oil: A Comprehensive Study on 42 Spineless Burbank Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia robusta Cultivars

2017-11-17T11:15:49.808577-05:00

Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar. Seed oil content varied among cultivars and seasons and the yield ranged between 4.09 and 8.76% of seed mass. The unsaturated fatty acids are the most prominent and were dominated by linoleic acid, which varied between 56.86 and 65.21%, followed by oleic acid (16.44 and 22.51%), while the saturated fatty acids palmitic and stearic acid content ranged from 12.72 to 16.05% and from 2.21 to 3.39%, respectively. Cultivar and variation in rainfall have a statistically significant effect on cactus pear seed oil content and fatty acid composition. Principal Component Analysis show that certain cultivars are exclusively associated with specific characteristics. This is the most comprehensive study of the seed oil characteristics of the available cultivars in South Africa ever to be performed. The American Giant cultivar have the highest seed oil yield. Practical Applications: In a semi-arid country such as South Africa, the value of by-products and waste products from a drought resistant plant such as cactus pear should be emphasized. Cactus pear seed oil is a novel and expensive essential oil. The emergence of many small-holding farms and small-scale processing facilities necessitated a comprehensive investigation into the oil composition of all the available cactus pear cultivars. Essential knowledge regarding cultivar choice in terms of oil-production and specific fatty acid composition, as well as seasonal effects thereon, is generated with this research. This research indicats that the American Giant (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivar have the highest oil yield wheras the Roly Poly cultivar have the highest linoleic acid content. This data will enable processors to make recommendations to producers to use cultivars with optimum yield and oil quality as production target. Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar. Cactus pear fruit seeds contain oil that can be utilized for human consumption. Forty-two South African cultivars are evaluated over two seasons for seed oil content and fatty acid composition in an attempt to ascertain the best oil yielding cultivar.






Contents: Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2∕2018

2018-02-02T05:37:37.410723-05:00




Fruit Pits Recovered from 14 Genotypes of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

2017-11-15T12:10:42.565593-05:00

Kernels recovered from fruit pits of 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes are tested for future application as feedstock for biodiesel production. The difference between the lowest and the highest oil yield between studied samples is over twofold and reached between 27.1 and 58.7% (w/w) dw. The oleic and linoleic acids are the two dominant fatty acids in apricot kernel oils; however, their content is affected meaningfully by the variety and amounted to 38.5–67.2 and 26.4–54.8%, respectively. Two significant correlations (p [...]



Analysis of the Changes in Volatile Compound and Fatty Acid Profiles of Fish Oil in Chemical Refining Process

2017-11-13T04:15:55.893283-05:00

In this study, the effect of chemical refining on the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles of crude fish oil is evaluated. The process mainly comprises degumming, deacidification, decoloration, and deodorization. The changes in volatile compounds during the refining process are detected by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Meanwhile, the fatty acid profile is determined by GC. The results showed that hexanal, nonanal, undecanal, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone are the key volatile components of fish oil, and the relative content of each compound changed significantly in each step. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the refined oil increased, while the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) reduced significantly. This study provides a theoretical basis for the improvement of sensory characteristics of fish oil via chemical refining. Practical Applications: Chemical refining is employed for improving the characteristics of crude fish oil, mainly including the volatile compound and fatty acid compositions. The result demonstrated that the refining process could affect the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles significantly, which provided the theoretical foundation for the optimization of process conditions. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. The effect of chemical refining on the volatile compound and fatty acid profiles of crude fish oil is evaluated. The results show that hexanal, nonanal, undecanal, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone are the key volatile components of fish oil, and the relative content of each compound changed significantly in each refining step. This study provides a theoretical basis for the improvement of sensory characteristics of fish oil via chemical refining.



Scd1 Contributes to Lipid Droplets Formation in GMEC via Transcriptional Regulation of Tip47 and Adrp

2017-11-14T04:21:55.569026-05:00

Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) plays a pivotal role in the synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids (FA). However, whether Scd1 contributes to lipid accumulation in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), and how it affects FA synthesis and metabolism remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of Scd1 on lipid droplets (LD) formation and uncover its regulatory mechanism in GMEC. In this study, a novel fluorescence reporter system was developed to confirm the expression of SCD1 protein in GMEC plasma. In addition, a mammalian expression vector (pCAG-SCD1) and siRNA targeting Scd1 were constructed and confirmed to be efficient by qRT-PCR. Notably, the amount and the size of LD varied with the alteration of Scd1. Furthermore, Scd1 induced the mRNA expression of genes involved in de novo FA synthesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, lipid droplets formation, and milk fat lipolysis. In particular, changes in Scd1 led to a consistent change in LD formation-associated genes (tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (Tip47) and adipose differentiation-related protein (Adrp)). Overall, the results suggest that Scd1 affects lipid accumulation by altering the FA metabolic profile in GMEC. Practical Applications: As is known, FA metabolism closely associates with human health. The results of our research firstly exposed the metabolic profile associated with SCD1 in GMEC. It will be helpful for our understanding about the regulatory role of Scd1 in FA metabolism in mammary gland of dairy goats. It also provides a reference for the studies on Scd1-related FA metabolic pathways, which is of great significance for human health. Furthermore, this study lays the foundation for engineering the FA content via SCD1 in transgenic goat milk products. Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) differentially activates signaling pathways associated with de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (Acaca and Fasn), TAG biosynthesis (Gpam, Agpat6, and Dgat1), lipid droplets (LD) formation (Tip47 and Adrp), and milk fat lipolysis (Atgl and Hsl) in GMEC; in particular, it contributes to the LD formation through transcriptional regulation of Tip47 and Adrp. Sterol-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) differentially activates signaling pathways associated with de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis (Acaca and Fasn), TAG biosynthesis (Gpam, Agpat6, and Dgat1), lipid droplets (LD) formation (Tip47 and Adrp), and milk fat lipolysis (Atgl and Hsl) in GMEC; in particular, it contributes to the LD formation throu[...]



Nanoemulsions From Unsaturated Fatty Acids Concentrates of Carp Oil Using Chitosan, Gelatin, and Their Blends as Wall Materials

2017-11-16T09:48:59.965263-05:00

This work aimed to study the development of food–grade nanoemulsions containing unsaturated fatty acids concentrates from carp oil, using chitosan, and gelatin as wall materials. The effects of chitosan:gelatin ratio, polymer concentration and homogenization time on the nanoemulsions characteristics were evaluated. Phase separation occurred when the chitosan:gelatin ratio was higher than 50:50. Nanoemulsions using proportion of chitosan over than 70% remained visually stable, with no phase separation, for more of 7 days. The highest homogenization time (20 min) and the lowest biopolymers concentration (1% w/v) resulted in smaller particle sizes for the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, and 70:30 (respectively, 292.0, 52.3, and 34.8 nm). The zeta potential increased with the amount of chitosan (from 26.5 to 31.0 mV), while pH and refractive index were not affected by the biopolymers ratio. After 7 days of storage, the nanoemulsion with 90:10 of chitosan:gelatin ratio was in the acceptable range of the legislation, showing peroxide value of 4.8 meq kg−1, p–Anisidine value of 9.8 meq kg−1, and ToTox value of 19.4 meq kg−1. Chitosan and gelatin provided high stability to the emulsions and also behaved as good wall materials, demonstrating the importance of studying its combination to form food–grade nanoemulsions. Practical Applications: Carp viscera are by–products of the fishery industry, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which are associated to human health benefits. However, its low solubility in water and oxidative instability difficult the foods enrichment with these unsaturated fatty acids. Nanoemulsions delivery systems can be used to protect and increase its solubility. Edible biopolymers, such as chitosan and gelatin, can increase the physical and oxidative stability of these lipids in food systems through the formation of nanoemulsions, to facilitate the addition these lipophilic active ingredients in aqueous–based foods or beverages. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) of fish oil, especially omega-3 series, are associated with several health benefits. In this work are prepared food–grade nanoemulsions containing UFA concentrates of carp oil, rich in omega-3, using different proportions of the biopolymers chitosan and gelatin as wall materials. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) of fish oil, especially omega-3 series, are associated with several health benefits. In this work are prepared food–grade nanoemulsion[...]



Epoxidation of Methyl Oleate and Subsequent Ring-Opening Catalyzed by Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125

2017-11-22T04:00:28.866746-05:00

A green method for chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of methyl oleate is developed, resulted in epoxidized methyl oleate. Subsequently, excessive hydrogen peroxide and extended reaction time led to polyols through ring-opening reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99–125. The corresponding reaction conditions are systematically investigated. High epoxy number is obtained at 70 °C for 5 h when 1.5 wt% immobilized lipase and 1.5 equivalent of hydrogen peroxide are used. Interestingly, no hydrolysis reaction of epoxidized methyl oleate is observed. Moreover, epoxidized methyl oleate generated shows good plasticizing effect on PVC resin. On the basis of epoxidation reaction, more hydrogen peroxide and extended reaction time are employed in the ring-opening reaction, resulting in more polyols. Polyurethane rigid foams with good thermal conductivity, dimensional stability, and compress strength can be successfully prepared through the use of polyols acquired by ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil. In addition, the enzyme shows good reusability toward epoxidation and ring-opening reaction. Practical Applications: The epoxides can be widely used as stabilizers for plasticizers, ingredients of lubricants, and the intermediates for surfactants. The bio-based polyols are the potential alternative petrochemicals in polyurethane industry. Furthermore, successful achievement of this study can provide a powerful technical support for the application of enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. A green and economically attractive chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of methyl oleate and subsequent ring-opening of epoxy oleic acid alkyl esters are successfully conducted using commercially available lipase from Candida sp. 99–125.The epoxy product and polyols were successfully applied in PVC resin and PU foams.



Degradation of Fat by a Bioaugmentation Product Comprising of Bacillus spp. Before and After the Addition of a Pseudomonas sp

2017-11-24T02:31:32.766818-05:00

A bioaugmentation product, BFL, comprising strains of the genus Bacillus, is evaluated for its ability to degrade fat in laboratory-scale experiments. Addition of a Pseudomonas putida strain CP1 to the commercial mixed population (BFL-CP1) is tested for optimization of fat degradation. Experiments are carried out in aerobic batch culture, at 30 °C and 150 rpm for 13 days incubation. A minimal medium (MM) and an enriched nutrient medium (ENM) are investigated supplemented with 1% (w/v) butter. Fat removal is determined gravimetrically and the lipid content is analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC). No degradation of butter by the product is recorded after 13 days of incubation, while up to 97% degradation is observed by BFL-CP1. All the Bacillus isolates produced lipase but not the Pseudomonas putida. TLC and GC results suggested that while the Bacillus spp. hydrolyzed the fat to fatty acids and glycerol, complete metabolism of the breakdown products only took place in the presence of the Pseudomonad sp. A citrate buffer is used to investigate fat removal by BFL-CP1in low and stable pH using citrated minimal buffer. Similar fat removal is observed. The use of citrated minimal buffer caused flocculation of the mixed culture, a phenomenon desirable for fats, oils, and grease (FOGs) degradation in grease traps. Practical Applications: The bioaugmentation product, BFL, comprising strains of the genus Bacillus, only promoted high fat removal in a few days incubation after the addition of a Pseudomonas putida strain CP1. Analysis of the remaining fat suggested a cooperative activity between the Bacillus spp., which hydrolyzed the fat to fatty acids and glycerol, and the Pseudomonas putida CP1, which assimilated the released fatty acids. Formation of flocs were observed when the inoculum was tested under different environmental conditions with low pH. This phenomenon is desirable and along with the high degradative ability of the that new inoculum, it showed good potential for use in the treatment of FOG in grease traps. Fats, oils, and greases (FOGs) are generated in high amounts from food facilities presenting potential blockages and wastewater management problems. FOG may be intercepted at source using grease traps and may be treated biologically in situ using bioaugmentation, an environmentally desirable approach that involves the introduction of s[...]



Silkworm (Bombyx mori) has the Capability to Accumulate C20 and C22 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

2017-11-15T12:27:15.684285-05:00

Bombyx mori, an insect with significant economic importance in China contains a large amount of lipids among different developmental stages, especially the pupal stage. Silkworms are fed with a base diet and fish oil supplemented diet, and the fatty acid (FA) compositions of different strains, life stages, and sexes are determined by GC-MS. No C20 or C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are detected in silkworms fed with the base diet. Females accumulates more unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) than males in the pupal stage, and the relative amount of USFAs decreases from the wandering stage to the moth stage, especially in females, suggesting that silkworms prefer the utilization of USFAs. In addition, when silkworms are fed with a diet supplemented with fish oil, which contained C20 and C22 PUFAs, they accumulates C20 and C22 PUFAs in proportion to the concentration of fish oil added to the diet. Practical Applications: Currently, the main dietary source of C20 and C22 PUFAs is marine fish, however, of which the stocks are declining because of environmental pollution and overfishing. Because of its excellent capability to accumulate C20 and C22 PUFAs, silkworm could be developed as a potential new source of these long-chain FAs by transferring ?5 and ?6 desaturases to silkworm or its primary food, mulberry. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) can accumulate C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from diet supplemented with these PUFAs (B). The accumulation efficiency of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in silkworm is particularly outstanding. This capacity may make silkworm a potential new source of C20 and C22 PUFAs. The silkworm (Bombyx mori) can accumulate C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from diet supplemented with these PUFAs (B). The accumulation efficiency of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in silkworm is particularly outstanding. This capacity may make silkworm a potential new source of C20 and C22 PUFAs.



Impact of Added Phytosteryl/Phytostanyl Fatty Acid Esters on Chemical Parameters of Margarines upon Heating and Pan-Frying

2017-11-14T12:55:20.969786-05:00

The effect of the thermal treatment on chemical parameters of margarines enriched with phytosteryl fatty acid esters is evaluated. Sterols, fatty acids, polar and volatile compounds, dimers, trimers, tocopherols, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters are analyzed applying GPC-RI, GC-FID, GC-MS, and HPLC. Additionally, a Rancimat test is performed to compare the oxidative stability of margarines. This study shows that margarines with and without added phytosteryl esters are both stable at a mild temperature of 60 °C over a period of at least 7 days. On the other side after 15 min of pan-frying at 180 °C a degradation of unsaturated fatty acids (14–47%), phytosterols (31–49%), and vitamin-E-active compounds (71–100%) is found. The supplementation of margarines with phytosteryl fatty acid esters have no effect on their oxidative stability during pan-frying characterized by Rancimat test and total polar compounds. Volatile, degradation products of fatty acids as well as phytosterols, are found after pan-frying. The composition of volatiles after pan-frying significantly differed depends on the presence of additional PSE in margarines. For the first time, it is shown that pan-frying with margarines over a period of 15 min results in a remarkable formation of 3-MCPD esters while the increase of glycidyl esters is only very moderate. Practical Application: Based on this study results additional phytosteryl esters do not have antioxidative properties on margarines upon pan-frying. What is more, they are not stable during pan-frying at 180 °C. A significant amount of nutritionals as phytosterols, vitamin E active compounds, unsaturated fatty acids are degraded within 15 min and other undesired compounds as dimers, trimers, 3-MCPD esters are formed. According to the research, heating at a high temperature over longer time should not be applied to this kind of product to avoid oxidation of valuable constituents and formation of degradation products. Volatile compounds which were found are characteristic for fatty acids and phytosterols degradation and can be used as indicators of margarines oxidation. The research presents chemical changes in margarines with and without additional phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid esters. In the graphical abstract compounds which naturally occur in those margarines are presented and compounds whic[...]



Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity Degradation Kinetics During Long-Term Storage of Rapeseed Oil Pressed From Microwave-Treated Seeds

2017-10-27T02:45:30.622901-05:00

The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave (MV) pre-treated seeds (2–10 min, 800 W). A maximum tocochromanols (90.48 mg/100 g) and phenolic compounds (mainly canolol, 1692.15 μg g−1) concentration is achieved after 10 min of seeds MV pre-treatment, while the highest content of carotenoids (1017.51 μg/100 g) is found in the oils pressed from seeds exposed to microwaves for 6 min. During storage, the tocochromanols and carotenoids decrease following zero-order kinetic, the reduction of phenolic compounds display pseudo first-order kinetic. Storage stability of tocochromanols in the oils obtained from MV pre-treated seeds is comparable to that of the control oil. Oils produced from 8 min MV pre-treated seeds show the slowest progress of carotenoids reduction, as the values of degradation rate constant (k) are lower (14.678 μg/100 g/month) than that of the control oil (18.168 μg/100 g/month). The half-life (t1/2) of oils phenolic compounds increases with longer seeds exposition to MV. Practical Applications: Numerous studies have shown favorable effect of oilseeds thermal pre-processing on the concentration of phytochemicals in the resulting oil. However, there is lack of information regarding storage stability of oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. As the prediction of shelf-life is a desirable goal in the food industry, evaluation of phytochemicals degradation based on the kinetic models will provide information on cost-effectiveness of the seeds thermal pre-treatment prior to oil cold-pressing. The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave pre-treated seeds. The study includes a comparative study of kinetics of tocochromanols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds in correlation with changes in the antioxidant capacity. It is shown that the content of phytochemicals in the oil and their storage stability is significantly affected by the time of seeds microwave pre-treatment prior to pressing. The present study focuses on the kinetics of degradation of phytochemicals during long-term storage of rapeseed oils prepared from microwave pre-treated [...]



Characteristics of Wild Pear (Pyrus glabra Boiss) Seed Oil and Its Oil-in-Water Emulsions: A Novel Source of Edible Oil

2017-11-13T04:15:38.810245-05:00

The observed high consumer demand for edible oils with high oxidative stability resulted in notable efforts to investigate wild plants as new sources of oils and fats. In this context, the fatty acid profile, total tocopherols, tocotrienols, and phenolic compounds, as well as oxidative stability parameters such as peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), conjugated trienes (CT), anisidine value (AnV), and kinetic parameters of wild pear (Pyrus glabra Boiss.) seed oil as a novel source of edible oil are investigated. In addition, the oil-in-water emulsion is prepared from wild pear seed oil. Considering the fatty acid profile, linoleic (56.8 ± 1.4 g/100 g oil), and oleic acid (27.4 ± 0.6 g/100 g oil) are defined as the main fatty acids. The α-tocopherol (57.6 ± 0.3 mg/100 g oil) is recognized as the primary form of tocopherols in wild pear seed oil. The PV, CDV, and AnV values are lower in crude oil compared to purified oil in both oil-in-water emulsion and bulk oil. Due to high oxidative stability, wild pear seed oil could be regarded as a novel source of edible oil. Practical Applications: The concentration of the primary and secondary oxidation products in both systems was decreased, mainly due to natural tocopherols and tocotrienols. Furthermore, wild pear seed oil samples (crude and oil containing BHT and TBHQ) were the more stable ones against oxidation as compared to oil-in-water emulsion system. Therefore, it can be conclude that wild pear seed oil could be promising edible oil, as well as a functional component in foods and other bio-products. An NMR-based metabolomic approach,using “one-to-one” OPLS-DA models, allows to identify biomarkers of different production zones in “Bosana” Sardinian EVOO. The wild pear seeds are a rich source of oil mainly consisting of oleic and linoleic acids and valuable vitamin E contents. Results show that the peroxide value, conjugated dienes values, and anisidine values of crude wild pear seed oil are lower than purified oil in both oil and oil-in-water emulsion systems. Additionally, natural tocopherols and tocotrienols play important roles in decreasing of primary and secondary oxidation products concentrations in both systems. The wild pear seed oil could be a promising edible oil, as well as a[...]



Using Short-Wave Infrared Radiation to Improve Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Peanut Oil: Evaluation of Peanut Cotyledon Microstructure and Oil Quality

2017-11-20T03:01:17.483009-05:00

In this study, the effects of short-wave infrared radiation (SIR) on enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP) of peanut oil (PO) are investigated, including peanuts cotyledon cells mircrostructure and yield as well as quality of extracted PO. GC-flash electronic nose (EN) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) is applied to select conditions for SIR process. The appropriate roasting condition based on the overall flavor is determined as 150 °C for 55 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to investigate the effects of SIR on cotyledon microstructure. The results demonstrated that SIR damaged the cell microstructure and oil body membrane, and the extraction of oil is facilitated. Accordingly, the oil yield increased significantly by 8.74% compared to that of the control (p [...]



Enhanced Lycopene Extraction from Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) by the Z-Isomerization Induced with Microwave Irradiation Pre-Treatment

2017-11-16T09:48:49.815475-05:00

This study aims to improve the efficiency of lycopene extraction from gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) by the Z-isomerization induced with microwave irradiation pre-treatment. Although 93.6% of lycopene exist as all-E-isomers in dried gac aril, the total Z-isomer content reaches 35.6 and 58.5% by microwave irradiation at 900 W for 40 s and at 1050 W for 60 s, respectively. The 35.6 and 58.5% Z-isomerization treatment improves lycopene content of extract (by 6.0 or 8.5 times for press extraction, 7.8 or 13.5 times for ethanol extraction, and 4.5 or 6.1 times for supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2)extraction, respectively) compared with no treatment. In addition, the extracts containes high amounts of lycopene Z-isomers, which have higher bioavailability and antioxidant capacity than (all-E)-lycopene. Practical Applications: This study clearly shows that lycopene recovery by press, organic solvent, and SC-CO2 extraction from dried gac aril improved by the increase in the Z-isomer content. It indicates that the Z-isomers are more soluble in oil, organic solvent, and SC-CO2 than the all-E-isomer. Moreover, the thermal Z-isomerization pre-treatment increases the content of lycopene Z-isomers in the extract. Therefore, this procedure is important not only for improving the productivity of lycopene, but also for providing a highly functionalized extract. The effect of the Z-isomerization, induced by microwave irradiation pre-treatment of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) aril, on the lycopene recovery and lycopene content of the extracts obtained using press, ethanol, and SC-CO2 extractions is investigated. For all extraction methods, as the content of Z-isomers in the raw material increases, the recovery and lycopene content of gac extracts improve. The effect of the Z-isomerization, induced by microwave irradiation pre-treatment of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) aril, on the lycopene recovery and lycopene content of the extracts obtained using press, ethanol, and SC-CO2 extractions is investigated. For all extraction methods, as the content of Z-isomers in the raw material increases, the recovery and lycopene content of gac extracts improve.



GC-MS Characterization of Hydroxy Fatty Acids Generated From Lipid Oxidation in Vegetable Oils

2017-10-27T02:46:16.37239-05:00

Lipid oxidation has long been described as following a radical chain reaction mechanism, where hydrogen abstraction is considered the preferred pathway. Hydroxy compounds are, in theory, major products formed from hydrogen abstraction but their presence is rarely monitored. In this study, a GC-MS technique to characterize hydroxy fatty acids (FA) formed during the oxidation of sunflower and canola oils is described. First, hydroxy FA in oxidized oils are methylated and isolated from non-oxygenated structures using solid phase extraction (SPE). Then they are converted into their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives using a N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)-pyridine method and identified by their electron ionization (EI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI) spectra. Separation of most isomeric hydroxy FA with very similar structures is accomplished using a DB-23 capillary column with (50%-cyanopropyl)-methylpolysiloxane phase. The fragmentation patterns of the TMS derivatives are discussed in detail and several easily applicable rules for spectral interpretations are presented. The major hydroxy FA arising from oxidation of sunflower and canola oils are allylic and conjugated structures, specifically 8-, 9-, 10-, and 11-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid (OH-C18:1) and 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (OH-C18:2). Practical Applications: Unsaturated hydroxy FA are potential indicators of hydrogen abstraction reactions by FA alkoxyl radicals during lipid oxidation. A prerequisite for the quantification of these hydroxy FA is knowledge of their structures. In this work a GC-MS method, coupled with SPE and TMS derivatization, to characterize the hydroxy FA derived from oxidation of vegetable oils, which will enable future quantifications of these compounds is employed. In addition, the use of EI and PCI spectra provided clear strategies to interpret mass spectra for both saturated and unsaturated hydroxy FA. The fragmentation patterns in EI and PCI presented in this paper will benefit future studies on identification or quantification of both saturated and unsaturated hydroxy FA in other lipid samples. Hydroxy fatty acids in oils are methylated and isolated using solid phase extraction. They [...]



Chemical Characterization, Oxidative Stability, and In Vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Sesame Oils Extracted by Supercritical and Subcritical Techniques and Conventional Methods: A Comparative Study Using Chemometrics

2017-10-16T11:47:08.30216-05:00

In this study, profiles of chemical characterization, oxidative stability, and in vitro antioxidant capacity of sesame oils obtained from supercritical and subcritical techniques and conventional methods are studied and compared. The results shows that a large proportion of fatty acid and triacylglycerol are not significantly influenced by the processing technologies (except for LLLn, SOA, C18:3n-6, and C22:0). However, significant differences of minor component, oxidation stability, and free radical scavenging activity among the test oil samples are observed. Supercritical sesame oils are more excellent than the subcritical sesame oils and oils obtained from the traditional methods, especially in terms of γ-tocopherol, lignan and polyphenol contents, and antioxidant capacity, thus indicating that CO2 fluid technology is a desirable alternative to extract sesame oils with rich nutrition and superb physiological activity. Further, oils obtained from roasted sesame seeds exhibited higher oxidative stability and antioxidant capacity, thus declaring that high temperature roasting was a critical issue that influenced the quality of the final sesame oil product. Practical Applications: This study used two burgeoning technologies, namely supercritical and subcritical techniques for the practical applications of the extraction process of sesame oils from sesame (Sesamum indicum, L.) seeds. Supercritical fluid was an excellent technology to selectively extract bioactive compounds from sesame by using CO2 as a carrier solvent. The use of CO2 supercritical fluid in the present study was associated with high efficiency and antioxidant activities of the obtained sesame oils. These results indicate that this technology was an efficient and rapid method for extracting phytochemicals when compared with the conventional methods (hot pressing, cold pressing, solvent extraction, and aqueous extraction), thus indicating that it had the potential to work as a satisfactory approach to produce specific sesame oil products for health care and cosmetic use. This method can be easily implemented on an industrial scale. In this study, profiles of chemical characterization, oxidative stability, a[...]



Effects of Storage Temperature and Duration on Bioactive Concentrations in the Seed and Oil of Brassica napus (Canola)

2017-10-24T01:31:24.299704-05:00

The effects of storage temperature and duration on phytosterol, tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations are assessed in canola seed, and oil extracted using two different techniques, over a 10 month period. Increases to oxidation indices (K232, K270 and ΔK) are observed in the solvent extracted oils, and in the seed stored at 40 °C, indicating the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Only small decreases in the concentrations of γ-tocopherol and β-carotene are observed across the 10 month period. Phytosterol concentration decreases over time, with similar degradation rates observed in both seed and oils. α-tocopherol and lutein are well preserved up to 7 months in all samples, despite oil oxidation, and further research will be needed to identify the cause for retention of bioactives. The results indicate that in order to preserve phytosterols, tocopherols and carotenoids in seed stored in bulk for extended periods, storage temperatures should remain at or below 21 °C. Moreover, oil stored at 4 °C or −18 °C, results in high bioactive concentrations and slows the onset of oil oxidation, compared to oil stored at room temperature. Practical Applications: Industrial storage conditions have been shown to greatly influence the chemical processes that occur with canola seed and oil. However, the effects of typical storage conditions on phytosterols, tocopherols and carotenoids in canola seed and extracted oil, are not yet known. This study presents the effects of typical seed and oil storage conditions on phytosterol, tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations, whilst monitoring oxidation indices and FFA, and thus provides information to seed handlers and oil processors on storage conditions that may preserve these bioactives. Moreover, the different behaviours of bioactives are examined relative to the oil extraction technique used, and present opportunities to optimise oil extraction techniques. Time series plots for α-tocopherol concentrations in canola oil stored at different temperatures over 280 days, illustrating a difference in behaviour between the solvent extracted oil and the hand-press extracted oil. [...]



Validation of a Simple Extraction Method for Oil Bodies Isolated from Peanuts

2017-12-05T05:42:46.490699-05:00

Peanut preserves lipids in the form of oil bodies (OBs) which have great potential to be used in the food industries. In this study, a simple aqueous extraction method is used to extract peanut OBs and its effect on the properties and the stability of the resulted emulsions is evaluated. The above-mentioned method involves, successive mechanical steps in order to release OBs from their cell networks, followed by purification using different recovery pHs and washing. Results shows that crude OBs had a high amount of extrinsic proteins and low physical stability. Washing OBs twice with the increase in recovery pH decreased the extrinsic proteins, the lipid oxidation, and improved the storage stability. The physical and the oxidative stability of all OBs emulsions was significantly enhanced by heating. These results suggest that peanut OBs extracted using this aqueous extraction method, can be used to prepare natural emulsions with improved long-term stability. Practical Applications: Peanut oil is widely used in food industries in the form of emulsified oil. OBs can be represented as a better alternative solution of stable emulsified oil with a high content of antioxidant and phytosterols. Our results shows that peanut OBs can be isolated and purified by a simple aqueous extraction method. Therefore, the OBs emulsion resultant from this extraction under specific conditions (pH recovery 8.0 and washing twice with the same pH) is physically and chemically stable. Heat treatment such as pasteurization and sterilization which are essential processing steps in food industries can enhance the OBs emulsion properties by giving the emulsion better physical stability, lipid oxidation, and shelf life. Crude OBs: i) Have high content of extrinsic proteins; and ii) are not physically stable non matter the pH recovery used for the isolation. Washed OBs: i) The pI increased with washing and the increase of pH recovery; ii) pH recovery 8.0 gave the most physically stable OBs; and iii) pH recovery 11.0 gave the most stable OBs to lipid deterioration. Heated OBs: i) Heat did not enhance the stability of OBs recovered by pH 6.8; ii) hea[...]



Degradation of Edible Oil During Deep-Frying Process by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy and Physicochemical Appreciation

2017-11-15T12:27:24.97058-05:00

During frying process of edible oil, lipid oxidation occurs, which is a complex process and involves free radical chain reactions. The impacts of oil with different fatty acid composition on free radicals were evaluated. An ESR study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile. Results showed an increase of formed free radicals in frying oils over frying time. Besides, frying oils with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids were more prone to be oxidized, as well as physicochemical parameters evidencing this phenomenon. Volatile compounds produced by β-scission homolytic cleavage of peroxide group during thermal oxidation in frying oils were detected by GC-MS/MS. Results implied major aldehyde volatile compounds were derived from hydroperoxide and oil with higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are more likely to produce volatile oxidation products. In order to compare the degree of lipid oxidation in deep-fried sunflower oil (high degree of unsaturation) and palm oil (high degree of saturation), the formed free radicals based on ESR, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile to improve comprehensive assessment of degradation in oil with different fatty acid composition are investigated. In order to compare the degree of lipid oxidation in deep-fried sunflower oil (high degree of unsaturation) and palm oil (high degree of saturation), the formed free radicals based on ESR, along with the assessment of physicochemical parameters including peroxide value, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile to improve comprehensive assessment of degradation in oil with different fatty acid composition are investigated.



Anti-Apoptotic Effect of N-Palmitoyl Serotonin on Glutamate-Mediated Apoptosis Through Secretion of BDNF and Activation of TrkB/CREB Pathway in HT-22 Cells

2017-12-04T07:46:10.201312-05:00

Recently, N-acyl serotonins have been reported to exert neuroprotective actions against oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant enzymes. However, the mechanisms for the neuroprotective action of N-acyl serotonins are still not clarified. In this study, we focuse on the suppressive effect of N-palmitoyl serotonin on glutamate-induced apoptosis in HT-22 cells, and then examine the molecular mechanism for anti-apoptotic action of N-palmitoyl serotonin. For this purpose, flow cytometry, immunoblotting analysis and antibody-mediated neutralization is formed. When HT-22 cells are preincubated with N-palmitoyl serotonin prior to glutamate treatment, N-palmitoyl serotonin dose-dependently reduces apoptotic bodies, and recoveres mitochondrial potential in glutamate-treated HT-22 cells. Further, N-palmitoyl serotonin concentration-dependently increases the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic factor, whereas it reduces the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein, apoptosis-inducing factor, Ca2+-dependent non-lysosomal cysteine protease, cytochrome c, and cleaves caspase-3. Meanwhile, N-palmitoyl serotonin enhanced phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptors (TrkB) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Separately, the inclusion of anti-BDNF antibody neutralizes the neuroprotective action of N-palmitoyl serotonin against glutamate-induced cell death. In addition, K252a, a TrkB inhibitor, also reverses neuroprotective effect of N-palmitoyl serotonin, suggesting that the action of N-palmitoyl serotonin may be expressed through the formation of BDNF. Based on these results, it is proposed that N-palmitoyl serotonin promotes formation and secretion of BDNF, and then protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through activation of TrkB/CREB pathway. Practical Applications: The results may provide further information for the application of N-acyl serotonins as a therapeutic or preventive agent for neurodegenerative diseases. N-Palmitoyl 2 seroto[...]



A Novel Method for Extracting Steryl Glucosides From Soy Lecithin

2017-10-27T12:55:21.687053-05:00

In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps, is developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin – the by-product of vegetable oil refining. Phospholipase A1 is used to convert phospholipids in soy lecithin into more hydrophilic hydrolysates, from which SG and ASG are separated by solvent extractions. A 3 × 3 full factorial design is employed to investigate the effects of two parameters (enzyme dose and reaction time) on three responses (yield of extract, SG/ASG content of extract, and recovery of SG/ASG). There are significant enzyme dose – reaction time interaction effects on all the responses, except for yield of extract. The highest SG (including ASG) content of more than 90% in the extract is achieved at enzyme dose of 0.03 g and reaction time of 16 h, where the yield of extract obtained is 1.43%. Practical Applications: Conventionally, steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides are isolated from lipid extract and purified by chromatographic methods, which result in a small amount of high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, and thus is not economic to scale up. The method revealed in this study employed an enzymatic reaction followed by simple solvent extractions, and can be easily scaled up to produce high purity steryl glucosides and acyl steryl glucosides, making them more affordable for researchers. In addition, the method also presents a new application for soy lecithin or lecithin of other plant origins, whose current applications are mostly related to the main component-phospholipids. In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps is developed to yield an extract with high content of steryl glucosides (SG) and acyl steryl glucosides (ASG) from soy lecithin – the by-product of vegetable oil refining. In this study, a novel method utilizing enzyme and involving simple solvent extraction steps is developed to yield an extrac[...]