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Preview: Health Education Research - current issue

Health Education Research Current Issue

Published: Fri, 11 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 04:44:25 GMT


Motivating parent support for physical activity: the role of framed persuasive messages


Parent support for physical activity (PA) is a behavior unto itself that requires motivation. Persuasive messages may be one method for motivating parent support for their children’s PA. Message framing is one strategy for optimizing the impact of messages. The current study examined the relative effectiveness of gain- versus loss-framed messages for encouraging parent support for children’s PA. Regardless of message frame, parents had an increase in social cognitive antecedents (e.g. perceived behavioral control, intentions) and support for children’s PA following message exposure.

Effect of educational package on lifestyle of primiparous mothers during postpartum period: a randomized controlled clinical trial


A healthy lifestyle is important for mothers during the postpartum period. This study was conducted to determine the effects of a lifestyle educational package in primiparous women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 220 mothers assigned to two groups using block randomization. In the intervention group, the mothers received face-to-face, phone and SMS counseling and a booklet in addition to routine postpartum training; in the control group, the mothers received only routine training. The Health Behaviors Questionnaire, a Food Frequency Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used for data collection. There were no significant differences between the two groups 6 weeks after delivery in terms of physical activity level and nutritional status (P > 0.05) except for the mean consumption of milk and dairy, which was higher in the intervention group (P = 0.041). Training significantly improved certain health behaviors in the intervention group compared to the controls, such as the first time brushing the teeth after delivery, the frequency of sun exposure, the frequency of ventilating the home, keeping warm and iron supplementation. The training provided positively affected certain health behaviors in the mothers; however, it failed to improve their physical activity level and nutritional status.

Socio-cultural norms and roles in the use and abuse of alcohol among members of a rural community in Southeast Nigeria


Social influences together with local cultural norms are central factors that can influence the use of alcohol. The study, therefore, identified socio-cultural norms and roles capable of influencing alcohol use among young people in an alcohol producing community, in Nigeria. We used qualitative technique – focused group discussions among selected key persons in the area of study. Three groups; adult males, adult females and youths were engaged in discussions around the themes of socio-cultural; norms, roles, beliefs, values and practices that influences alcohol abuse. The focus group discussions lasted for 60–90 min and each group comprised 8–10 participants. The discussions took place in February 2016. Nine socio-cultural themes emerged following a thematic analysis of the findings, one of which is: Involvement of those who should control drinking in palm wine business hinder control of abuse. Using Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural theory guide, the researchers were able to provide the scaffolding that supported the expression of the harmful effect of alcohol abuse and suggestions for improving control by participants.

Strengthening teachers’ abilities to implement a vision health program in Taiwanese schools


We designed a school-based, nationwide program called the ‘New Era in Eye Health’ to strengthen teacher training and to examine whether the existence of a government vision care policy influenced teachers’ vision care knowledge and students’ behavior. Baseline data and 3-month follow-up data were compared. A random sample of teachers (n = 660) from school vision health clusters in 22 cities/counties in Taiwan were invited to participate in our study and 436 agreed to participate (response rate = 66.1%). The mean age of participant teachers was 41.2 years, while the length of service mean was 14.6 years. For monitoring teacher outcomes, five cities/counties were selected as the intensely monitored group based on certain criteria. Sunlight diaries (n = 5434) were distributed and 3342 (61.5%) were returned. Teachers showed significant improvements in knowledge and behavior on the school vision health questionnaire. At the 3-month follow-up, the number of recesses as recorded by students’ ‘sunlight diary’ increased. When teachers had better knowledge and behavior, recesses also increased. This study provided valuable insights to guide dissemination efforts for school vision health interventions and to help teachers implement research into their school vision health activities.

The cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment of a combined social and physical environmental intervention in office employees


This study explored the cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment of a combined social and physical environmental worksite health promotion program compared with usual practice, and of both intervention conditions separately. Participants were randomized to the combined intervention (n = 92), social environmental intervention (n = 118), physical environmental intervention (n = 96), or control group (n = 106). The social environmental intervention consisted of group motivational interviewing and the physical environmental intervention of workplace modifications. Both interventions were aimed at improving physical activity and relaxation. Effects included need for recovery (NFR), general vitality and job satisfaction. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed from the societal and employer’s perspective, and return-on-investment analyses from the employer’s perspective. Compared with usual practice, the combined intervention was significantly more effective in improving NFR (–8.4;95% CI:–14.6;–2.2) and significantly more expensive to the employer (3102; 95%CI:598;5969). All other between-group differences were non-significant. For NFR, the combined intervention became the preferred option at willingness-to-pays of ≥€170/point improvement (society) and ≥€300/point improvement (employer). For general vitality and job satisfaction, the interventions’ maximum probabilities of cost-effective were low (≤0.55). All interventions had a negative return-on-investment. The combined intervention may be cost-effective for NFR depending on the decision-makers’ willingness-to-pay. Both separate interventions are not cost-effective for NFR. All interventions were neither cost-effective for general vitality and job satisfaction, nor cost-saving to the employer.

A clustered randomized controlled trial to determine impacts of the Harvest of the Month program


The study purpose was to examine the impact of the Harvest of the Month (HOTM) program on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, FV preferences, other eating behaviors, physical activity and other variables related to healthy eating. A clustered randomized controlled trial was employed in 28 elementary schools. After parental consent was obtained, students in grades 4-6 were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions (Intervention= 127, Control= 148). Students in the intervention group participated in HOTM, a widely used school-based nutrition promotion and obesity prevention program. Control group schools continued their usual practice. Participants completed baseline and follow-up surveys measuring fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, FV preferences, other eating behaviors, physical activity, FV knowledge and self-efficacy to eat, prepare and ask for FV. No impacts of HOTM were found for FV consumption or other nutritional behaviors, physical activity, FV knowledge, or self-efficacy. A positive impact of the program was only found for FV preferences. This study suggests that the HOTM program did not affect eating behaviors or physical activity behaviors. The evidence base regarding school-based nutrition education programs including HOTM could be strengthened by the use of more rigorous impact evaluations to examine their effectiveness prior to wide-spread use.

Adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of electronic cigarettes as a gateway to smoking: a qualitative study in Switzerland


Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants identified a significant risk of EC acting as a gateway to TC use, several factors contributing to this phenomenon such as a facilitated transition to smoking or its perception as a harmless toy. Participants considered an even greater gateway threat regarding very young adolescents. A minority did not identify the gateway risk and some believed that it was nicotine-dependent. This potential gateway effect brought forth several recommendations: health professionals should screen adolescents (even very young ones) for EC use and inform consumers of the potential gateway effect; this possible effect should be acknowledged to end the harmless perception many might have; there is an urge for better preventive and regulatory policies directed at protecting adolescents and children who never smoked and support those who have quit.

Impact of patient education on influenza vaccine uptake among community-dwelling elderly: a randomized controlled trial


This randomized controlled trial aimed to test the effectiveness of brief face-to-face patient education in increasing influenza vaccination rate among elderly in the community. Recruitment and intervention were conducted at two general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. 529 eligible patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group with 1:1 allocation ratio. Patients in the intervention group received 3-min one-on-one verbal education by medical students and a pamphlet regarding influenza vaccination. Neither verbal health education nor pamphlet was given to the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis showed significantly higher vaccination rate in the intervention group compared with the control group (33.6 versus 25.0%) and the adjusted relative risk was 1.34 (95% CI 1.04–1.72; P = 0.021). Hence, brief face-to-face patient education was effective in increasing influenza vaccine uptake rate of community-dwelling elderly patients. Participants who were undecided whether to receive vaccination seemed to demonstrate larger beneficial effect (RR = 7.84; 95% CI 1.06–57.76) compared with patients who were certain of either receiving (RR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.90–1.48) or not receiving (RR = 2.18; 95% CI 0.68–6.99) the vaccine. The study also revealed that patients’ intention for vaccination may not translate into action, reasons for which should be explored in future research.