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Published: 2017-09-21T20:30:00-05:00
It is demonstrated that fermionic/bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases across different dimensions and symmetry classes can be organized using geometric constructions that increase dimensions and symmetry-forgetting maps that change symmetry groups. Specifically, it is shown that the interacting classifications of SPT phases with and without glide symmetry fit into a short exact sequence, so that the classification with glide is constrained to be a direct sum of cyclic groups of order 2 or 4. Applied to fermionic SPT phases in the Wigner-Dyson class AII, this implies that the complete interacting classification in the presence of glide is ${\mathbb Z}_4{\oplus}{\mathbb Z}_2{\oplus}{\mathbb Z}_2$ in 3 dimensions. In particular, the hourglass-fermion phase recently realized in the band insulator KHgSb must be robust to interactions. Generalizations to spatiotemporal glide symmetries are discussed.
We study the relativistic version of the $d$-dimensional isotropic quantum harmonic oscillator based on the spinless Salpeter equation. This has no exact analytical solutions. We use perturbation theory to obtain compact formulas for the first and second-order relativistic corrections; they are expressed in terms of two quantum numbers and the spatial dimension $d$. The formula for the first-order correction is obtained using two different methods and we illustrate how this correction splits the original energy into a number of distinct levels each with their own degeneracy. Previous authors obtained results in one and three dimensions and our general formulas reduce to them when $d=1$ and $d=3$ respectively. Our two-dimensional results are novel and we provide an example that illustrates why two dimensions is of physical interest. We also obtain results for the two-dimensional case using a completely independent method that employs ladder operators in polar coordinates. In total, three methods are used in this work and the results all agree.
The evolution of $N$ spin-$1/2$ system with long-range Ising-type interaction is considered. For this system we study the entanglement of one spin with the rest spins. It is shown that the entanglement depends on the amount of spins and the initial state. Also the geometry of manifold which contains entangled states is obtained. Finally we find the dependence of entanglement on the scalar curvature of manifold and examine it for different number of spins in the system.
The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem plays a fundamental role in density functional theory, which has become a basic tool for the study of electronic structure of matter. In this article, we study the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for a class of external potentials based on a unique continuation principle.
The tacnode process is a universal behavior arising in nonintersecting particle systems and tiling problems. For Dyson Brownian bridges, the tacnode process describes the grazing collision of two packets of walkers. We consider such a Dyson sea on the unit circle with drift. For any integer k, we show that an appropriate double scaling of the drift and return time leads to a generalization of the tacnode process in which k particles are expected to wrap around the circle. We derive winding number probabilities and an expression for the correlation kernel in terms of functions related to the generalized Hastings-McLeod solutions to the inhomogeneous Painleve-II equation. The method of proof is asymptotic analysis of discrete orthogonal polynomials with a complex weight.
We study the root of unity limit of the lens elliptic gamma function solution of the star-triangle relation, for an integrable model with continuous and discrete spin variables. This limit involves taking an elliptic nome to a primitive $rN$-th root of unity, where $r$ is an existing integer parameter of the lens elliptic gamma function, and $N$ is an additional integer parameter. This is a singular limit of the star-triangle relation, and at subleading order of an asymptotic expansion, another star-triangle relation is obtained for a model with discrete spin variables in $\mathbb{Z}_{rN}$. Some special choices of solutions of equation of motion are shown to result in well-known discrete spin solutions of the star-triangle relation. The saddle point equations themselves are identified with three-leg forms of "3D-consistent" classical discrete integrable equations, known as $Q4$ and $Q3_{(\delta=0)}$. We also comment on the implications for supersymmetric gauge theories, and in particular comment on a close parallel with the works of Nekrasov and Shatashvili.
We extend quantum Stein's lemma in asymmetric quantum hypothesis testing to composite null and alternative hypotheses. As our main result, we show that the asymptotic error exponent for testing convex combinations of quantum states $\rho^{\otimes n}$ against convex combinations of quantum states $\sigma^{\otimes n}$ is given by a regularized quantum relative entropy distance formula. We prove that in general such a regularization is needed but also discuss various settings where our formula as well as extensions thereof become single-letter. This includes a novel operational interpretation of the relative entropy of coherence in terms of hypothesis testing. For our proof, we start from the composite Stein's lemma for classical probability distributions and lift the result to the non-commutative setting by only using elementary properties of quantum entropy. Finally, our findings also imply an improved Markov type lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information in terms of the regularized quantum relative entropy - featuring an explicit and universal recovery map.
For a simple Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ and an irreducible faithful representation $\pi$ of $\mathfrak{g}$, we introduce the Schur polynomials of $(\mathfrak{g},\pi)$-type. We then derive the Sato-Zhou type formula for tau functions of the Drinfeld-Sokolov (DS) hierarchy of $\mathfrak{g}$-type. Namely, we show that the tau functions are linear combinations of the Schur polynomials of $(\mathfrak{g},\pi)$-type with the coefficients being the Pl\"ucker coordinates. As an application, we provide a way of computing polynomial tau functions for the DS hierarchy. For $\mathfrak{g}$ of low rank, we give several examples of polynomial tau functions, and use them to detect bilinear equations for the DS hierarchy.
We study the joint probability generating function for $k$ occupancy numbers on disjoint intervals in the Bessel point process. This generating function can be expressed as a Fredholm determinant. We obtain an expression for it in terms of a system of coupled Painlev\'{e} V equations, which are derived from a Lax pair of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. This generalizes a result of Tracy and Widom [23], which corresponds to the case $k = 1$. We also provide some examples and applications. In particular, several relevant quantities can be expressed in terms of the generating function, like the gap probability on a union of disjoint bounded intervals, the gap between the two smallest particles, and large $n$ asymptotics for $n\times n$ Hankel determinants with a Laguerre weight possessing several jumps discontinuities near the hard edge.
We define a new large $N$ limit for general $\text{O}(N)^{R}$ or $\text{U}(N)^{R}$ invariant tensor models, based on an enhanced large $N$ scaling of the coupling constants. The resulting large $N$ expansion is organized in terms of a half-integer associated with Feynman graphs that we call the index. This index has a natural interpretation in terms of the many matrix models embedded in the tensor model. Our new scaling can be shown to be optimal for a wide class of non-melonic interactions, which includes all the maximally single-trace terms. Our construction allows to define a new large $D$ expansion of the sum over diagrams of fixed genus in matrix models with an additional $\text{O}(D)^{r}$ global symmetry. When the interaction is the complete vertex of order $R+1$, we identify in detail the leading order graphs for $R$ a prime number. This slightly surprising condition is equivalent to the complete interaction being maximally single-trace.
In this note, we prove the completeness of Bethe vectors for the six vertex model with diagonal reflecting boundary conditions. We show that as inhomogeneity parameters get sent to infinity in a successive order the Bethe vectors give a complete basis of the space of states.
Quantum Markov semigroups characterize the time evolution of an important class of open quantum systems. Studying convergence properties of such a semigroup, and determining concentration properties of its invariant state, have been the focus of much research. Quantum versions of functional inequalities (like the modified logarithmic Sobolev and Poincar\'{e} inequalities) and the so-called transportation cost inequalities, have proved to be essential for this purpose. Classical functional and transportation cost inequalities are seen to arise from a single geometric inequality, called the Ricci lower bound, via an inequality which interpolates between them. The latter is called the HWI-inequality, where the letters I, W and H are, respectively, acronyms for the Fisher information (arising in the modified logarithmic Sobolev inequality), the so-called Wasserstein distance (arising in the transportation cost inequality) and the relative entropy (or Boltzmann H function) arising in both. Hence, classically, all the above inequalities and the implications between them form a remarkable picture which relates elements from diverse mathematical fields, such as Riemannian geometry, information theory, optimal transport theory, Markov processes, concentration of measure, and convexity theory. Here we consider a quantum version of the Ricci lower bound introduced by Carlen and Maas, and prove that it implies a quantum HWI inequality from which the quantum functional and transportation cost inequalities follow. Our results hence establish that the unifying picture of the classical setting carries over to the quantum one.
We consider various curious features of general relativity, and relativistic field theory, in two spacetime dimensions. In particular, we discuss: the vanishing of the Einstein tensor; the failure of an initial-value formulation for vacuum spacetimes; the status of singularity theorems; the non-existence of a Newtonian limit; the status of the cosmological constant; and the character of matter fields, including perfect fluids and electromagnetic fields. We conclude with a discussion of what constrains our understanding of physics in different dimensions.
We study two inverse problems on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold $(M,g)$. The problems are:
1. Passive observations in spacetime: Consider observations in a neighborhood $V\subset M$ of a time-like geodesic $\mu$. Under natural causality conditions, we reconstruct the conformal type of the unknown open, relatively compact set $W\subset M$, when we are given $V$, the conformal class of $g|_V$, and the light observations sets $P_V(q)$ corresponding to all source points $q$ in $W$. The light observation set $P_V(q)$ is the intersection of $V$ and the light-cone emanating from the point $q$, i.e., the points in the set $V$ where light from a point source at $q$ is observed.
2. Active measurements in spacetime: We develop a new method for inverse problems for non-linear hyperbolic equations that utilizes the non-linearity as a tool. This enables us to solve inverse problems for non-linear equations for which the corresponding problems for linear equations are still unsolved. To illustrate this method, we solve an inverse problem for semilinear wave equations with quadratic non-linearities. We assume that we are given the neighborhood $V$ of the time-like geodesic $\mu$ and the source-to-solution operator that maps the source supported on $V$ to the restriction of the solution of the wave equation in $V$. When $M$ is 4-dimensional, we show that these data determine the topological, differentiable, and conformal structures of the spacetime in the maximal set where waves can propagate from $\mu$ and return back to $\mu$.
We extend Massey products from cohomology to differential cohomology via stacks, organizing and generalizing existing constructions in Deligne cohomology. We study the properties and show how they are related to more classical Massey products in de Rham, singular, and Deligne cohomology. The setting and the algebraic machinery via stacks allow for computations and make the construction well-suited for applications. We illustrate with several examples from differential geometry and mathematical physics.
We characterize primary operations in differential cohomology via stacks, and illustrate by differentially refining Steenrod squares and Steenrod powers explicitly. This requires a delicate interplay between integral, rational, and mod p cohomology, as well as cohomology with U(1) coefficients and differential forms. Along the way we develop computational techniques in differential cohomology, including a K\"unneth decomposition, that should also be useful in their own right, and point to applications to higher geometry and mathematical physics.
We study the time-evolution of initially trapped Bose-Einstein condensates in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime. Under a physically motivated assumption on the energy of the initial data, we show that condensation is preserved by the many-body evolution and that the dynamics of the condensate wave function can be described by the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation. With respect to previous works, we provide optimal bounds on the rate of condensation (i.e. on the number of excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate). To reach this goal, we combine the method of \cite{LNS}, where fluctuations around the Hartree dynamics for $N$-particle initial data in the mean-field regime have been analyzed, with ideas from \cite{BDS}, where the evolution of Fock-space initial data in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime has been considered.
We study minimizers of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree functional $$\mathcal{E}_{a}(u):=\|(-\Delta+m^{2})^{1/4}u\|_{L^{2}}^{2}-\frac{a}{2}\int_{\mathbb{R}^{3}}(\left|\cdot\right|^{-1}\star |u|^{2})(x)|u(x)|^{2}{\rm d}x+\int_{\mathbb{R}^{3}}V(x)|u(x)|^{2}{\rm d}x$$ under the mass constraint $\int_{\mathbb{R}^3}|u(x)|^2{\rm d}x=1$. Here $m>0$ is the mass of particles and $V\geq 0$ is an external potential. We prove that minimizers exist if and only if $a$ satisfies $0\leq a
V(x)=||x|-1|^p$ for some $p>0$.
Given an arbitrary quantum state ($\sigma$), we obtain an explicit construction of a state $\rho^*_\varepsilon(\sigma)$ (resp. $\rho_{*,\varepsilon}(\sigma)$) which has the maximum (resp. minimum) entropy among all states which lie in a specified neighbourhood ($\varepsilon$-ball) of $\sigma$. Computing the entropy of these states leads to a local strengthening of the continuity bound of the von Neumann entropy, i.e., the Audenaert-Fannes inequality. Our bound is local in the sense that it depends on the spectrum of $\sigma$. The states $\rho^*_\varepsilon(\sigma)$ and $\rho_{*,\varepsilon}(\sigma)$ depend only on the geometry of the $\varepsilon$-ball and are in fact optimizers for a larger class of entropies. These include the R\'enyi entropy and the min- and max- entropies. This allows us to obtain local continuity bounds for these quantities as well. In obtaining this bound, we first derive a more general result which may be of independent interest, namely a necessary and sufficient condition under which a state maximizes a concave and G\^ateaux-differentiable function in an $\varepsilon$-ball around a given state $\sigma$. Examples of such a function include the von Neumann entropy, and the conditional entropy of bipartite states. Our proofs employ tools from the theory of convex optimization under non-differentiable constraints, in particular Fermat's Rule, and majorization theory.
We derive the local statistics of the canonical ensemble of free fermions in a quadratic potential well at finite temperature, as the particle number approaches infinity. This free fermion model is equivalent to a random matrix model proposed by Moshe, Neuberger and Shapiro. Limiting behaviors obtained before for the grand canonical ensemble are observed in the canonical ensemble: We have at the edge the phase transition from the Tracy--Widom distribution to the Gumbel distribution via the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) crossover distribution, and in the bulk the phase transition from the sine point process to the Poisson point process. A similarity between this model and a class of models in the KPZ universality class is explained. We also derive the multi-time correlation functions and the multi-time gap probability formulas for the free fermions along the imaginary time.
A vector field is called a Beltrami vector field, if $B\times(\nabla\times B)=0$. In this paper we construct two unique Beltrami vector fields $\mathfrak{I}$ and $\mathfrak{Y}$, such that $\nabla\times\mathfrak{I}=\mathfrak{I}$, $\nabla\times\mathfrak{Y}=\mathfrak{Y}$, and such that both have an orientation-preserving icosahedral symmetry. Both of them have an additional symmetry with respect to a non-trivial automorphism of the number field $\mathbb{Q}(\,\sqrt{5}\,)$.
We prove that both the liquid drop model in $\mathbb{R}^3$ with an attractive background nucleus and the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-von Weizs\"{a}cker (TFDW) model attain their ground-states \emph{for all} masses as long as the external potential $V(x)$ in these models is of long range, that is, it decays slower than Newtonian (e.g., $V(x)\gg |x|^{-1}$ for large $|x|$.) For the TFDW model we adapt classical concentration-compactness arguments by Lions, whereas for the liquid drop model with background attraction we utilize a recent compactness result for sets of finite perimeter by Frank and Lieb.
We show that there are six different choice of tensor product of supersymmetric N=(1,1) spectral data in the context of supersymmetric quantum theory and noncommutative geometry. We also show that the procedure of extending a supersymmetric N=1 spectral data to N=(1,1) spectral data respects only one tensor product among these. We refer this as the multiplicativity property of the extension procedure. Therefore, if we demand that the extension procedure is multiplicative then there is a unique choice of tensor product of N=(1,1) spectral data.
In this paper, we re-examine the light deflection in the Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. First, supposing a static and spherically symmetric spacetime, we propose the definition of the total deflection angle $\alpha$ of the light ray by constructing a quadrilateral $\Sigma^4$ on the optical reference geometry ${\cal M}^{\rm opt}$ determined by the optical metric $\bar{g}_{ij}$. On the basis of the definition of the total deflection angle $\alpha$ and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem, we derive two formulas to calculate the total deflection angle $\alpha$; (1) the angular formula that uses four angles determined on the optical reference geometry ${\cal M}^{\rm opt}$ or the curved $(r, \phi)$ subspace ${\cal M}^{\rm sub}$ being a slice of constant time $t$ and (2) the integral formula on the optical reference geometry ${\cal M}^{\rm opt}$ which is the areal integral of the Gaussian curvature $K$ in the area of a quadrilateral $\Sigma^4$ and the line integral of the geodesic curvature $\kappa_g$ along the curve $C_{\Gamma}$. The curve $C_{\Gamma}$ is the unperturbed reference line that is the null geodesic $\Gamma$ on the background spacetime such as the Minkowski or the de Sitter spacetime. We demonstrate that the two formulas give the same total deflection angle $\alpha$ for the Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. In particular, in the Schwarzschild case, the result coincides with Epstein-Shapiro's formula when the source $S$ and the receiver $R$ of the light ray are located at infinity. In addition, in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter case, there appear order ${\cal O}(\Lambda m)$ terms in addition to the Schwarzschild-like part, while order ${\cal O}(\Lambda)$ terms disappear.