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Published: 2017-11-22T20:30:00-05:00
We show that quantum curves arise in infinite families and have the structure of singular vectors of a relevant symmetry algebra. We analyze in detail the case of the hermitian one-matrix model with the underlying Virasoro algebra, and the super-eigenvalue model with the underlying super-Virasoro algebra. In the Virasoro case we relate singular vector structure of quantum curves to the topological recursion, and in the super-Virasoro case we introduce the notion of super-quantum curves. We also discuss the double quantum structure of the quantum curves and analyze specific examples of Gaussian and multi-Penner models.
Alternating minimization heuristics seek to solve a (difficult) global optimization task through iteratively solving a sequence of (much easier) local optimization tasks on different parts (or blocks) of the input parameters. While popular and widely applicable, very few examples of this heuristic are rigorously shown to converge to optimality, and even fewer to do so efficiently.
In this paper we present a general framework which is amenable to rigorous analysis, and expose its applicability. Its main feature is that the local optimization domains are each a group of invertible matrices, together naturally acting on tensors, and the optimization problem is minimizing the norm of an input tensor under this joint action. The solution of this optimization problem captures a basic problem in Invariant Theory, called the null-cone problem.
This algebraic framework turns out to encompass natural computational problems in combinatorial optimization, algebra, analysis, quantum information theory, and geometric complexity theory. It includes and extends to high dimensions the recent advances on (2-dimensional) operator scaling.
Our main result is a fully polynomial time approximation scheme for this general problem, which may be viewed as a multi-dimensional scaling algorithm. This directly leads to progress on some of the problems in the areas above, and a unified view of others. We explain how faster convergence of an algorithm for the same problem will allow resolving central open problems.
Our main techniques come from Invariant Theory, and include its rich non-commutative duality theory, and new bounds on the bitsizes of coefficients of invariant polynomials. They enrich the algorithmic toolbox of this very computational field of mathematics, and are directly related to some challenges in geometric complexity theory (GCT).
In earlier work the authors obtained formulas for the probability in the asymmetric simple exclusion process that at time $t$ a particle is at site $x$ and is the beginning of a block of $L$ consecutive particles. Here we consider asymptotics. Specifically, for the KPZ regime with step initial condition, we determine the conditional probability (asymptotically as $t\to\infty$) that a particle is the beginning of an $L$-block, given that it is at site $x$ at time $t$.
These notes describe representations of the universal cover of $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{R})$ with a view toward applications in physics. Spinors on the hyperbolic plane and the two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space are also discussed.
We study the equilibrium problem of a system consisting by several Kirchhoff rods linked in an arbitrary way and tied by a soap film, using techniques of the Calculus of Variations. We prove the existence of a solution with minimum energy, which may be quite irregular, and perform experiments confirming the kind of surface predicted by the model.
We explore all warped $AdS_4\times_w M^{D-4}$ backgrounds with the most general allowed fluxes that preserve more than 16 supersymmetries in $D=10$- and $11$-dimensional supergravities. After imposing the assumption that either the internal space $M^{D-4}$ is compact without boundary or the isometry algebra of the background decomposes into that of AdS$_4$ and that of $M^{D-4}$, we find that there are no such backgrounds in IIB supergravity. Similarly in IIA supergravity, there is a unique such background with 24 supersymmetries locally isometric to $AdS_4\times \mathbb{CP}^3$, and in $D=11$ supergravity all such backgrounds are locally isometric to the maximally supersymmetric $AdS_4\times S^7$ solution.
We describe the set of all Dirichlet forms associated to a given infinite graph in terms of Dirichlet forms on its Royden boundary. Our approach is purely analytical and uses form methods.
In this paper, we define a quantum analogue of the notion of empirical measure in the classical mechanics of $N$-particle systems. We establish an equation governing the evolution of our quantum analogue of the $N$-particle empirical measure, and we prove that this equation contains the Hartree equation as a special case. Our main application of this new object to the mean-field limit of the $N$-particle Schr\"odinger equation is an $O(1/\sqrt{N})$ convergence rate in some dual Sobolev norm for the Wigner transform of the single-particle marginal of the $N$-particle density operator, uniform in $\hbar\in(0,1]$ (where $\hbar$ is the Planck constant) provided that $V$ and $(-\Delta)^{3+d/2}V$ have integrable Fourier transforms.
We consider effective models of condensation where the condensation occurs as time t goes to infinity. We provide natural conditions under which the build-up of the condensate occurs on a spatial scale of 1/t and has the universal form of a Gamma density. The exponential parameter of this density is determined only by the equation and the total mass of the condensate, while the power law parameter may in addition depend on the decay properties of the initial condition near the condensation point. We apply our results to some examples, including simple models of Bose-Einstein condensation.
In this paper, first we introduce the notion of a phase space of a 3-Lie algebra and show that a 3-Lie algebra has a phase space if and only if it is sub-adjacent to a 3-pre-Lie algebra. Then we introduce the notion of a product structure on a 3-Lie algebra using the Nijenhuis condition as the integrability condition. A 3-Lie algebra enjoys a product structure if and only if it is the direct sum (as vector spaces) of two subalgebras. We find that there are four types special integrability conditions, and each of them gives rise to a special decomposition of the original 3-Lie algebra. They are also related to $\huaO$-operators, Rota-Baxter operators and matched pairs of 3-Lie algebras. Parallelly, we introduce the notion of a complex structure on a 3-Lie algebra and there are also four types special integrability conditions. Finally, we add compatibility conditions between a complex structure and a product structure, between a symplectic structure and a paracomplex structure, between a symplectic structure and a complex structure, to introduce the notions of a complex product structure, a para-K\"{a}hler structure and a pseudo-K\"{a}hler structure on a 3-Lie algebra. We use 3-pre-Lie algebras to construct these structures. Furthermore, a Levi-Civita product is introduced associated to a pseudo-Riemannian 3-Lie algebra and deeply studied.
For the first time we develop the gauge invariance of the supersymmetric grassmannian sigma model $G(M,N)$. It is richer then its purely bosonic submodel and we show how to use it in order to reduce some constant curvature holomorphic solutions of the model into simpler expressions.
The purpose of the present paper is to develop the inverse scattering transform for the nonlocal semi-discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation (known as Ablowitz-Ladik equation) with PT-symmetry. This includes: the eigenfunctions (Jost solutions) of the associated Lax pair, the scattering data and the fundamental analytic solutions. In addition, the paper studies the spectral properties of the associated discrete Lax operator. Based on the formulated (additive) Riemann-Hilbert problem, the 1- and 2-soliton solutions for the nonlocal Ablowitz-Ladik equation are derived. Finally, the completeness relation for the associated Jost solutions is proved. Based on this, the expansion formula over the complete set of Jost solutions is derived. This will allow one to interpret the inverse scattering transform as a generalised Fourier transform.
In two-dimensional Euclidean plane, existence of second-order integrals of motion is investigated for integrable Hamiltonian systems involving spin (\emph{e.g.,} those systems describing interaction between two particles with spin 0 and spin 1/2) and it has been shown that no nontrivial second-order integrals of motion exist for such systems.
Boltzmann provided a scenario to explain why individual macroscopic systems composed of a large number $N$ of microscopic constituents are inevitably (i.e., with overwhelming probability) observed to approach a unique macroscopic state of thermodynamic equilibrium, and why after having done so, they are then observed to remain in that state, apparently forever. We provide here rigourous new results that mathematically prove the basic features of Boltzmann's scenario for two classical models: a simple boundary-free model for the spatial homogenization of a non-interacting gas of point particles, and the well-known Kac ring model. Our results, based on concentration inequalities that go back to Hoeffding, and which focus on the typical behavior of individual macroscopic systems, improve upon previous results by providing estimates, exponential in $N$, of probabilities and time scales involved.
The two-dimensional extension of the one-dimensional PDM-Lagrangians and their nonlocal point transformation mappings into constant unit-mass exactly solvable Lagrangians is introduced. The conditions on the related two-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations' invariance are reported. The mappings from superintegrable linear oscillators into sub-superintegrable nonlinear PDM-oscillators are exemplified by, (i) a sub-superintegrable Mathews-Lakshmanan type-I PDM-oscillator, for a PDM-particle moving in a harmonic oscillator potential, (ii) a sub-superintegrable Mathews-Lakshmanan type-II PDM-oscillator, for a PDM-particle moving in a constant potential, and (iii) a sub-superintegrable shifted Mathews-Lakshmanan type-III PDM-oscillator, for a PDM-particle moving in a shifted harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, the superintegrable shifted linear oscillators and the isotonic oscillators are mapped into a sub-superintegrable PDM-nonlinear and a sub-superintegrable PDM-isotonic oscillators, respectively.
It is proved that replica symmetry is not broken in the transverse and longitudinal random field Ising model. In this model, the variance of spin overlap of any component vanishes in any dimension almost everywhere in the coupling constant space in the infinite volume limit. The weak Fortuin-Kasteleyn-Ginibre property in this model and the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities in artificial models in a path integral representation based on the Lie-Trotter-Suzuki formula enable us to extend Chatterjee's proof for the random field Ising model to the quantum model.
The Hammersley-Welsh bound (1962) states that the number $c_n$ of length $n$ self-avoiding walks on $\mathbb{Z}^d$ satisfies \[ c_n \leq \exp \left[ O(n^{1/2}) \right] \mu_c^n, \] where $\mu_c=\mu_c(d)$ is the connective constant of $\mathbb{Z}^d$. While stronger estimates have subsequently been proven for $d\geq 3$, for $d=2$ this has remained the best rigorous, unconditional bound available. In this note, we give a new, simplified proof of this bound, which does not rely on the combinatorial analysis of unfolding. We also prove a small, non-quantitative improvement to the bound, namely \[ c_n \leq \exp\left[ o(n^{1/2})\right] \mu_c^n. \] The improved bound is obtained as a corollary to the sub-ballisticity theorem of Duminil-Copin and Hammond (2013). We also show that any quantitative form of that theorem would yield a corresponding quantitative improvement to the Hammersley-Welsh bound.
We discuss the relation between the cluster integrable systems and $q$-difference Painlev\'e equations. The Newton polygons corresponding to these integrable systems are all 16 convex polygons with a single interior point. The Painlev\'e dynamics is interpreted as deautonomization of the discrete flows, generated by a sequence of the cluster quiver mutations, supplemented by permutations of quiver vertices.
We also define quantum $q$-Painlev\'e systems by quantization of the corresponding cluster variety. We present formal solution of these equations using $q$-deformed conformal blocks or 5-dimensional Nekrasov functions. We propose, that quantum cluster structure of the Painlev\'e system provides generalization of the isomonodromy/CFT correspondence for arbitrary central charge.
Heun-type exact solutions emerge for both the radial and the angular equations for the case of a scalar particle coupled to the zero mass limit of both the Kerr and Kerr-(anti)de-Sitter spacetime. Since any type D metric has Heun-type solutions, it is interesting that this property is retained in the zero mass case. This work further refutes the claims that $M$ going to zero limit of the Kerr metric is both locally and globally the same as the Minkowski metric.
We present exact analytical results for the Caputo fractional derivative of a wide class of elementary functions, including trigonometric and inverse trigonometric, hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic, Gaussian, quartic Gaussian, and Lorentzian functions. These results are especially important for multi-scale physical systems, such as porous materials, disordered media, and turbulent fluids, in which transport is described by fractional partial differential equations. The exact results for the Caputo fractional derivative are obtained from a single generalized Euler's integral transform of the generalized hyper-geometric function with a power-law argument. We present a proof of the generalized Euler's integral transform and directly apply it to the exact evaluation of the Caputo fractional derivative of a broad spectrum of functions, provided that these functions can be expressed in terms of a generalized hyper-geometric function with a power-law argument. We determine that the Caputo fractional derivative of elementary functions is given by the generalized hyper-geometric function. Moreover, we show that in the most general case the final result cannot be reduced to elementary functions, in contrast to both the Liouville-Caputo and Fourier fractional derivatives. However, we establish that in the infinite limit of the argument of elementary functions, all three definitions of a fractional derivative - the Caputo, Liouville-Caputo, and Fourier- converge to the same result given by the elementary functions. Finally, we prove the equivalence between Liouville-Caputo and Fourier fractional derivatives.