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Preview: Journal of Biochemistry - current issue

The Journal of Biochemistry Current Issue





Published: Tue, 02 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Tue, 02 Jan 2018 05:48:23 GMT

 



Editorial

Tue, 02 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT




Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid induces IL-18 production, leading to Th1-polarization during influenza A virus infection

Tue, 03 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Several microbial molecules with pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulate host innate immune responses. The innate immune system plays a crucial role in activating acquired immune response via cytokine production and antigen presentation. Previous studies have shown that Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF), which contains β-glucan, exhibits adjuvant activity and renders mice resistance to influenza A virus infection; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the innate immune response to AP-CF. We found that intraperitoneal administration of AP-CF increased the serum level of IL-18 and the number of splenic IFN-γ producing CD4+ cells during influenza A virus infection. The adjuvant effect of AP-CF was distinct from that of alum, which is known to have the ability to stimulate a Th2 immune response. In addition, AP-CF injection barely increased the number of peritoneal neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages, whereas alum injection markedly increased the number of neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages, suggesting that AP-CF is a weak inducer of inflammation compared to alum. AP-CF induced IL-18 production by DC2.4 cells, a dendritic cell line, and by peritoneal exudate cells that include peritoneal macrophages. Collectively, our findings indicate that AP-CF is an adjuvant that promotes the Th1 response during influenza A virus infection.



A selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonist SEW-2871 aggravates gastric cancer by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells

Tue, 03 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
The immune status of tumor microenvironment in gastric cancer is poorly understood, which limits the development of novel strategies in this field. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts as an immune modulator, but the role of S1P in gastric cancer is elusive. Here, we aim to investigate S1P receptor 1 (S1P1)-mediated effect of S1P in gastric cancer. We generated a xenograft mouse model and used SEW-2871, a S1P1 specific agonist to activate S1P1 signalling. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were isolated and analysed using flow cytometry. Chemokine expression of tumor cells was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) migration was assessed using Transwell chambers. SEW-2871 promoted tumor growth in our mouse model, and induced a higher level of MDSC and a reduced level of CD8+CD69+ T cells within tumor. Consistently, the anti-tumoral function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes was impaired in mice with SEW-2871 treatment. Additionally, SEW-2871 enhanced expression of several MDSC recruitment-associated chemokines (CXCL12, CXCL5 and CCL2) in tumor cells. These chemokines facilitated MDSC migration by interaction with CCR2, CXCR2 and CXCR4. S1P1 signalling promoted gastric cancer by enhancing chemokine expression in tumor cells and recruiting MDSC to tumor microenvironment, which impaired anti-tumoral function of TILs.



Human recombinant Fab fragment from combinatorial libraries of a B-cell lymphoma patient recognizes core protein of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4

Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
CD antigens are well known as therapeutic targets of B-cell lymphoma. To isolate therapeutic antibodies that recognize novel targets other than CD antigens, we constructed a phage display combinatorial antibody Fab library from bone marrow lymphocytes of B-cell lymphoma patient. To eliminate antibodies reactive with known B-cell lymphoma antigen, non-hematopoietic and patient‘s sera reactive HeLaS3 cells was selected as a target of whole cell panning. Five rounds of panning against live HeLaS3 cells retrieved single Fab clone, termed AHSA (Antibody to HeLa Surface Antigen). Using phage display random peptide library, LSYLEP was identified as an epitope sequence of AHSA. LC-MS/MS analysis of AHSA-precipitated HeLaS3 cell lysates detected several fragments corresponding to the sequence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) core protein. Since LSYLEP sequence was at the position of 313–318 of CSPG4, we considered that CSPG4 was AHSA-associated antigen. Double staining of CSPG4-postive MDA-MB-435S cells with AHSA and anti-CSPG4 rabbit antibody showed identical staining position, and reduced AHSA reactivity was observed in CSPG4-siRNA treated MDA-MB-435S cells. In conclusion, we retrieved a human Fab from antibody library of B-cell lymphoma patient, and identified CSPG4 as a recognizing antigen. AHSA may have potential benefits for development of CSPG4-targeting theranostics for B-cell lymphoma.



Characterization of moss ent-kaurene oxidase (CYP701B1) using a highly purified preparation

Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
CYP701B1 of the moss, Physcomitrella patents, might be a unique cytochrome P450 having the ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity occurring in nonvascular plant. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the gene encoding CYP701B1 was diverged from a common ancestral gene encoding KO of vascular plants. CYP701B1 expressed in Phichia yeast microsomes was purified and characterized. The purified CYP701B1 catalyzed the oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid through three successive monooxygenations, and the rate-limiting step of this oxidation might be the initial step that forms ent-kaurenol. CYP701B1 was a typical ferric low-spin cytochrome P450 and was completely moved to high-spin state upon binding with ent-kaurene, and apparent Kd of ent-kaurene estimated by the spectral change caused by this spin-state shift was 2.5 μM. The potent KO inhibitor uniconazole, an azole compound with molecular size similar to ent-kaurene, bound CYP701B1 with high affinity. However, ketoconazole, an azole compound whose molecular size is larger than ent-kaurene could not bind to CYP701B, though it binds strongly with CYP51, lanosterol 14-demethylase. The results indicated that the active site of CYP701B1 is fitted for the molecular size of ent-kaurene. The P450 monooxygenase adapted for ent-kaurene oxidation might appear in land plants before evolutionary divergence into vascular and nonvascular plants.



Integrin β1 is bound to galectin-1 in human trophoblast

Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Interaction of sugar binding proteins–galectins, with glycoconjugates is considered relevant for various reproductive processes. Galectin-1 (gal-1) is a molecule involved in trophoblast cell invasion, which is accomplished through interaction with cell surface and/or extracellular matrix glycoproteins. A possibility of interaction of endogenous gal-1 and trophoblast β1 integrins, both previously shown relevant for trophoblast invasion, was investigated. Confocal microscopy showed overlap in gal-1 and β1 integrin localization at the plasma membrane of isolated cytotrophoblast, HTR-8/SVneo extravillous trophoblast cell line and JAr choriocarcinoma cells. Immunoprecipitation confirmed an interaction of gal-1 with integrin β1, but not with α1 or α5 integrin subunits. Nondenaturing electrophoresis and subcellular fractionation suggested association of gal-1 with β1 integrin in intracellular and plasma membrane compartments of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Gal-1/β1 integrin complex was sensitive to chemical and enzyme treatments, indicating carbohydrate dependent interaction. Down-regulation of gal-1 by siRNA, however, had no effect on level or distribution of β1 integrin, as determined by qPCR and flow cytometry. These results suggest complex lectin type interaction of gal-1 with β1 integrin at the trophoblast cell membrane, which could influence trophoblast cell adhesion, migration and invasion.



Common molecular pathogenesis of disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins revealed by NMR analysis

Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are either completely unstructured or contain large disordered regions in their native state; they have drawn much attention in the field of molecular pathology. Some of them substantially tend to form protein self-assemblies, such as toxic or non-toxic aggregates and fibrils, and have been postulated to relate to diseases. These disease-related IDPs include Aβ(1-42) [Alzheimer’s disease (AD)], Tau (AD and tauopathy), α-synuclein (Parkinson’s disease) and p53 (cancer). Several studies suggest that these aggregation and/or fibril formation processes are often initiated by transient conformational changes of the IDPs prior to protein self-assembly. Interestingly, the pathological molecular processes of these IDPs share multiple common features with those of protein misfolding diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (PrPsc) and AL-amyloidosis (VL-domain of γ-immunoglobulin). This review provides an overview of solution NMR techniques that can help analyse the early and transient events of conformational equilibrium of IDPs and folded proteins.



Prominent IgE-binding and cytokine-inducing capacities of a newly cloned N-terminal region of Der f 14, an apolipophorin-like house dust mite allergen

Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
We previously characterized a 177-kDa allergen, M-177, from Dermatophagoides farinae. Thereafter, a counterpart to M-177 for Euroglyphus maynei was cloned as Eur m 14, and its sequence revealed that two environmental allergens, Mag 1 and Mag 3, are digested fragments of M-177. The aims of this study were to clone the cDNA of Der f 14 corresponding to M-177 and to elucidate the allergenic capacities of the N-terminal fragment of Der f 14 (Der f 14-N). Recombinant allergens were produced as trigger-factor-fused proteins in Escherichia coli. Der f 14-N showed the highest IgE-binding frequency among Der f 14-derived fragments in patients allergic to house dust mite by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Der f 14-N showed the highest capacity to induce cell proliferation in murine lymphocyte and human peripheral mononuclear cells among Der f 14-derived fragments. Der f 14-N induced IL-13, IFN-γ and IL-17 production more than Der f 1 and Der f 2 in mouse, and induced IL-5 and IFN-γ production at levels comparable to those of Der f 1 and Der f 2 in some patients. The high prevalence of IgE binding to the Der f 14-N indicates that it could be an important mite allergen.



Pharmacologic management of diabetic retinopathy

Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in working-age populations, primarily attributable to retinal vascular hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis. In the past decade, laser photocoagulation and surgical interventions to treat DR have been replaced by topical administrations of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs and corticosteroids. Although these drugs have revolutionized clinical management of DR, their limited efficacy and adverse effects have raised an increasing demand for new drug development. Meanwhile, mouse retinas have been prevalently employed as an experimental model system for angiogenic research, which has greatly contributed to the understanding of general principles in vascular biology. Therefore, clinical ophthalmology and basic research have complimentarily accumulated invaluable information for DR drug discovery. This review highlights the current pharmacologic management of DR, the utility of experimental mouse retinal models, and the perspectives on new drugs targeting the angioepoitin-Tie2 signals.



Proteasome 26S subunit PSMD1 regulates breast cancer cell growth through p53 protein degradation

Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Endocrine therapy using antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors is usually efficient to treat patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Many patients with endocrine therapy, however, often acquire resistance. In the present study, we performed functional screening using short hairpin RNA library to dissect genes involved in antiestrogen tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified seven candidate genes that are associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients based on clinical dataset. The expression levels of six out of seven genes were higher in 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) resistant MCF-7 (OHTR) cells compared with parental MCF-7 cells. Among the six selected genes, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PSMD1 and TSPAN12 markedly reduced the proliferation of OHTR cells. Notably, the knockdown of proteasome 26S subunit PSMD1 exhibited cell cycle arrest and the accumulation of p53 protein through inhibiting p53 protein degradation. In accordance with p53 accumulation, its target genes p21 and SFN were also upregulated by PSMD1 silencing. Taken together, PSMD1 was identified as a potential gene that plays a role in the development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. These findings will provide a new insight for the mechanism underlying endocrine therapy resistance and a prognostic and therapeutic molecular target for advanced breast cancer.