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3D Skin From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells To Treat Spinal Birth Defect
(image) bHighlights:/b ul class="group-list punch-points" liMyelomeningocele is a birth defect of the spine associated with neurological problems./li liCurrent treatment options are associated with certain risks and limitations./li liArtificial skin generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hopes to overcome these gaps./li/ul Novel 3D skin produced by induced pluripotent stem cells could successfully treat myelomeningocele at 28-29 weeks of gestation, according to ...



FDA Authorizes First Medical Device for Esophageal Birth Defect in Babies
(image) bHighlights:/b ul class="group-list punch-points" liEsophageal atresia is a congenital defect in which the esophagus does not develop properly./li liFDA has approved a new medical device "Flourish Pediatric Esophageal Atresia Anastomosis" to treat esophageal atresia./li liThe device closes the gap between the upper and the lower esophagus in babies below the age of 1 year./li/ul The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently authorized a first medical ...



Gene Identified That Controls Birth Defect Common in Diabetes
(image) Scientists have identified a gene that plays a key role in the formation of neural tube defects, a problem commonly found in infants of pregnant women with diabetes. This is the first time the gene has been shown to play this role; it opens up a new way to understand these defects, and may one day lead to new treatments that could prevent the problem or decrease its incidence. The findings were published in the journal Nature Communications. "This gene plays a crucial role in the process ...



Modified Pig Organs To Correct Birth Defect in Babies
(image) bHighlights/b ul class = "group-list punch-points" liNewborn babies suffering from oesophagus astresia will be treated with modified pig organs. /li li The 'animal scaffolds' from pigs were re-engineered using the child's own stem cells to avoid rejection. /li li Doctors in Britain become the first in the world to use the procedure. /li/ul Organs of pig which are modified with stem cells were tested for a rare condition in babies. Oesophagus astresia is a rare condition ...



Faulty Versions of DONSON Genes Linked to Dwarfism
(image) bHighlights/b ul class = "group-list punch-points" li DONSON gene plays a crucial role in ensuring DNA is copied correctly when cells divide and grow. /li li Patients with mutations in the DONSON gene had difficulty in efficiently replicating their DNA and protecting it from uncontrolled damage. /li li The damage can lead to the growth defects typical of microcephalic dwarfism. /li /ul Errors in a specific gene can cause growth defects associated with a rare type of dwarfism....



Could Assisted Reproduction Lower Chances Of Birth Defects Among Older Women?
(image) Babies born to women aged 40 and over from assisted reproduction have fewer birth defects compared with those from women who conceive naturally at the same age. According to new research from theUniversity of Adelaide, this is contrary to widespread belief that there is greater risk of birth defects among older women due to frequent use of services for assisted conception. The researchers believe this could point to the presence of more favorable biological conditions in IVF (in vitro fertilization) ...



In Vitro Fertilization may Reduce Birth Defects for Women Above 40 Years
(image) A woman's risk of having a baby with birth defects increases with her age. Babies born to women aged 40 and over from assisted reproduction technologies are likely to have fewer birth defects compared with those from women who conceive naturally at the same age, new research has found. "There's something quite remarkable occurring with women over the age of 40 who use assisted reproduction," said lead author Michael Davies, Professor at Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide in Australia....



Use of Steroids in Infertility Treatment may Cause Miscarriage or Birth Defects
(image) Steroids can interfere with embryo implantation and may have harmful effects on pregnancy and the child, says a new study. But, steroids have been increasingly used to treat infertility in women suffering from repeated IVF failure and recurrent miscarriage. "Our main message to clinicians and to women hoping to achieve pregnancy is that they should be focused on achieving good-quality pregnancy and the lifetime health of the child, not just getting pregnant," said lead researcher Sarah Robertson, ...



FDA Approves Addition of Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour to Prevent Birth Defects in Hispanic Population
(image) ul class="group-list punch-points"liFolic acid intake during pregnancy prevents birth defects of the brain and spine in an unborn baby./liliThe diet of Hispanic mothers does not contain sufficient amounts of folic acid./liliFDA recommends adding folic acid in corn masa flour which is used to make staple food for Mexicans to prevent neural tube defects./li/ul Folic acid is believed to prevent neural tube defects like anencephaly and spina bifida and is added to cereal grains for fortification....



Anti-Epileptic Drug Linked to Birth Defects When Taken With Other Drugs
(image) In an analysis of pregnancies from 1999 to 2014, in which Australian women were taking anti-epileptic drugs, fetal malformation rates fell over time in pregnancies where only one drug was taken, but rates increased in pregnancies where multiple drugs were taken. The rise in such "polytherapy" malformation rates began around 2005 when levetiracetam and topiramate use began to increase. Malformation rates were similar in polytherapy pregnancies whether or not levetiracetam was included (7.14 percent versus 8....



Birth Defects Major Cause Of Still Births and Neonatal Mortality: WHO
(image) A Newborn and Birth Defect Surveillance network has been set up by the World Health Organization (WHO) to keep track of newborns with defects across the globe. The web-based surveillance is a network of 150 hospitals in eight countries with the support of Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, US. The initiative was taken up as one in 33 newborns globally has birth defects. An estimated 276,000 babies die within the first month as a result. Yet, birth defects remain under-recognised....



France Reports 450 Cases of Birth Defects Due to Anti-Epileptic Drug
(image) An anti-epileptic drug has caused congenital defects in about 450 babies in France who were exposed to the drug before birth, said health authorities. The report put at between 425 and 450 "the number of cases of children born alive or stillborn exposed to valproate in utero between 2006 and 2014 who have congenital defects." The estimate for all of France was extrapolated from data obtained in the Rhone-Alpes region, it said. Starting on March 1, the warning for pregnant women -- which ...



Birth Defects Caused by Smoking
(image) Smoking is one of the leading causes of lung cancer, heart disease and other major health issues including COPD, asthma, pneumonia and infertility. a href="http:www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/smoking_hazards_pregnancy.htm" target="_blank" class="vcontentshlink" alt="Health Hazards of Smoking During Pregnancy" title="Health Hazards of Smoking During Pregnancy"Smoking causes severe adverse effects in pregnancy/a. It contributes to complications of pregnancy like preterm labor/premature ...



Dwarf Woman Undergoes Surgery to Correct Fibroid Uterus
(image) A dwarf woman, Nishi Punam, 40, from Andaman weighed 28kgs and was only 93 cm in height, has undergone a complex surgery to correct fibroid uterus (tumours in the uterus) at a private hospital. Having the condition of 'dwarfism' caused by Achondroplasia -- mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor that results in severely shortened bones -- her stature was that of a three year old child. Nishi had visited the hospital's gastroenterology department with acidity problem, where doctors advised her to undergo gynaecological treatment....



Zika Virus Panic Over Birth Defects in Latin America and United States
(image) The Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus. It is transmitted by the same mosquito which spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. With the sting of a mosquito bite and a fever, many pregnant women may not know that they caught the Zika virus - until it strikes their unborn child. But thousands of cases of birth defects linked to the disease over recent months are now sowing alarm in the United States and in Latin America. Babies have been born with abnormally smaller heads, a condition ...



44-Year-Old With Dwarfism Undergoes a Rare Hip Transplant At Apollo Hospital, Delhi
(image) Deep Pradhan from Gangtok suffered with a rare disorder associated with dwarfism called hip dysplasia or misalignment of the hip joint. Doctors at Apollo Hospital performed a rare procedure to implant smallest hip cup on the 44-year-old.His 4'3 height made him susceptible to this disorder. Patients with small stature are prone to bone disorders such as dysplasia or degenerative hip disease and arthritis. This happens because of development disorders and abnormal load distributions through the hip joint....



Spikes in Cosmic Rays from the Sun Unlikely to Cause Birth Defects On Earth
(image) Contradicting previous findings that "solar particle events" -- spikes in cosmic rays from the sun which sometimes hamper communications or the electric power grid -- may cause congenital birth defects on Earth, new research has found that cosmic rays do not pose any hazards at the Earth's surface. However, the new NASA-funded investigation, published in the iJournal of Geophysical Research/i, found that radiation from solar events is too weak to cause worry at ground level. "We looked at two different studies....



Haryana Initiates Birth Defect Surveillance In India as Primary Prevention Tool
(image) Haryana collaborates with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Center for Disease Control (CDC) to initiate statewide birth defect surveillance in India. Director National Health Mission Inoshi Sharma, said there are 1.7 million children born in India with Congenital Birth Defect (CBD) and it accounts for six percent of the total births. Twenty five percent of the CBD comprise congenital heart disease, neural tube defect, and Down syndrome. Suresh Dalpath, Deputy Director, Child Health, ...



Lithuanian With Birth Defect Gets Life-Changing Bionic Arm
(image) A 21-year old Lithuanian boy, Martynas Girulis, who was born with a neuromuscular disease that left him unable to use his arms, has undergone a bionic reconstruction surgery, and is now able to control his bionic arm with his brain. Austrian Dr. Oskar Aszmann performed the operation in Vienna in November and is a world expert in reconstructive surgery. He said, "He's the first patient with a birth defect to undergo bionic reconstruction. This has never been done before. Bionic arms and hands are not new....



Risk of Birth Defect Double With Pregnant Women Taking Painkillers
(image) Using doctor prescribed painkillers by women of child bearing age, face double the risk of serious birth defects in babies than their counterparts. Many women are unaware that prescription opioid-based medications such as codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, or morphine, used to treat severe pain, may increase the risk for birth defects of the baby's brain, spine, and heart, as well as preterm birth when taken during pregnancy. Use of these medications also can cause babies to suffer withdrawal ...



Human Race may be Wiped Out by Two Dwarf Stars Dropping Torrent of Comets on Earth
(image) Humans could be wiped out by two dwarf stars that will drop a torrent of comets onto the Earth, indicates a new theory. According to estimates by CAL Bailer Jones at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, a number of stars could come close to our sun in the next few million years and if they did so, their gravity could pick up one of the many comets in the Oort cloud, a region in space full of icy objects, and throw one towards Earth, the Independent reported. The star most ...



Pathway Discovery Could Shed New Light on Increased Risk of Birth Defects Among Older Women
(image) A new pathway that could shed more light on the molecular mistakes that increase the chances of older women giving birth to babies with Down syndrome has been discovered by researchers at Dartmouth College. The study shows for the first time that new protein linkages occur in immature egg cells after DNA replication and that these replacement linkages are essential for these cells to maintain meiotic cohesion for long periods. The study appears in the journal PLOS Genetics/i/a. A PDF is available on request....



New Genetic Cause of Male Reproductive Birth Defects Identified
(image) The genetic cause for two types of birth defects found in newborn boys has been discovered by Baylor College of Medicine scientists. The findings of the study are published in iNature Medicine/i. "Cryptorchidism and hypospadias are among the most common birth defects but the causes are usually unknown," said Dr. Dolores Lamb, director of the Center for Reproductive Medicine at Baylor, professor and vice chair for research of urology and molecular and cellular biology at Baylor and lead author of the report....



Birth Defects Risk Small With HIV Drugs
(image) Risk of birth defects is small with antiretroviral drugs taken during pregnancy, considering the benefits of preventing the transmission of HIV to the child. But where there are safe and effective alternatives, it might be appropriate to avoid use by pregnant women of drugs that may be associated with elevated risks of birth defects, such as zidovudine and efavirenz, according to a study published by French researchers published in this week's emPLOS Medicine/em. The researchers, led by ...



Male Birth Defect Linked to Pesticide Exposure
(image) Chemicals in commercial pesticides are associated with a common birth defect in male infants, reveals research. The study, led by epidemiologists at the Stanford University School of Medicine, analyzed thousands of birth records and commercial pesticide application records for eight counties in California's heavily agricultural Central Valley. They aimed to determine if kids were at higher risk of hypospadias if their moms had lived in close proximity to where pesticides were used while pregnant....



Risk of Birth Defects Among Women Who Take Antihistamines in Pregnancy
(image) Antihistamines are a group of medications that are used to treat various conditions including vomiting, allergies and nausea. Some antihistamines require a prescription, but most are available over-the-counter (OTC), and both prescription and OTC antihistamines are often used by women during pregnancy. Until recently, little information was available to women and their health care providers on the possible risks and relative safety of these medications in pregnancy, particularly when it came to specific birth defects....



Children Born With Genetic Birth Defects may Develop Childhood Cancer
(image) A study reveals that children born with genetic birth defects like Down's syndrome are at an increased risk of developing childhood cancer. Scientists have said that children born with non-chromosomal birth defects have a two-fold higher risk of cancer before age 15, compared to children born without birth defects. However, cancer risk varies by the specific type of birth defect, and is not significantly increased in many of the more common birth defects, Science Daily reported citing the study published in July in PLOS ONE....



Genes Involved in Birth Defects Linked to Development of Mental Illness
(image) Genes involved in major birth defects may also contribute to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and bipolar disorder, says research. Over the past several years, researchers in the laboratory of psychiatrist Benjamin Cheyette, MD, PhD, have shown that mice with mutations in a gene called Dact1 are born with a range of severe malformations, including some reminiscent of spina bifida in humans. In a new study designed to explore whether Dact1 mutations exert more ...



Health Ministry Launches Special Screening to Detect Birth Defects in Children
(image) Special screening for early detection of birth defects in kids has been launched by scientists. Under the Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK), health screening and early intervention services will carried out to cover 30 common health conditions prevalent in children for early detection and free intervention and treatment under the National Rural Health Mission, a senior health ministry official said. An estimated 27 crore children in the age group of 0 to 18 years are expected to ...



Likely Basis of Birth Defect Causing Premature Skull Closure in Infants Discovered
(image) Two areas of the human genome linked with the most common form of non-syndromic craniosynostosis have been identified by a team of geneticists, pediatricians, surgeons and epidemiologists. Non-syndromic craniosynostosis is the premature closure of the bony plates of the skull. "We have discovered two genetic factors that are strongly associated with the most common form of premature closure of the skull," said Simeon Boyadjiev, professor of pediatrics and genetics, principal investigator ...



Research Sheds Light on Finding Triggers of Birth Defects in an Embryo Heart
(image) A way to create three-dimensional maps of the stress that circulating blood places on the developing heart in an animal model has been devised by researchers at Case Western Reserve University. This is a key step in understanding triggers of heart defects. The team has begun testing the technology to uncover how alcohol, drugs and other factors set off events that result in defects found in newborn humans. Passing blood cells drag on the endothelial cells that line the growing heart, a ...



Genetic Basis of Cardiac, Craniofacial Birth Defects Identified
(image) Important advances in the rapidly-expanding field of "regenerative medicine" have been made by a group of researchers in Israel, the United States and other nations. They have outlined for the first time connections in genetic regulation that normally prevent birth defects in heart and facial muscles. Some of these problems are surprisingly common - about 1 percent of all people have a congenital heart defect. This basic research will provide a road map to ultimately allow scientists to ...



World's Oldest Dwarf Is 113 Years Old
(image) The world's most elderly dwarf is an Indian woman has been claimed to be 113 years old. Zeenat Bi, a resident of Bhopal, India, has government pension records stating she is 101, but she claims that she is twelve years older, the Daily Mail reported. The current record holder, according to Guinness World Records, is Lowell Deforest Mason, who was 74 years-old as of February this year. Bi, who stands just three feet tall, has revealed a wish list of things she wants to do before she ...



IVF Tied To Increased Birth Defects Risk
(image) A new research has linked In vitro fertilization (IVF) to increased risk of birth defects. Using IVF can lead to birth defects, particularly those of the eye, heart, reproductive organs and urinary systems. According to the study, despite increasing use of IVF in the United States, associations between birth defects and IVF are poorly understood. Management of birth defects comprises a large part of pediatric surgical care and demands significant health care resources. According to the Centers ...



Exposure To Common Herbicide Raises Birth Defect Risk
(image) Exposure to common herbicide, which is used in United States, increases the the risk of congenital abnormality of the nasal cavity known as choanal atresia. The study by Dr. Philip Lupo, assistant professor of pediatrics - hematology/oncology at BCM and Texas Children's Cancer Center, is scheduled for publication in The iJournal of Pediatrics/i. Choanal atresia is a disorder where the back of the nasal passage is blocked by tissue formed during fetal development. It is a rare condition ...



Birth Defects Affect 900,000 Chinese Newborns Every Year
(image) The Chinese health ministry has revealed that around 900,000 babies are born with birth defects in China every year. This constitutes about 5.6 percent of the total number of newborns, Xinhua reported. The ministry report for 2012 on prevention and treatment of defects in newborn babies said birth defects -- at 19.1 percent -- have become the second-biggest cause of infant deaths in China. Birth defects are a serious problem in China's rural areas. Neural tube defects, congenital heart ...



Risk of Birth Defects also Dependant on Profession of Father
(image) Delving into the area of birth defects, one of the primary causes of infant deaths and developmental disabilities in children, researchers found that father's profession had a bearing on the health of the unborn child. Call it an occupational hazard of the most severe kind, father's profession can be risky for his unborn baby, and can cause birth defects especially if they are hairdressers, artists, and photographers. Such professions increased the probability of stomach and intestine defects, the research revealed....



Chances of Birth Defects With Assisted Reproductive Technologies
(image) Michael Davis and his colleagues from Adelaide University's Robinson Institute conducted a comprehensive study to determine the risk of bbirth defects/b related to assisted reproductive technology (ART). The study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented in Barcelona, Spain at the World Congress on Building Consensus in Gynecology, Infertility and Perinatology. Spina bifida, cleft palate, cerebral palsy, and gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal conditions ...



Hike In Birth Defects Due To Assisted Reproduction
(image) There is a risk of major birth defects tied to various types of assisted reproductive technology. This has been identified by researchers. In the most comprehensive study of its kind in the world, researchers from the University of Adelaide's Robinson Institute have compared the risk of major birth defects for each of the reproductive therapies commonly available internationally, such as: IVF (in vitro fertilization), ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) and ovulation induction. They ...



Genetic Cause of Spinal Birth Defect Bypassed by Fasudil
(image) Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disease caused by an inheritable defect in the gene SMN1 that is incurable and progressive. Depending on the severity of the mutation it can result in the loss of spinal cord motor neurons, muscle wasting (atrophy) and even death of an affected child. A new study published in Biomed Central's open access journal IBMC Medicine/I shows that Fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, can improve both the size of muscle fibers and their connection to motor neurons. Fasudil also ...



Cause of Birth Defect Tracked
(image) The source of a genetic disorder that causes life-threatening birth defects has been identified by researchers. Babies born with the disorder, known as Loeys-Dietz syndrome or Marfan syndrome type II, have cleft palates and other facial characteristics similar to babies born with other diseases - but also happen to suffer potentially fatal heart defects, making it critical for them to receive an accurate diagnosis right away. Researchers from USC found an abnormally high amount of a ...



Traces To Common Birth Defect in Gene Expression Data, Noticed by MassGeneral, Jackson Researchers
(image) The 27 new candidate genes for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a usual and often deadly birth defect were revealed by researchers at MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC), The Jackson Laboratory and other institutes. Their sophisticated data-filtering strategy, which uses gene expression during normal development as a starting point, offers a new, efficient and potentially game-changing approach to gene discovery. Babies born with CDH-representing one in every 3,000 live births-have ...



Infant Survival Enhanced Via In-utero Procedure for Birth Defect of the Diaphragm
(image) The journal iUltrasound in Obstetrics (and) Gynaecology /i publishes that the survival rate in severe cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is improved by foetal tracheal occlusion (FETO). CDH is a birth defect where there exists a severe malformation (hole) of the diaphragm and is a major cause of death in infants due to pulmonary hypoplasia, an incomplete development of the lungs. Researchers led by Rodrigo Ruano, MD, PhD, of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, ...



Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring Not Increased by Childhood Cancer
(image) A new study has said that kids of childhood cancer survivors are not at an increased risk for birth defects stemming from their parents' exposure to chemotherapy or radiation. Childhood cancer survivors' exposure to chemotherapy, radiation does not increase risk of birth defects in their children The findings provide reassurance that increased risks of birth defects are unlikely for cancer survivors who are concerned about the potential effects of their treatment on their children, and can help guide family planning choices....



Pollutants Linked to a 450 Percent Increase in Risk of Birth Defects in China
(image) According to scientists at The University of Texas at Austin and Peking University, pesticides and pollutants are related to an alarming 450 percent increase in the risk of spina bifida and anencephaly in rural China. Two of the pesticides found in high concentrations in the placentas of affected newborns and stillborn fetuses were endosulfan and lindane. Endosulfan is only now being phased out in the United States for treatment of cotton, potatoes, tomatoes and apples. Lindane was only recently ...



Gene Causing Birth Defects in Babies Born to Diabetic Mothers Identified
(image) A key enzyme that significantly increases the risk of neural tube defects such as spina bifida and some heart defects among babies born to women with diabetes has been identified. A team at Joslin Diabetes Center, headed by Mary R. Loeken, PhD, say that the enzyme AMP kinase (AMPK) could lead to strategies to interfere with the mechanism and reduce the chances of such birth defects occurring. Even if women with diabetes-either type 1 or type 2 -- work vigilantly to control their blood ...



Hypertension Increases Risk of Birth Defects in Babies
(image) Expectant mothers with hypertension must be aware that the condition can cause birth defects such as congenital heart disease in their children. Researchers also found that the risk of malformation and birth defects in children looms large even if expectant women took anti-hypertension medication. The risk is present because of the underlying condition of hypertension, researchers said. Earlier studies had indicated the risk of birth defects with some of the anti-hypertension drugs employed to regulate blood pressure in expectant mothers....



Smoking During Pregnancy Increases Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring
(image) A comprehensive study conducted by researchers from the University College London has once again warned the ill effects of smoking during pregnancy and said that the habit increases the risk of the baby suffering from a number of birth defects. The researchers led by Professor Allan Hackshaw used data from more than 170 research papers published on the subject over the last five decades and looked into over 174,000 cases of malformation and found that smoking during pregnancy increased the risk ...



Infertility, Birth Defects May be Prevented by Limiting Calorie Intake
(image) Many animal studies have shown that restriction of caloric intake helps to reduce age-related health problems and new research shows it can prevent infertility and birth defects too. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have suggested that from a mice study that this strategy may combat a major cause of age-associated infertility and birth defects. They have shown that restricting the caloric intake of adult female mice prevents a spectrum of abnormalities, such as extra ...



Birth Defect Risk High For Surviving Baby When Twin Dies Early In Womb
(image) The risk of birth defects increases for the surviving baby when its twin dies early in the mother's womb, Associate Professor Michael Davies of the University of Adelaide has said. He is the co-director of the Research Centre for the Early Origins of Health and Disease at the university.The "vanishing twin" phenomenon could perhaps be linked to a nearly two-fold increased risk of congenital malformation in the surviving baby, and a threefold increase in multiple birth defects. The phenomenon occurs ...