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binding  carbohydrate  cell growth  cell  cells  formation  glycans  growth  human  niche  peripheral  psa  sialic acid  stem cell  stem 
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Preview: Glycobiology - current issue

Glycobiology Current Issue





Published: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:44:20 GMT

 



Meeting and Course Announcements

Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 GMT




NMR interaction studies of Neu5Ac-α-(2,6)-Gal-β-(1-4)-GlcNAc with influenza-virus hemagglutinin expressed in transfected human cells

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
The emergence of escape-mutants of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) following vaccination compels the yearly re-formulation of flu vaccines. Since binding the sialic acid receptor remains in all cases essential for infection, small-molecule inhibitors of HA binding to sialic acid could be interesting therapeutic complements or alternatives to immuno-prophylaxis in the control of flu epidemics. In this work, we made use of NMR spectroscopy to study the interaction between a derivative of sialic acid (the Neu5Ac-α-(2,6)-Gal-β-(1-4)-GlcNAc trisaccharide) and HAs (H1 and H5) from human and avian strains of influenza virus, directly expressed on the surface of stable transfected 293 T human cells. The HAs were shown to retain their native trimeric conformation and binding properties. Exploiting the magnetization transfer between the proteins and the ligand, we obtained evidence of the binding event and mapped the (non-identical) sugar epitopes recognized by the two HA species. The rapid and reliable method for screening sialic acid-related HA ligands we have developed could yield useful information for an efficient drug design.



Polysaccharide-experienced effector T cells induce IL-10 in FoxP3+ regulatory T cells to prevent pulmonary inflammation

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Inhibition of peripheral inflammatory disease by carbohydrate antigens derived from normal gut microbiota has been demonstrated for the GI tract, brain, peritoneum, and most recently the airway. We have demonstrated that polysaccharide A (PSA) from the commensal organism Bacteroides fragilis activates CD4+ T cells upon presentation by the class II major histocompatibility complex, and that these PSA-experienced T cells prevent the development of lung inflammation in murine models. While the PSA-responding T cells themselves are not canonical FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), their ability to prevent inflammation is dependent upon the suppressive cytokine IL-10. Using an adoptive T cell transfer approach, we have discovered that PSA-experienced T cells require IL-10 expression by PSA-naïve recipient animals in order to prevent inflammation. A cooperative relationship was found between PSA-activated effector/memory T cells and tissue-resident FoxP3+ Tregs both in vivo and in vitro, and it is this cooperation that enables the suppressive activity of PSA outside of the gut environment where exposure takes place. These findings suggest that carbohydrate antigens from the normal microbiota communicate with peripheral tissues to maintain homeostasis through T cell-to-T cell cooperation.



Concerted mass spectrometry-based glycomic approach for precision mapping of sulfo sialylated N-glycans on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphocytes

Thu, 26 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Despite well-recognized biological importance, mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycomic identification of sulfo-, sialylated terminal glyco-epitopes on the N-glycans of various immune cell types remains technically challenging and rarely reported. Previous studies with monoclonal antibody have implicated a regulated expression of 6-sulfo-α2-6-sialyl LacNAc on B cells in peripheral lymph nodes and the circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes but its occurrence on leukemia cells or lymphomas have not been critically addressed. In this study, we have extended our previously developed MS-based sulfoglycomic platform by incorporating additional complementary analytical approaches in order to achieve a high sensitivity mapping and relative quantification of the detected sulfated glycotopes down to the level of defining their sialyl linkages. We showed that discovery mode sulfoglycomics and precise location of sulfate were best achieved by multimode MS analyses of fractionated, permethylated sulfated N-glycans. On the other hand, the relative degree of sulfation on individual N-glycans could be more efficiently inferred from the respective extracted ion chromatograms of native, non-sulfated and sulfated target N-glycans in single LC–MS/MS runs. The GlcNAc-6-O-sulfated α2-6-sialyl LacNAc, which constitutes the higher affinity ligand for the human inhibitory co-receptor of B cells, CD22, was found to be commonly carried on a range of complex type N-glycans from human CD19+ and CD4+ lymphocytes. We further showed that its occurrence on the most abundant α2-6-disialylated biantennary structure from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients diagnosed as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia varied within ±2-fold abundance from the mean value determined for isolated CD19+ lymphocytes and cultured B-CLL cells.



Lectin ZG16p inhibits proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells via its carbohydrate-binding sites

Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Zymogen granule protein 16 (ZG16p) is a soluble lectin that binds to both mannose and heparin/heparan sulfate. It is highly expressed in the human digestive tract and is secreted into the mucus. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZG16p on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of ZG16p in Caco-2 cells decreased cell growth. Recombinant ZG16p markedly inhibited proliferation of Caco-2, LS174T, HCT116 and HCT15 cells. Caco-2 cell growth was not inhibited by two mutated ZG16p proteins, D151A and M5 (K36A, R37A, R53A, R55A and R79A) lacking mannose- and heparin-binding activities, respectively. Immunofluorescent cell staining revealed that ZG16p-D151A maintained its binding to the Caco-2 cell surface, whereas ZG16p-M5 failed to bind to the cells. These results suggest that ZG16p interacts with the cell surface via basic amino acids substituted in ZG16p-M5 and inhibits Caco-2 cell proliferation via Asp151. In addition, growth of patient-derived colorectal tumor organoids in a 3D intestinal stem cell system was suppressed by ZG16p but not by ZG16p-M5. Taken together, our findings indicate that ZG16p inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells via its carbohydrate-binding sites in vitro and ex vivo. In this study, a novel pathway in cancer cell growth regulation through cell surface carbohydrate chains is suggested.



Loss of heparan sulfate in the niche leads to tumor-like germ cell growth in the Drosophila testis

Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
The stem cell niche normally prevents aberrant stem cell behaviors that lead to cancer formation. Recent studies suggest that some cancers are derived from endogenous populations of adult stem cells that have somehow escaped from normal control by the niche. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the niche retains stem cells locally and tightly controls their divisions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a class glygosaminoglycan chains, in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche prevents tumor formation in the testis. Loss of HS in the niche, called the hub, led to gross changes in the morphology of testes as well as the formation of both somatic and germline tumors. This loss of hub HS resulted in ectopic signaling events in the Jak/Stat pathway outside the niche. This ectopic Jak/Stat signaling disrupted normal somatic cell differentiation, leading to the formation of tumors. Our finding indicates a novel non-autonomous role for niche HS in ensuring the integrity of the niche and preventing tumor formation.



Ten years of CAZypedia: a living encyclopedia of carbohydrate-active enzymes

Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
CAZypedia was initiated in 2007 to create a comprehensive, living encyclopedia of the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and associated carbohydrate-binding modules involved in the synthesis, modification and degradation of complex carbohydrates. CAZypedia is closely connected with the actively curated CAZy database, which provides a sequence-based foundation for the biochemical, mechanistic and structural characterization of these diverse proteins. Now celebrating its 10th anniversary online, CAZypedia is a successful example of dynamic, community-driven and expert-based biocuration. CAZypedia is an open-access resource available at URL http://www.cazypedia.org.