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brain stem  brain  chronic stress  chronic  element  elements  gcw  immobilization stress  npy  stress  tpn  trace element  trace elements  trace 
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Preview: The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine

The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine

Wiley Online Library : The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine

Published: 2004-01-01T00:00:00-05:00


Green coconut water for intravenous use: Trace and minor element content


Green coconut water (GCW; liquid endosperm) is sterile and has been used in the past in remote locations and/or during armed conflicts as a short-term intravenous hydration fluid. It is also conceivable to use GCW for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) under similar circumstances. Patients on TPN need elemental supplementation. Although data on the major elements (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus) found in GCW are abundant, very limited information concerning trace and minor element content in GCW is available. The purpose of this study was to determine trace and minor element content in GCW. Major elements were arbitrarily defined as those with a GCW concentration in the mM range, as opposed to minor ones in the μM range and trace elements in the nM range. The values determined show the great variability typical for samples of plant origin. Under TPN conditions, GCW (1,000 mL/day) would be able to provide adequate supplementation of manganese (12 ± 5 μmol/L) and possibly zinc (6 ± 1 μmol/L) but not chromium (not detected, i.e., less than 9 nM/L) and copper (105 ± 100 nM/L). With respect to elements usually considered nonessential or even toxic, GCW compares favorably with commonly used TPN solutions, most notably for aluminium content (740 ± 360 nM/L) and cadmium (7 ± 4 nM/L). The levels of lead (150 ± 67 nmol/L) and barium (600 ± 300 nmol/L) were similar to those typically found in commercial TPN solutions. Those of strontium (8 ± 4 μmol/L) are higher but unlikely to be harmful. In conclusion, although GCW is not completely equivalent to high-tech (and high-cost) TPN solutions with trace element supplements, it still may provide sufficient support of at least some of the trace elements if used as a substitute. The GCW investigated by us is, at least, not toxic. However, our results for several trace elements are much lower than values previously reported in the literature, especially in coconuts from “polluted” areas. GCW from polluted soil might be easily toxic if used intravenously. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 17:273–282, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Neuropeptide Y alters stress-induced changes in trace element concentrations of brain in chronically immobilized rats


Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) produces anxiolytic-like behavioral responses in the conflict test, elevated plus maze, fear-potentiated startle paradigm, and in the chronic immobilization stress. Exogenously administrated NPY also protects against the anxiogenic effects of corticotropin-releasing factor. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of centrally administered NPY on the trace element disturbances in brain tissues (frontal and temporal lobes and brain stem) and the other major organs including liver, spleen (zinc [Zn]-, copper [Cu]-, and iron-rich tissues), kidney, and stomach in chronically immobilized rats. The immobilization stress was performed in special cages in which the animals were not able to move. The rats in chronic stress and chronic stress + NPY groups were kept in the cages daily for 7 min for 15 consecutive days. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulas were placed to the right lateral ventricles of the rats by using stereotaxic method. In the control and chronic stress groups, 5 μL of saline (NaCl 0.9%), and in the chronic stress + NPY group, 8 μg NPY/5 μL saline solutions, were administered into the brain via ICV cannula, respectively. Controls and immobilized rats were decapitated 30 min after the injections were over and samples of tissue were taken. Zn, Cu, and iron levels of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, spleen, kidney, and stomach were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Zn and Cu levels were significantly increased in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and brain stem in response to chronic immobilization stress daily for 7 min for 15 consecutive days. The administration of NPY inhibited the elevation of Zn in these three parts of brain but did not affect the elevation of Cu in the frontal lobe and brain stem. Increases in Zn and Cu levels of frontal, temporal lobes, and brain stem may be related to induction of MT-I mRNA expression by chronic immobilization stress, and NPY may affect this induction of MT-I, altering corticotropin-releasing factor release in the stress conditions. J. Trace Elem. Exp. Med. 17:283–290, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.