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Published: 2018-02-22T20:30:00-05:00
We introduce and describe a class of simple facilitated quantum spin models in which the dynamics is due to the repeated application of unitary gates. The gates are applied periodically in time, so their combined action constitutes a Floquet unitary. The dynamics of the models we discuss can be classically simulated, and their eigenstates classically constructed (although they are highly entangled). We consider a variety of models in both one and two dimensions, involving Clifford gates and Toffoli gates. For some of these models, we explicitly construct conserved densities; thus these models are "integrable." The other models do not seem to be integrable; yet, for some system sizes and boundary conditions, their eigenstate entanglement is strongly subthermal. Some of the models have exponentially many eigenstates in which one or more sites are "disentangled" from the rest of the system, as a consequence of reflection symmetry.
Contextuality has been conjectured to be a super-classical resource for quantum computation, analogous to the role of non-locality as a super-classical resource for communication. We show that the presence of contextuality places a lower bound on the amount of classical memory required to simulate any quantum sub-theory, thereby establishing a quantitative connection between contextuality and classical simulability. We apply our result to the qubit stabilizer sub-theory, where the presence of state-independent contextuality has been an obstacle in establishing contextuality as a quantum computational resource. We find that the presence of contextuality in this sub-theory demands that the minimum number of classical bits of memory required to simulate a multi-qubit system must scale quadratically in the number of qubits; notably, this is the same scaling as the Gottesman-Knill algorithm. We contrast this result with the (non-contextual) qudit case, where linear scaling is possible.
Quantum teleportation uses prior shared entanglement and classical communication to send an unknown quantum state from one party to another. Remote state preparation (RSP) is a similar distributed task in which the sender knows the entire classical description of the state to be sent. (This may also be viewed as the task of non-oblivious compression of a single sample from an ensemble of quantum states.) We study the communication complexity of approximate remote state preparation, in which the goal is to prepare an approximation of the desired quantum state. Jain [Quant. Inf. & Comp., 2006] showed that the worst-case communication complexity of approximate RSP can be bounded from above in terms of the maximum possible information in an encoding. He also showed that this quantity is a lower bound for communication complexity of (exact) remote state preparation. In this work, we tightly characterize the worst-case and average-case communication complexity of remote state preparation in terms of non-asymptotic information-theoretic quantities. We also show that the average-case communication complexity of RSP can be much smaller than the worst-case one. In the process, we show that n bits cannot be communicated with less than n transmitted bits in LOCC protocols. This strengthens a result due to Nayak and Salzman [J. ACM, 2006] and may be of independent interest.
We present a bi-confluent Heun potential for the Schr\"odinger equation involving inverse fractional powers and a repulsive centrifugal-barrier term the strength of which is fixed to a constant. This is an infinite potential well defined on the positive half-axis. Each of the fundamental solutions for this conditionally integrable potential is written as an irreducible linear combination of two Hermite functions of a shifted and scaled argument. We present the general solution of the problem, derive the exact energy spectrum equation and construct a highly accurate approximation for the bound-state energy levels.
It is NP-complete to find non-negative factors $W$ and $H$ with fixed rank $r$ from a non-negative matrix $X$ by minimizing $\|X-WH^\top\|_F^2$. Although the separability assumption (all data points are in the conical hull of the extreme rows) enables polynomial-time algorithms, the computational cost is not affordable for big data. This paper investigates how the power of quantum computation can be capitalized to solve the non-negative matrix factorization with the separability assumption (SNMF) by devising a quantum algorithm based on the divide-and-conquer anchoring (DCA) scheme. The design of quantum DCA (QDCA) is challenging. In the divide step, the random projections in DCA is completed by a quantum algorithm for linear operations, which achieves the exponential speedup. We then devise a heuristic post-selection procedure which extracts the information of anchors stored in the quantum states efficiently. Under a plausible assumption, QDCA performs efficiently, achieves the quantum speedup, and is beneficial for high dimensional problems.
This tutorial article provides a concise and pedagogical overview on negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The research on the NV centers has attracted enormous attention for its application to quantum sensing, encompassing the areas of not only physics and applied physics but also chemistry, biology and life sciences. Nonetheless, its key technical aspects can be understood from the viewpoint of magnetic resonance. We focus on three facets of this ever-expanding research field, to which our viewpoint is especially relevant: microwave engineering, materials science, and magnetometry. In explaining these aspects, we provide a technical basis and up-to-date technologies for the research on the NV centers.
Collinear antiferromagnets (AFs) support two degenerate magnon excitations carrying opposite spin polarizations, by which magnons can function as electrons in spin transport. We explore the interlayer coupling mediated by antiferromagnetic magnons in an insulating ferromagnet (F)/AF/F trilayer structure. The internal energy of the AF depends on the orientations of the two Fs, which manifests as effective interlayer interactions JS1.S2 and K(S1.S2)^2. Both J and K are functions of temperature and the AF thickness. Interestingly, J is antiferromagnetic at low temperatures and ferromagnetic at high temperatures. In the high-temperature regime, J is estimated to be much larger than the interlayer dipole-dipole interaction, allowing direct experimental verification.
We study the "anti-Unruh effect" for an entangled quantum state in reference to the counterintuitive cooling previously pointed out for an accelerated detector coupled to the vacuum. We show that quantum entanglement for an initially entangled (spacelike separated) bipartite state can be increased when either a detector attached to one particle is accelerated or both detectors attached to the two particles are in simultaneous accelerations. However, if the two particles (e.g., detectors for the bipartite system) are not initially entangled, entanglement cannot be created by the anti-Unruh effect. Thus, within certain parameter regime, this work shows that the anti-Unruh effect can be viewed as an amplification mechanism for quantum entanglement.
We explore ways to use the ability to measure the populations of individual magnetic sublevels to improve the sensitivity of magnetic field measurements and measurements of atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs). When atoms are initialized in the $m=0$ magnetic sublevel, the shot-noise-limited uncertainty of these measurements is $1/\sqrt{2F(F+1)}$ smaller than that of a Larmor precession measurement. When the populations in the even (or odd) magnetic sublevels are combined, we show that these measurements are independent of the tensor Stark shift and the second order Zeeman shift. We discuss the complicating effect of a transverse magnetic field and show that when the ratio of the tensor Stark shift to the transverse magnetic field is sufficiently large, an EDM measurement with atoms initialized in the superposition of the stretched states can reach the optimal sensitivity.
One of the limitation of continuous variable quantum key distribution is relatively short transmission distance of secure keys. In order to overcome the limitation, some solutions have been proposed such as reverse reconciliation, trusted noise concept, and non-Gaussian operation. In this paper, we propose a protocol using photon subtraction at receiver which utilizes synergy of the aforementioned properties. By simulations, we show performance of the proposed protocol outperforms other conventional protocols. We also find the protocol is more efficient in a practical case. Finally, we provide a guide for provisioning a system based on the protocol through an analysis for noise from a channel.
We make use of the Quantum Hamilton-Jacobi (QHJ) theory to investigate conditional quasi-solvability of the quantum symmetric top subject to combined electric fields (symmetric top pendulum). We derive the conditions of quasi-solvability of the time-independent Schroedinger equation as well as the corresponding finite sets of exact analytic solutions. We do so for this prototypical trigonometric system as well as for its anti-isospectral hyperbolic counterpart. An examination of the algebraic and numerical spectra of these two systems reveals mutually closely related patterns. The QHJ approach allows to retrieve the closed-form solutions for the spherical and planar pendula and the Razavy system that had been obtained in our earlier work via Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as well as to find a cornucopia of additional exact analytic solutions.
We report a single-stage bi-directional interface capable of linking Sr$^+$ trapped ion qubits in a long-distance quantum network. Our interface converts photons between the Sr$^+$ emission wavelength at 422 nm and the telecoms C-band to enable low-loss transmission over optical fiber. We have achieved both up- and down-conversion at the single photon level with efficiencies of 9.4 $\%$ and 1.1 $\%$ respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the noise introduced during the conversion process is sufficiently low to implement high-fidelity interconnects suitable for quantum networking.
We study the spreading of a quantum particle placed in a single site of a lattice or binary tree with the Hamiltonian permitting particle number changes. We show that the particle number-changing interactions accelerate the spreading beyond the ballistic expansion limit by inducing off-resonant Rabi oscillations between states of different numbers of particles. We consider the effect of perturbative number-changing couplings on Anderson localization in one-dimensional disordered lattices and show that they lead to decrease of localization. The effect of these couplings is shown to be larger at larger disorder strength, which is a consequence of the disorder-induced broadening of the particle dispersion bands.
The outcomes of local measurements made on entangled systems can be certified to be random provided that the generated statistics violate a Bell inequality. This way of producing randomness relies only on a minimal set of assumptions because it is independent of the internal functioning of the devices generating the random outcomes. In this context it is crucial to understand both qualitatively and quantitatively how the three fundamental quantities -- entanglement, non-locality and randomness -- relate to each other. To explore these relationships, we consider the case where repeated (non projective) measurements are made on the physical systems, each measurement being made on the post-measurement state of the previous measurement. In this work, we focus on the following questions: For systems in a given entangled state, how many nonlocal correlations in a sequence can we obtain by measuring them repeatedly? And from this generated sequence of non-local correlations, how many random numbers is it possible to certify? In the standard scenario with a single measurement in the sequence, it is possible to generate non-local correlations between two distant observers only and the amount of random numbers is very limited. Here we show that we can overcome these limitations and obtain any amount of certified random numbers from an entangled pair of qubit in a pure state by making sequences of measurements on it. Moreover, the state can be arbitrarily weakly entangled. In addition, this certification is achieved by near-maximal violation of a particular Bell inequality for each measurement in the sequence. We also present numerical results giving insight on the resistance to imperfections and on the importance of the strength of the measurements in our scheme.
Recent experimental advances in controlling dissipation have brought about unprecedented flexibility in engineering non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in open classical and quantum systems. A particular interest centers on the topological properties of non-Hermitian systems, which exhibit unique phases with no Hermitian counterparts. However, no systematic understanding in analogy with the periodic table of topological insulators and superconductors has been achieved. In this paper, we develop a coherent framework of topological phases of non-Hermitian systems. After elucidating the physical meaning and the mathematical definition of non-Hermitian topological phases, we start with one-dimensional lattices, which exhibit topological phases with no Hermitian counterparts and are found to be characterized by an integer topological winding number even with no symmetry constraint, reminiscent of the quantum Hall insulator in Hermitian systems. A system with a nonzero winding number, which is experimentally measurable from the wave-packet dynamics, is shown to be robust against disorder, a phenomenon observed in the Hatano-Nelson model with asymmetric hopping amplitudes. We also unveil a novel bulk-edge correspondence that features an infinite number of (quasi-)edge modes. We then apply the K-theory to systematically classify all the non-Hermitian topological phases in the Altland-Zirnbauer classes in all dimensions. The obtained periodic table unifies time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, leading to highly nontrivial predictions such as the absence of non-Hermitian topological phases in two dimensions. We provide concrete examples for all the nontrivial non-Hermitian AZ classes in zero and one dimensions. In particular, we identify a Z2 topological index for arbitrary quantum channels. Our work lays the cornerstone for a unified understanding of the role of topology in non-Hermitian systems.
We introduce QuEST, the Quantum Exact Simulation Toolkit, and compare it to ProjectQ, qHipster and a recent distributed implementation of Quantum++. QuEST is the first open source, OpenMP and MPI hybridised, GPU accelerated simulator written in C, capable of simulating generic quantum circuits of general single-qubit gates and many-qubit controlled gates. Using the ARCUS Phase-B and ARCHER supercomputers, we benchmark QuEST's simulation of random circuits of up to 38 qubits, distributed over up to 2048 distributed nodes, each with up to 24 cores. We directly compare QuEST's performance to ProjectQ's on single machines, and discuss the differences in distribution strategies of QuEST, qHipster and Quantum++. QuEST shows excellent scaling, both strong and weak, on multicore and distributed architectures.
We investigate the minimal Hilbert-space dimension for a system to be synchronized. We first show that qubits cannot be synchronized due to the lack of a limit cycle. Moving to larger spin values, we demonstrate that a single spin 1 can be phase-locked to a weak external signal of similar frequency and exhibits all the standard features of the theory of synchronization. Our findings rely on the Husimi Q representation based on spin coherent states which we propose as a tool to obtain a phase portrait.
The Aharonov-Bohm elastic scattering with incident particles described by plane waves is revisited by using the phase-shifts method. The formal equivalence between the cylindrical Schr\"odinger equation and the one-dimensional Calogero problem allows us to show that up to two scattering phase-shifts modes in the cylindrical waves expansion must be renormalized. The renormalization procedure introduces new length scales giving rise to spontaneous breaking of the conformal symmetry. The new renormalized cross-section has an amazing property of being non-vanishing even for a quantized magnetic flux, coinciding with the case of Dirac delta function potential. The knowledge of the exact beta function permits us to describe the renormalization group flows within the two-parametric family of renormalized Aharonov-Bohm scattering amplitudes. Our analysis demonstrates that for quantized magnetic fluxes a BKT-like phase transition at the coupling space occurs.
In quantum interaction problems with explicitly time-dependent interaction Hamiltonians, the time ordering plays a crucial role for describing the quantum evolution of the system under con- sideration. In such complex scenarios, exact solutions of the dynamics are rarely available. Here we study the nonlinear vibronic dynamics of a trapped ion, driven in the resolved sideband regime with some small frequency mismatch. By describing the pump field in a quantized manner, we are able to derive exact solutions for the dynamics of the system. This eventually allows us to provide analytical solutions for various types of time-dependent quantities. In particular, we study in some detail the electronic and the motional quantum dynamics of the ion, as well as the time-evolution of the nonclassicality of the motional quantum state.
The mainstream textbooks of quantum mechanics explains the quantum state collapses into an eigenstate in the measurement, while other explanations such as hidden variables and multi-universe deny the collapsing. Here we propose an ideal thinking experiment on measuring the spin of an electron with 3 steps. It is simple and straightforward, in short, to measure a spin-up electron in x-axis, and then in z-axis. Whether there is a collapsing predicts different results of the experiment. The future realistic experiment will show the quantum state collapses or not in the measurement.
A simple classical non-local dynamical system with random initial conditions and an output projecting the state variable on selected axes has been defined to mimic a two-channel quantum coincidence experiment. Non-locality is introduced by a parameter connecting the initial conditions to the selection of the projection axes. The statistics of the results shows violations up to 100% of the Bell's inequality, in the form of Clauser-Horne- Shimony-Holt (CHSH), strongly depending on the non-locality parameter. Discussions on the parallelism with Bohmian mechanics are given.
We provide a study of various quantum phase transitions occurring in the XY Heisenberg chain in a transverse magnetic field using the Meyer-Wallach (MW) measure of (global) entanglement. Such a measure, while being readily evaluated, is a multipartite measure of entanglement as opposed to more commonly used bipartite measures. Consequently, we obtain analytic expression of the measure for finite-size systems and show that it can be used to obtain critical exponents via finite-size scaling with great accuracy for the Ising universality class. We also calculate an analytic expression for the isotropic (XX) model and show that global entanglement can precisely identify the level-crossing points. The critical exponent for the isotropic transition is obtained exactly from an analytic expression for global entanglement in the thermodynamic limit. Next, the general behavior of the measure is calculated in the thermodynamic limit considering the important role of symmetries for this limit. The so-called oscillatory transition in the ferromagnetic regime can only be characterized by the thermodynamic limit where global entanglement is shown to be zero on the transition curve. Finally, the anisotropic transition is explored where it is shown that global entanglement exhibits an interesting behavior in the finite-size limit. In the thermodynamic limit, we show that global entanglement shows a cusp singularity across the Ising and anisotropic transition, while showing non-analytic behavior at the XX multicritical point. It is concluded that global entanglement, despite its relative simplicity, can be used to identify all the rich structure of the ground-state Heisenberg chain.
We demonstrate a Bayesian quantum game on an ion trap quantum computer with five qubits. The players share an entangled pair of qubits and perform rotations on their qubit as the strategy choice. Two five-qubit circuits are sufficient to run all 16 possible strategy choice sets in a game with four possible strategies. The data are then parsed into player types randomly in order to combine them classically into a Bayesian framework. We exhaustively compute the possible strategies of the game so that the experimental data can be used to solve for the Nash equilibria of the game directly. Then we compare the payoff at the Nash equilibria and location of phase-change-like transitions obtained from the experimental data to the theory, and study how it changes as a function of the amount of entanglement.
Bloch oscillations in a single Josephson junction in the phase-slip regime relate current to frequency. They can be measured by applying a periodic drive to a DC-biased, small Josephson junction. Phase-locking between the periodic drive and the Bloch oscillations then gives rise to steps at constant current in the I-V curves, also known as dual Shapiro steps. Unlike conventional Shapiro steps, a measurement of these dual Shapiro steps is impeded by the presence of a parasitic capacitance. This capacitance shunts the junction resulting in a suppression of the amplitude of the Bloch oscillations. This detrimental effect of the parasitic capacitance can be remedied by an on-chip superinductance. Additionally, we introduce a large off-chip resistance to provide the necessary dissipation. We investigate the resulting system by a set of analytical and numerical methods. In particular, we obtain an explicit analytical expression for the height of dual Shapiro steps as a function of the ratio of the parasitic capacitance to the superinductance. Using this result, we provide a quantitative estimate of the dual Shapiro step height. Our calculations reveal that even in the presence of a parasitic capacitance, it should be possible to observe Bloch oscillations with realistic experimental parameters.
We propose a simple architecture for a scalable quantum network, in which the quantum nodes consist of qubit systems confined in cavities. The nodes are deterministically coupled by transmission and reflection of photons, which are disentangled from the qubits at the end of each operation. A single photon can generate an entangling controlled phase (C-PHASE) gate between any selected number of qubits in the network and forms the basis for universal quantum computing, distributed over multiple processor units. We analyze this network and we show that the gate fidelity is high, also when more qubits are involved, as requested, e.g., in an efficient Grover search. In our derivation we consider qubit transition energies in the optical regime, however, we stress that it can be readily generalized to other architectures where the nodes may be coupled, e.g., by microwave photons.
Randomness is the essence of many processes in nature and human society. It can provide important insights into phenomena as diverse as disease transmission, financial markets, and signal processing [1, 2]. Quantum randomness is intrinsically different from classical stochasticity since it is affected by interference and entanglement. This entanglement makes quantum walks promising candidates for the implementation of quantum computational algorithms [3-5] and as a detector of quantum behavior [6-8]. We present a discrete-time quantum walk that uses the momentum of ultra-cold rubidium atoms as the walk space and two internal atomic states as the "coin" degree of freedom. We demonstrate the principle features of a quantum walk, contrasting them to the behavior of a classical walk. By manipulating either the walk or coin operator we show how the walk dynamics can be biased or reversed. Our walk offers distinct advantages arising from the robustness of its dynamics in momentum space [9-11], and extendability to higher dimensions [12-14] and many-body regimes [5, 15-19].
We study the properties of the quasienergy states of a quantum system driven by a classical dynamical systems. The quasienergies are defined in a same manner as in light-matter interaction but where the Floquet approach is generalized by the use of the Koopman approach of dynamical systems. We show how the properties of the classical flow (fixed and cyclic points, ergodicity, chaos) influence the driven quantum system. This approach of the Schr\"odinger-Koopman quasienergies can be applied to quantum control, quantum information in presence of noises, and dynamics of mixed classical-quantum systems. We treat the example of a spin ensemble kicked following discrete classical flow as the Arnold's cat map and the Chirikov standard map.
We uncover a remarkable quantum scattering phenomenon in two-dimensional Dirac material systems where the manifestations of both classically integrable and chaotic dynamics emerge simultaneously and are electrically controllable. The distinct relativistic quantum fingerprints associated with different electron spin states are due to a physical mechanism analogous to chiroptical effect in the presence of degeneracy breaking. The phenomenon mimics a chimera state in classical complex dynamical systems but here in a relativistic quantum setting - henceforth the term "Dirac quantum chimera," associated with which are physical phenomena with potentially significant applications such as enhancement of spin polarization, unusual coexisting quasibound states for distinct spin configurations, and spin selective caustics. Experimental observations of these phenomena are possible through, e.g., optical realizations of ballistic Dirac fermion systems.
Projected entangled pair states aim at describing lattice systems in two spatial dimensions that obey an area law. They are specified by associating a tensor with each site, and they are generated by patching these tensors. We consider the problem of determining whether the state resulting from this patching is null, and prove it to be NP-hard; the PEPS used to prove this claim have a boundary and are homogeneous in their bulk. A variation of this problem is next shown to be undecidable. These results have various implications: they question the possibility of a 'fundamental theorem' for PEPS; there are PEPS for which the presence of a symmetry is undecidable; there exist parent hamiltonians of PEPS for which the existence of a gap above the ground state is undecidable. En passant, we identify a family of classical Hamiltonians, with nearest neighbour interactions, and translationally invariant in their bulk, for which the commuting 2-local Hamiltonian problem is NP-complete.
Magnetic monopole, a hypothetical elementary particle with isolated magnetic pole, is crucial for the quantization of electric charge. In recent years, analogues of magnetic monopoles, represented by topological defects in parameter spaces, have been studied in a wide range of physical systems. These works mainly focused on Abelian Dirac monopoles in spin-1/2 or non-Abelian Yang monopoles in spin-3/2 systems. Here we propose to realize three types of spin-1 topological monopoles and study their geometric properties using the parameter space formed by three hyperfine states of ultracold atoms coupled by radio-frequency fields. These spin-1 monopoles, characterized by different monopole charges, possess distinct Berry curvature fields and spin textures, which are directly measurable in experiments. The topological phase transitions between different monopoles are accompanied by the emergence of spin "vortex", and can be intuitively visualized using Majorana's stellar representation. We show how to determine the Berry curvature, hence the geometric phase and monopole charge from dynamical effects. Our scheme provides a simple and highly tunable platform for observing and manipulating spin-1 topological monopoles, paving the way for exploring new topological quantum matter.
The Harrow-Hassidim-Lloyd (HHL) quantum algorithm for sampling from the solution of a linear system provides an exponential speed-up over its classical counterpart. The problem of solving a system of linear equations has a wide scope of applications, and thus HHL constitutes an important algorithmic primitive. In these notes, we present the HHL algorithm and its improved versions in detail, including explanations of the constituent sub- routines. More specifically, we discuss various quantum subroutines such as quantum phase estimation and amplitude amplification, as well as the important question of loading data into a quantum computer, via quantum RAM. The improvements to the original algorithm exploit variable-time amplitude amplification as well as a method for implementing linear combinations of unitary operations (LCUs) based on a decomposition of the operators using Fourier and Chebyshev series. Finally, we discuss a linear solver based on the quantum singular value estimation (QSVE) subroutine.
Many areas of physics rely upon adiabatic state transfer protocols, allowing a quantum state to be moved between different physical systems for storage and retrieval or state manipulation. However, these state-transfer protocols suffer from dephasing and dissipation. In this thesis we go beyond the standard open-systems treatment of quantum dissipation allowing us to consider non-Markovian environments. We use adiabatic perturbation theory in order to give analytic descriptions for various quantum state-transfer protocols. The leading-order corrections will give rise to additional terms adding to the geometric phase preventing us from achieving a perfect fidelity. We obtain analytical descriptions for the effects of the geometric phase in non-Markovian regimes. The Markovian regime is usually treated by solving a standard Bloch-Redfield master equation, while in the non-Markovian regime, we perform a secular approximation allowing us to obtain a solution to the density matrix without solving master equations. This solution contains all the relevant phase information for our state-transfer protocol. After developing the general theoretical tools, we apply our methods to adiabatic state transfer between a four-level atom in a driven cavity. We explicitly consider dephasing effects due to unavoidable photon shot noise and give a protocol for performing a phase gate. These results will be useful to ongoing experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems.
We show that the $N$-particle Sutherland model with inverse-square and harmonic interactions exhibits orthogonality catastrophe. For a fixed value of the harmonic coupling, the overlap of the $N$-body ground state wave functions with two different values of the inverse-square interaction term goes to zero in the thermodynamic limit. When the two values of the inverse-square coupling differ by an infinitesimal amount, the wave function overlap shows an exponential suppression. This is qualitatively different from the usual power law suppression observed in the Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. We also obtain an analytic expression for the wave function overlaps for an arbitrary set of couplings, whose properties are analyzed numerically. The quasiparticles constituting the ground state wave functions of the Sutherland model are known to obey fractional exclusion statistics. Our analysis indicates that the orthogonality catastrophe may be valid in systems with more general kinds of statistics than just the fermionic type.
A double-slit experiment with entangled photons is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that, under suitable conditions, two entangled photons of wavelength $\lambda$ can behave like a \emph{biphoton} of wavelength $\lambda/2$. The interference of these biphotons, passing through a double-slit can be obtained by detecting both photons of the pair at the same position. This is in agreement with the results of an earlier experiment. More interestingly, we show that even if the two entangled photons are separated by a polarizing beam splitter, they can still behave like a biphoton of wavelength $\lambda/2$. In this modified setup, the two separated photons passing through two different double-slits, surprisingly show an interference corresponding to a wavelength $\lambda/2$, instead of $\lambda$ which is the wavelength of each photon. We point out two experiments that have been carried out in different contexts, which saw the effect predicted here without realizing this connection.
Entropic Dynamics is a framework in which dynamical laws such as those that arise in physics are derived as an application of entropic methods of inference. No underlying action principle is postulated. Instead, the dynamics is driven by entropy subject to constraints reflecting the information that is relevant to the problem at hand. In this work I review the derivation of quantum theory but the fact that Entropic Dynamics is based on inference methods that are of universal applicability suggests that it may be possible to adapt these methods to fields other than physics.
We prove spatial decay estimates on disorder-averaged position-momentum correlations in a gapless class of random oscillator models. First, we prove a decay estimate on dynamic correlations for general eigenstates with a bound that depends on the magnitude of the maximally excited mode. Then, we consider the situation of a quantum quench. We prove that the full time-evolution of an initially chosen (uncorrelated) product state has disorder-averaged correlations which decay exponentially in space, uniformly in time.
An extension of the input-output relation for a conventional Michelson interferometric gravitational-wave detector is carried out to treat an arbitrary coherent state for the injected optical beam. This extension is one of necessary researches toward the clarification of the relation between conventional gravitational-wave detectors and a simple model of a gravitational-wave detector inspired by weak-measurements in [A.~Nishizawa, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 92} (2015), 032123.]. The derived input-output relation describes not only a conventional Michelson-interferometric gravitational-wave detector but also the situation of weak measurements. As a result, we may say that a conventional Michelson gravitational-wave detector already includes the essence of the weak-value amplification as the reduction of the quantum noise from the light source through the measurement at the dark port.
The celebrated quantum no-cloning theorem establishes the impossibility of making a perfect copy of an unknown quantum state. The discovery of this important theorem for the field of quantum information is currently dated 1982. I show here that an article published in 1970 [J. L. Park, Foundations of Physics, 1, 23-33 (1970)] contained an explicit mathematical proof of the impossibility of cloning quantum states. I analyze Park's demonstration in the light of published explanations concerning the genesis of the better-known papers on no-cloning.
We derive the evolution equation for the density matrix of a UV- and IR- limited band of comoving momentum modes of the canonically normalized scalar degree of freedom in two examples of nearly de Sitter universes. Including the effects of a cubic interaction term from the gravitational action and tracing out a set of longer wavelength modes, we find that the evolution of the system is non-Hamiltonian and non-Markovian. We find linear dissipation terms for a few modes with wavelength near the boundary between system and bath and nonlinear dissipation terms for all modes. The non-Hamiltonian terms persist to late times when the scalar field dynamics is such that the curvature perturbation continues to evolve on super-Hubble scales.
Hereunder we continue the study of the representation theory of the algebra of permutation operators acting on the $n$-fold tensor product space, partially transposed on the last subsystem. We develop the concept of partially reduced irreducible representations, which allows to simplify significantly previously proved theorems and what is the most important derive new results for irreducible representations of the mentioned algebra. In our analysis we are able to reduce complexity of the central expressions by getting rid of sums over all permutations from symmetric group obtaining equations which are much more handy in practical applications. We also find relatively simple matrix representations for the generators of underlying algebra. Obtained simplifications and developments are applied to derive characteristic of the deterministic port-based teleportation scheme written purely in terms of irreducible representations of the studied algebra. We solve an eigenproblem for generators of algebra which is the first step towards to hybrid port-based teleportation scheme and gives us new proofs of asymptotic behaviour of teleportation fidelity. We also show connection between density operator characterising port-based teleportation and particular matrix composed of irreducible representation of the symmetric group which encodes properties of the investigated algebra.
Typical holographic states that have a well-defined geometric dual in AdS/CFT are not typical with respect to the Haar measure. As such, trying to apply principles and lessons from Haar-random ensembles of states to holographic states can lead to apparent puzzles and contradictions. We point out a handful of these pitfalls.
Magic states are eigenstates of non-Pauli operators. One way of suppressing errors present in magic states is to perform parity measurements in their non-Pauli eigenbasis and postselect on even parity. Here we develop new protocols based on non-Pauli parity checking, where the measurements are implemented with the aid of pre-distilled multiqubit resource states. This leads to a two step process: pre-distillation of multiqubit resource states, followed by implementation of the parity check. These protocols can prepare single-qubit magic states that enable direct injection of single-qubit axial rotations without subsequent gate-synthesis and its associated overhead. We show our protocols are more efficient than all previous comparable protocols with quadratic error reduction, including the protocols of Bravyi and Haah.
The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wavevector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The $x$-component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wavevector, while the $z$-component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wavevector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.
Deriving accurate energy density functional is one of the central problems in condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, and quantum chemistry. We propose a novel method to deduce the energy density functional by combining the idea of the functional renormalization group and the Kohn-Sham scheme in density functional theory. The key idea is to solve the renormalization group flow for the effective action decomposed into the mean-field part and the correlation part. Also, we propose a simple practical method to quantify the uncertainty associated with the truncation of the correlation part. By taking the $\varphi^4$ theory in zero dimension as a benchmark, we demonstrate that our method shows extremely fast convergence to the exact result even for the highly strong coupling regime.
Investigating the geometric effects resulting from the detailed behaviors of the confining potential, we consider square and circular confinements to constrain a particle to a space curve. We find a torsion-induced geometric potential and a curvature-induced geometric momentum just in the square case, while a geometric gauge potential solely in the circular case. In the presence of electromagnetic field, a geometrically induced magnetic moment couples with magnetic field as an induced Zeeman coupling only for the circular confinement. As spin-orbit interaction is considered, we find some novel additional terms for the spin-orbit coupling, which are induced not only by torsion, but also by curvature. Moreover, in the circular case, the spin also couples with an intrinsic angular momentum, which describes the azimuthal motions mapped on the space curve. As an important conclusion for the thin-layer quantization approach, some substantial geometric effects result from the confinement boundaries. Finally, these results are proved in a helical wire.
Quantum benchmarks are routinely used to validate the experimental demonstration of quantum information protocols. Many relevant protocols, however, involve an infinite set of input states, of which only a finite subset can be used to test the quality of the implementation. This is a problem, because the benchmark for the finitely many states used in the test can be higher than the original benchmark calculated for infinitely many states. This situation arises in the teleportation and storage of coherent states, for which the benchmark of 50% fidelity is commonly used in experiments, although finite sets of coherent states normally lead to higher benchmarks. Here we show that the average fidelity over all coherent states can be indirectly probed with a single setup, requiring only two-mode squeezing, a 50-50 beamsplitter, and homodyne detection. Our setup enables a rigorous experimental validation of quantum teleportation, storage, amplification, attenuation, and purification of noisy coherent states. More generally, we prove that every quantum benchmark can be tested by preparing a single entangled state and measuring a single observable.
There is a common understanding in quantum optics that nonclassical states of light are states that do not have a positive semidefinite and sufficiently regular Glauber-Sudarshan $P$ function. Almost all known nonclassical states have $P$ functions that are highly irregular which makes working with them difficult and direct experimental reconstruction impossible. Here we introduce classes of nonclassical states with regular, non-positive-definite $P$ functions. They are constructed by "puncturing" regular smooth positive $P$ functions with negative Dirac-delta peaks, or other sufficiently narrow smooth negative functions. We determine the parameter ranges for which such punctures are possible without losing the positivity of the state, as well as the regimes yielding antibunching of light. Finally, we propose some possible experimental realizations of such states.
We explore the quench dynamics of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate crossing the miscibility-immiscibility threshold and vice versa, both within and in particular beyond the mean-field approximation. Increasing the interspecies repulsion leads to the filamentation of the density of each component, involving shorter wavenumbers and longer spatial scales in the many-body approach. These filaments appear to be strongly correlated and exhibit domain-wall structures. Following the reverse quench process multiple dark-antidark solitary waves are spontaneously generated and subsequently found to decay in the many-body scenario. We simulate single-shot images to connect our findings to possible experimental realizations. Finally, the growth rate of the variance of a sample of single-shots probes the degree of entanglement inherent in the system.
Ground states of quadratic Hamiltonians for fermionic systems can be characterized in terms of orthogonal complex structures. The standard way in which such Hamiltonians are diagonalized makes use of a certain "doubling" of the Hilbert space. In this work we show that this redundancy in the Hilbert space can be completely lifted if the relevant orthogonal structure is taken into account. Such an approach allows for a treatment of Majorana fermions which is both physically and mathematically transparent. Furthermore, an explicit connection between orthogonal complex structures and the topological $\mathbb Z_2$-invariant is given.
The evolution of single particle excitations of bilayer graphene under effects of non-Markovian noise is described with focus on the decoherence process of lattice-layer (LL) maximally entangled states. Once that the noiseless dynamics of an arbitrary initial state is identified by the correspondence between the tight-binding Hamiltonian for the AB-stacked bilayer graphene and the Dirac equation -- which includes pseudovector- and tensor-like field interactions -- the noisy environment is described as random fluctuations on bias voltage and mass terms. The inclusion of noisy dynamics reproduces the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes: a non-Markovian noise model with a well-defined Markovian limit. Considering that an initial amount of entanglement shall be dissipated by the noise, two profiles of dissipation are identified. On one hand, for eigenstates of the noiseless Hamiltonian, deaths and revivals of entanglement are identified along the oscillation pattern for long interaction periods. On the other hand, for departing LL Werner and Cat states, the entanglement is suppressed although, for both cases, some identified memory effects compete with the pure noise-induced decoherence in order to preserve the the overall profile of a given initial state.
The effects of Lorentz boosts on the quantum entanglement encoded by a pair of massive spin one-half particles are described according to the Lorentz covariant structure described by Dirac bispinors. The quantum system considered incorporates four degrees of freedom -- two of them related to the bispinor intrinsic parity and other two related to the bispinor spin projection, i.e. the Dirac particle helicity. Because of the natural multipartite structure involved, the Meyer-Wallach global measure of entanglement is preliminarily used for computing global quantum correlations, while the entanglement separately encoded by spin degrees of freedom is measured through the negativity of the reduced two-particle spin-spin state. A general framework to compute the changes on quantum entanglement induced by a boost is developed, and then specialized to describe three particular anti-symmetric two-particle states. According to the obtained results, two-particle spin-spin entanglement cannot be created by the action of a Lorentz boost in a spin-spin separable anti-symmetric state. On the other hand, the maximal spin-spin entanglement encoded by anti-symmetric superpositions is degraded by Lorentz boosts driven by high-speed frame transformations. Finally, the effects of boosts on chiral states are shown to exhibit interesting invariance properties, which can only be obtained through such a Lorentz covariant formulation of the problem.
Beams of light with a large topological charge significantly change their spatial structure when they are focussed strongly. Physically, it can be explained by an emerging electromagnetic field component in the direction of propagation, which is neglected in the simplified scalar wave picture in optics. Here we ask: Is this a specific photonic behavior, or can similar phenomena also be predicted for other species of particles? We show that the exact same phenomenon also exists for relativistic electrons as well as for focused gravitational waves, but for different physical reasons. For electrons, which are described by the Dirac equation, the additional intensity arises from a Spin-Orbit coupling in the relativistic regime. In gravitational waves described with linearized general relativity, the curvature of space-time between the transverse and propagation direction leads to the additional intensity contribution. Thus, this universal phenomenon exists for both massive and massless elementary particles with Spin 1/2, 1 and 2. It would be very interesting whether other types of particles such as composite systems (neutrons or C$_{60}$) or neutrinos show a similar behaviour and how this phenomenon can be explained in a unified physical way.
We investigate the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) corrections to the entropy content and the information flux of black holes, as well as the corrections to the sparsity of the Hawking radiation at the late stages of evaporation. We find that due to these quantum gravity motivated corrections, the entropy flow per particle reduces its value on the approach to the Planck scale due to a better accuracy in counting the number of microstates. We also show that the radiation flow is no longer sparse when the mass of a black hole approaches Planck mass which is not the case for non-GUP calculations.
We measure the electron coherence properties of donors in ZnO. Using all-optical spin control, we find a longitudinal relaxation time $T_1$ exceeding 100 ms, an inhomogeneous dephasing time $T_2^*$ of $17\pm2$ ns, and a Hahn spin-echo time $T_2$ of $50\pm13~\mu$s. The magnitude of $T_2^*$ is consistent with the inhomogeneity of the nuclear hyperfine field in natural ZnO. Possible mechanisms limiting $T_2$ include instantaneous diffusion and nuclear spin diffusion (spectral diffusion). These results are comparable to the phosphorous donor system in natural silicon, suggesting that with isotope and chemical purification long qubit coherence times can be obtained for donor spins in a direct band gap semiconductor.
In this paper, we shall derive a new conserved current for Klein-Gordon equation. The first component of this current is non-negative and reduces to $|\phi|^2$ in the non-relativistic limit. Therefore, it can be interpreted as a suitable probability density for spinless particles. In addition, this current is time-like and so prevents faster than light particle propagation. We will see the probability density has a considerable deviation from $|\phi|^2$ providing the uncertainty in momentum is much greater than $m_0c$.