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Quantum Physics (quant-ph) updates on the e-print archive

Published: 2017-09-20T20:30:00-05:00


Gate error analysis in simulations of quantum computers with transmon qubits. (arXiv:1709.06600v1 [quant-ph])

In the model of gate-based quantum computation, the qubits are controlled by a sequence of quantum gates. In superconducting qubit systems, these gates can be implemented by voltage pulses. The success of implementing a particular gate can be expressed by various metrics such as the average gate fidelity, the diamond distance, and the unitarity. We analyze these metrics of gate pulses for a system of two superconducting transmon qubits coupled by a resonator, a system inspired by the architecture of the IBM Quantum Experience. The metrics are obtained by numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation of the transmon system. We find that the metrics reflect systematic errors that are most pronounced for echoed cross-resonance gates, but that none of the studied metrics can reliably predict the performance of a gate when used repeatedly in a quantum algorithm.

The bilinear-biquadratic model on the complete graph. (arXiv:1709.06602v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

We study the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic model on the complete graph of N sites, i.e., when each spin is interacting with every other spin with the same strength. Because of its complete permutation invariance, this Hamiltonian can be rewritten as the linear combination of the quadratic Casimir operators of su(3) and su(2). Using group representation theory, we explicitly diagonalize the Hamiltonian and map out the ground-state phase diagram of the model. Furthermore, the complete energy spectrum, with degeneracies, is obtained analytically for any number of sites.

Permutational symmetries for coincidence rates in multi-mode multi-photonic interferometry. (arXiv:1709.06615v1 [quant-ph])

We obtain coincidence rates for passive optical interferometry by exploiting the permutational symmetries of partially distinguishable input photons, and our approach elucidates qualitative features of multi-photon coincidence landscapes. We treat the interferometer input as a product state of any number of photons in each input mode with photons distinguished by their arrival time. Detectors at the output of the interferometer count photons from each output mode over a long integration time. We show that coincidence rates can be elegantly expressed in terms of immanants. Immanants are functions of matrices that exhibit permutational symmetries and the immanants appearing in our coincidence-rate expressions share permutational symmetries with the input state. Our results are obtained by employing representation theory of the symmetric group to analyze systems of arbitrary number of photons in arbitrarily sized interferometers.

Different interpretations of quantum mechanics make different predictions in non-linear quantum mechanics, and some do not violate the no-signaling condition. (arXiv:1709.06639v1 [quant-ph])

Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, testing the limits of standard quantum mechanics, and reconciling it with gravity. Two results substantially undermined the credibility of non-linear theories. Some have been experimentally refuted, and more importantly, all deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. However, these results are unconvincing because they overlook the fact that the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the interpretation of quantum mechanics that one uses. For instance, although the Everett and Copenhagen interpretations agree on the expression of Born's rule for the outcomes of multiple measurements in linear quantum mechanics, they disagree in non-linear quantum mechanics. We present the range of expressions of Born's rule that can be obtained by applying different formulations of quantum mechanics to a class of non-linear quantum theories. We then determine that many do not allow for superluminal communication but only two seem to have a reasonable justification. The first is the Everett interpretation, and the second, which we name causal-conditional, states that a measurement broadcasts its outcome to degrees of freedom in its future light-cone, who update the wavefunction that their non-linear Hamiltonian depends on according to this new information.

Halving the cost of quantum addition. (arXiv:1709.06648v1 [quant-ph])

We improve the number of T gates needed to perform an n-bit adder from 8n + O(1) to 4n + O(1). We do so via a "temporary logical-AND" construction, which uses four T gates to store the logical-AND of two qubits into an ancilla and zero T gates to later erase the ancilla. Temporary logical-ANDs are a generally useful tool when optimizing T-counts. They can be applied to integer arithmetic, modular arithmetic, rotation synthesis, the quantum Fourier transform, Shor's algorithm, Grover oracles, and many other circuits. Because T gates dominate the cost of quantum computation based on the surface code, and temporary logical-ANDs are widely applicable, our constructions represent a significant reduction in projected costs of quantum computation. We also present an n-bit controlled adder circuit with T-count of 8n + O(1), a temporary adder that can be computed for the same cost as the normal adder but whose result can be kept until it is later uncomputed without using T gates, and discuss some other constructions whose T-count is improved by the temporary logical-AND.

Low loss QKD optical scheme for fast polarization encoding. (arXiv:1709.06655v1 [quant-ph])

We present a new optical scheme for BB84 protocol quantum key distribution (QKD). The proposed setup consists of a compact all-fiber polarization encoding optical scheme based on LiNbO3 phase modulators, single laser source and two single-photon detectors. Optical scheme consists of standard telecommunication components and is suitable for both fiber and free-space quantum communication channels. Low losses (~2dB) in Bob's device increase both the key generation rate and distance limit. A new technique for solving polarization mode dispersion (PMD) issue in LiNbO3 is implemented, allowing two crystals to neutralize the effect of each other. Several proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted at 10 MHz repetition frequency over 50 km of standard optical fiber under laboratory conditions and over 30 km of urban fiber with high losses (13dB), which is a link within a QKD network. To achieve this, calibration algorithms have been developed, allowing the system to work autonomously and making it promising for practical applications.

A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits. (arXiv:1709.06678v1 [quant-ph])

Fundamental questions in chemistry and physics may never be answered due to the exponential complexity of the underlying quantum phenomena. A desire to overcome this challenge has sparked a new industry of quantum technologies with the promise that engineered quantum systems can address these hard problems. A key step towards demonstrating such a system will be performing a computation beyond the capabilities of any classical computer, achieving so-called quantum supremacy. Here, using 9 superconducting qubits, we demonstrate an immediate path towards quantum supremacy. By individually tuning the qubit parameters, we are able to generate thousands of unique Hamiltonian evolutions and probe the output probabilities. The measured probabilities obey a universal distribution, consistent with uniformly sampling the full Hilbert-space. As the number of qubits in the algorithm is varied, the system continues to explore the exponentially growing number of states. Combining these large datasets with techniques from machine learning allows us to construct a model which accurately predicts the measured probabilities. We demonstrate an application of these algorithms by systematically increasing the disorder and observing a transition from delocalized states to localized states. By extending these results to a system of 50 qubits, we hope to address scientific questions that are beyond the capabilities of any classical computer.

Enhancement of the quadrupole interaction of an atom with guided light of an ultrathin optical fiber. (arXiv:1709.06700v1 [physics.optics])

We investigate the electric quadrupole interaction of an alkali-metal atom with guided light in the fundamental and higher-order modes of a vacuum-clad ultrathin optical fiber. We calculate the quadrupole Rabi frequency, the quadrupole oscillator strength, and their enhancement factors. In the example of a rubidium-87 atom, we study the dependencies of the quadrupole Rabi frequency on the quantum numbers of the transition, the mode type, the phase circulation direction, the propagation direction, the orientation of the quantization axis, the position of the atom, and the fiber radius. We find that the root-mean-square (rms) quadrupole Rabi frequency reduces quickly but the quadrupole oscillator strength varies slowly with increasing radial distance. We show that the enhancement factors of the rms Rabi frequency and the oscillator strength do not depend on any characteristics of the internal atomic states except for the atomic transition frequency. The enhancement factor of the oscillator strength can be significant even when the atom is far away from the fiber. We show that, in the case where the atom is positioned on the fiber surface, the oscillator strength for the quasicircularly polarized fundamental mode HE$_{11}$ has a local minimum at the fiber radius $a\simeq 107$ nm, and is larger than that for quasicircularly polarized higher-order hybrid modes, TE modes, and TM modes in the region $a<498.2$ nm.

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: its geometric quantification and witness. (arXiv:1709.06703v1 [quant-ph])

We propose a measure of quantum steerability, namely a convex steering monotone, based on the trace distance between a given assemblage and its corresponding closest assemblage admitting a local-hidden-state (LHS) model. We provide methods to estimate such a quantity, via lower and upper bounds, based on semidefinite programming. For a qubit-qubit quantum state, the above ideas also allow us to visualize various steerability properties of the state in the Bloch sphere via a surface called an LHS surface. In particular, some steerability properties can be obtained by comparing such an LHS surface with a corresponding quantum steering ellipsoid.

Classical states, quantum field measurement. (arXiv:1709.06711v1 [quant-ph])

Manifestly Lorentz covariant representations of the algebras of the quantized electromagnetic field and of the observables of the quantized Dirac spinor field are constructed that act on Hilbert spaces that are generated using classical random fields acting on a vacuum state, allowing a comparatively classical interpretation of the states of the theory.

Two Resonant Quantum Electrodynamics Models of Quantum Measuring Systems. (arXiv:1709.06719v1 [quant-ph])

The quantum measurement scheme is suggested in two resonant models of quantum electrodynamics. The first model is the brain, where, for the propagation of its action potentials, the free electron laser-like coherence mechanism recently investigated by the author is applied. The second model is assembly of the Preparata coherence domains, in which we incorporate the quantum field theory of memory advocated by Umezawa et al. These two models are remarkably analogous.

Experimental unconditionally secure covert communication in dense wavelength-division multiplexing networks. (arXiv:1709.06755v1 [quant-ph])

Covert communication offers a method to transmit messages in such a way that it is not possible to detect that the communication is happening at all. In this work, we report an experimental demonstration of covert communication that is provably secure against unbounded quantum adversaries. The covert communication is carried out over 10 km of optical fiber, addressing the challenges associated with transmission over metropolitan distances. We deploy the protocol in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing infrastructure, where our system has to coexist with a co-propagating C-band classical channel. The noise from the classical channel allows us to perform covert communication in a neighbouring channel. We perform an optimization of all protocol parameters and report the transmission of three different messages with varying levels of security. Our results showcase the feasibility of secure covert communication in a practical setting, with several possible future improvements from both theory and experiment.

The Poincar\'e half-plane for informationally complete POVMs. (arXiv:1709.06768v1 [quant-ph])

It has been shown that classes of (minimal asymmetric) informationally complete POVMs in dimension d can be built using the multiparticle Pauli group acting on appropriate fiducial states [M. Planat and Z. Gedik, R. Soc. open sci. 4, 170387 (2017)]. The latter states may also be derived starting from the Poincar\'e upper half-plane model H. For doing this, one translates the congruence (or non-congruence) subgroups of index d of the modular group into groups of permutation gates whose some of the eigenstates are the seeked fiducials. The structure of some IC-POVMs is found to be intimately related to the Kochen-Specker theorem.

Entanglement of two two-levels atoms mediated by an optical black hole. (arXiv:1709.06778v1 [quant-ph])

We consider the dynamics of a system consisting of two two-level atoms interacting with the electromagnetic field near an optical black hole. We obtain the reduced density operator of the two-atom system in the weak coupling regime for the case that one atom is in the excited state and the other in the ground state. The time evolution of the negativity between the atoms is discussed for two non-resonance and resonance cases. In both cases, we show that the two atoms can become entangled due to the indirect interaction mediated through the optical black hole.

High speed self-testing quantum random number generation without detection loophole. (arXiv:1709.06779v1 [quant-ph])

Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.

Rovibrational optical cooling of a molecular beam. (arXiv:1709.06797v1 [physics.atom-ph])

Cooling the rotation and the vibration of molecules by broadband light sources was possible for trapped molecular ions or ultracold molecules. Because of a low power spectral density, the cooling timescale has never fell below than a few milliseconds. Here we report on rotational and vibrational cooling of a supersonic beam of barium monofluoride molecules in less than 440 $\mu$s. Vibrational cooling was optimized by enhancing the spectral power density of a semiconductor light source at the underlying molecular transitions allowing us to transfer all the populations of $v''=1-3$ into the vibrational ground state ($v''=0$). Rotational cooling, that requires an efficient vibrational pumping, was then achieved. According to a Boltzmann fit, the rotation temperature was reduced by almost a factor of 10. In this fashion, the population of the lowest rotational levels increased by more than one order of magnitude.

Lyapunov Based Analysis of Continuously Observed Quantum Systems. (arXiv:1709.06801v1 [quant-ph])

This paper presents a Lyapunov based controller to stabilize and manipulate an observed quantum system. The proposed control is applied to the stochastic Schrodinger equation. In order to ensure the stability of the system at the desired final state, the conventional Ito formula is further extended to the un-differentiable random processes. Using this extended Ito formula, a novel stochastic stability theorem is developed. Continued by another convergence theorem, which ensured the convergence of the state trajectory to the desired final state, a complete Lyapunov based controller design scheme is developed for the observed open quantum systems.

Vertices cannot be hidden from quantum spatial search for almost all random graphs. (arXiv:1709.06829v1 [quant-ph])

In this paper we show that all nodes can be found optimally for almost all random Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi ${\mathcal G}(n,p)$ graphs using continuous-time quantum spatial search procedure. This works for both adjacency and Laplacian matrices, though under different conditions. The first one requires $p=\omega(\log^8(n)/n)$, while the seconds requires $p\geq(1+\varepsilon)\log (n)/n$, where $\varepsilon>0$. The proof was made by analyzing the convergence of eigenvectors corresponding to outlying eigenvalues in the $\|\cdot\|_\infty $ norm. At the same time for $p<(1-\varepsilon)\log(n)/n$, the property does not hold for any matrix, due to the connectivity issues. Hence, our derivation concerning Laplacian matrix is tight.

Towards a better understanding of the matrix product function approximation algorithm in application to quantum physics. (arXiv:1709.06847v1 [cs.NA])

We recently introduced a method to approximate functions of Hermitian Matrix Product Operators or Tensor Trains that are of the form $\mathsf{Tr} f(A)$. Functions of this type occur in several applications, most notably in quantum physics. In this work we aim at extending the theoretical understanding of our method by showing several properties of our algorithm that can be used to detect and correct errors in its results. Most importantly, we show that there exists a more computationally efficient version of our algorithm for certain inputs. To illustrate the usefulness of our finding, we prove that several classes of spin Hamiltonians in quantum physics fall into this input category. We finally support our findings with numerical results obtained for an example from quantum physics.

On relativistic harmonic oscillator. (arXiv:1709.06865v1 [physics.gen-ph])

A relativistic quantum harmonic oscillator in 3+1 dimensions is derived from a quaternionic non-relativistic quantum harmonic oscillator. This quaternionic equation also yields the Klein-Gordon wave equation with a covariant (space-time dependent) mass. This mass is quantized and is given by $m_{*n}^2=m_\omega^2\left(n_r^2-1-\beta\,\left(n+1\right)\right)\,,$ where $m_\omega=\frac{\hbar\omega}{c^2}\,,$ $\beta=\frac{2mc^2}{\hbar\,\omega}\, $, $n$, is the oscillator index, and $n_r$ is the refractive index in which the oscillator travels. The harmonic oscillator in 3+1 dimensions is found to have a total energy of $E_{*n}=(n+1)\,\hbar\,\omega$, where $\omega$ is the oscillator frequency. A Lorentz invariant solution for the oscillator is also obtained. The time coordinate is found to contribute a term $-\frac{1}{2}\,\hbar\,\omega$ to the total energy. The squared interval of a massive oscillator (wave) depends on the medium in which it travels. Massless oscillators have null light cone. The interval of a quantum oscillator is found to be determined by the equation, $c^2t^2-r^2=\lambda^2_c(1-n_r^2)$, where $\lambda_c$ is the Compton wavelength. The space-time inside a medium appears to be curved for a massive wave (field) propagating in it.

A tight security reduction in the quantum random oracle model for code-based signature schemes. (arXiv:1709.06870v1 [quant-ph])

Quantum secure signature schemes have a lot of attention recently, in particular because of the NIST call to standardize quantum safe cryptography. However, only few signature schemes can have concrete quantum security because of technical difficulties associated with the Quantum Random Oracle Model (QROM). In this paper, we show that code-based signature schemes based on the full domain hash paradigm can behave very well in the QROM i.e. that we can have tight security reductions. We also study quantum algorithms related to the underlying code-based assumption. Finally, we apply our reduction to a concrete example: the SURF signature scheme. We provide parameters for 128 bits of quantum security in the QROM and show that the obtained parameters are competitive compared to other similar quantum secure signature schemes.

Uncertainty relations in implementation of unitary control. (arXiv:1709.06920v1 [quant-ph])

We study the underlying mechanism in the implementation of unitary control on a system with an experimental apparatus. We regard the unitary time-evolution in the system as a physical phenomenon that results from the interaction between the system and the apparatus. We model this situation using the setup of the system and an external system that represents the apparatus. We consider the conditions required to approximate the dynamics of the reduced density matrix of the system by the desired unitary time-evolution. Then, we derive fundamental trade-off relations to implement the unitary dynamics. The results show that achieving perfect unitary control in the system and eliminating the quantum fluctuation of energy in the external system are incompatible.

Energy Transfer Controlled by Dynamical Stark Shift in Two-level Dissipative Systems. (arXiv:1709.06936v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

A strong electromagnetic field interacting with an electron system generates both the Rabi oscillations and the Stark splitting of the electron density. Changing of the electron density gives rise to nonadiabatic effects due to existence of the electron-vibrational interaction in a dissipative system. In this Letter, the mechanism of energy transfer between the electron system and the phonon reservoir is presented. This mechanism is based on establishment of the coupling between the electron states dressed by the electromagnetic field and the forced vibrations of reservoir oscillators under the action of rapid changing of the electron density with the Rabi frequency. The photoinduced vibronic coupling results in appearance of the states that are doubly dressed by interaction, first time due to the electron-photon interaction, and second time due to the electron-vibrational interaction. Moreover, this coupling opens the way to control energy which can be transferred to (heating) or removed from (cooling) the phonon reservoir depending on the parameters of the electromagnetic pulse.

Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits. (arXiv:1709.06952v1 [quant-ph])

Quantum bits based on individual trapped atomic ions constitute a promising technology for building a quantum computer, with all the elementary operations having been achieved with the necessary precision. However, the essential two-qubit logic gate used for generating quantum entanglement has hitherto always been performed in an adiabatic regime, where the gate is slow compared with the characteristic motional frequencies of ions in the trap, giving logic speeds of order 10kHz. There have been numerous proposals for performing gates faster than this natural "speed limit" of the trap. We implement the method of Steane et al., which uses tailored laser pulses: these are shaped on 10ns timescales to drive the ions' motion along trajectories designed such that the gate operation is insensitive to the initial phase of the optical field. This permits fast (MHz-rate) quantum logic which is robust to this important source of experimental error. We demonstrate entanglement generation for gate times as short as 480ns; this is less than a single oscillation period of an ion in the trap, and 8 orders of magnitude shorter than the memory coherence time measured in similar calcium-43 hyperfine qubits. The method's power is most evident at intermediate timescales, where it yields more than an order of magnitude reduction in gate error compared with conventional techniques; for example, we achieve a 1.6$\mu$s gate with fidelity 99.8%. Still faster gates are possible at the price of higher laser intensity. The method requires only a single amplitude-shaped pulse and one pair of beams derived from a cw laser, and offers the prospect of combining the unrivalled coherence properties, optical connectivity and operation fidelities of trapped-ion qubits with the sub-microsecond logic speeds usually associated with solid state devices.

Polarisation properties of a linear dipole deposited on a nano-waveguide and coupled to spin-momentum locked light. (arXiv:1709.06959v1 [quant-ph])

We have experimentally demonstrated that a linear dipole is not restricted to emit linearly polarised light, provided it is embedded in the appropriate nanophotonic environment. We observed emission of various elliptical polarisations by a linear dipole including circularly polarised light, without the need for birefringent components. We further showed that the emitted state of polarisation can theoretically span the entire Poincar\'e sphere. The experimental demonstration is based on elongated gold nanoparticles (nanorods) deposited on an optical nanofibre and excited by a free-space laser beam. The light directly collected in the guided mode of the nanofibre is analysed in regard to the azimuthal position and orientation of the nanorods, observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. This work constitutes the first demonstration of the mapping between the geometrical degrees of freedom of a light source and all polarisation states and could open the way to new methods for polarisation control of light sources at the nanoscale.

Verification of quantum computation: An overview of existing approaches. (arXiv:1709.06984v1 [quant-ph])

Quantum computers promise to efficiently solve not only problems believed to be intractable for classical computers, but also problems for which verifying the solution is also considered intractable. This raises the question of how one can check whether quantum computers are indeed producing correct results. This task, known as quantum verification, has been highlighted as a significant challenge on the road to scalable quantum computing technology. We review the most significant approaches to quantum verification and compare them in terms of structure, complexity and required resources. We also comment on the use of cryptographic techniques which, for many of the presented protocols, has proven extremely useful in performing verification. Finally, we discuss issues related to fault tolerance, experimental implementations and the outlook for future protocols.

Bound States in the Continuum in Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Systems. (arXiv:1709.06987v1 [nlin.PS])

We show that the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting in atomic systems can lead to the existence of bound states in the continuum (BICs) supported by trapping potentials. Such states have energies falling well within the continuum spectrum, but nevertheless they are localized and fully radiationless. We report the existence of BICs, in some cases in exact analytical form, in systems with tunable spin-orbit coupling and show that the phenomenon is physically robust. We also found that BIC states may be excited in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, where under suitable conditions they may be metastable with remarkably long lifetimes.

High-rate quantum conferencing and secret sharing. (arXiv:1709.06988v1 [quant-ph])

We introduce a measurement-device independent star network which is conveniently based on continuous variable systems and standard linear optics. Here an arbitrary number of users send modulated coherent states to an untrusted relay where a generalized Bell detection creates multi-partite secret correlations. These correlations are then distilled into a shared secret key to implement a completely-secure quantum conference or, alternatively, a protocol of quantum secret-sharing. Our scheme is composably secure and able to achieve high rates with cheap optical implementation.

The Tensor Network Theory. (arXiv:1610.02244v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

In this technical paper we introduce the Tensor Network Theory (TNT) library -- an open-source software project aimed at providing a platform for rapidly developing robust, easy to use and highly optimised code for TNT calculations. The objectives of this paper are (i) to give an overview of the structure of TNT library, and (ii) to help scientists decide whether to use the TNT library in their research. We show how to employ the TNT routines by giving examples of ground-state and dynamical calculations of one-dimensional bosonic lattice systems. We also discuss different options for gaining access to the software available at this http URL

Entanglement spectra of superconductivity ground states on the honeycomb lattice. (arXiv:1611.01039v3 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

We analytically evaluate the entanglement spectra of the superconductivity states in graphene, primarily focusing on the s-wave and chiral $ d_{x^{2}-y^{2}}+id_{xy} $ superconductivity states. We demonstrate that the topology of the entanglement Hamiltonian can differ from that of the subsystem Hamiltonian. In particular, the topological properties of the entanglement Hamiltonian of the chiral $ d_{x^{2}-y^{2}}+id_{xy} $ superconductivity state obtained by tracing out one spin direction clearly differ from those of the time-reversal invariant Hamiltonian of noninteracting fermions on the honeycomb lattice.

Tensor network simulation of QED on infinite lattices: learning from (1+1)d, and prospects for (2+1)d. (arXiv:1704.03015v3 [hep-lat] UPDATED)

The simulation of lattice gauge theories with tensor network (TN) methods is becoming increasingly fruitful. The vision is that such methods will, eventually, be used to simulate theories in $(3+1)$ dimensions in regimes difficult for other methods. So far, however, TN methods have mostly simulated lattice gauge theories in $(1+1)$ dimensions. The aim of this paper is to explore the simulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) on infinite lattices with TNs, i.e., fermionic matter fields coupled to a $U(1)$ gauge field, directly in the thermodynamic limit. With this idea in mind we first consider a gauge-invariant iDMRG simulation of the Schwinger model -i.e., QED in $(1+1)d$-. After giving a precise description of the numerical method, we benchmark our simulations by computing the substracted chiral condensate in the continuum, in good agreement with other approaches. Our simulations of the Schwinger model allow us to build intuition about how a simulation should proceed in $(2+1)$ dimensions. Based on this, we propose a variational ansatz using infinite Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) to describe the ground state of $(2+1)d$ QED. The ansatz includes $U(1)$ gauge symmetry at the level of the tensors, as well as fermionic (matter) and bosonic (gauge) degrees of freedom both at the physical and virtual levels. We argue that all the necessary ingredients for the simulation of $(2+1)d$ QED are, a priori, already in place, paving the way for future upcoming results.

Graph-associated entanglement cost of a multipartite state in exact and finite-block-length approximate constructions. (arXiv:1705.00006v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

We introduce and analyze graph-associated entanglement cost, a generalization of the entanglement cost of quantum states to multipartite settings. We identify a necessary and sufficient condition for any multipartite entangled state to be constructible when quantum communication between the multiple parties is restricted to a quantum network represented by a tree. The condition for exact state construction is expressed in terms of the Schmidt ranks of the state defined with respect to edges of the tree. We also study approximate state construction and provide a second-order asymptotic analysis.

Experimental demonstration of practical unforgeable quantum money. (arXiv:1705.01428v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Wiesner's unforgeable quantum money scheme is widely celebrated as the first quantum information application. Based on the no-cloning property of quantum mechanics, this scheme allows for the creation of credit cards used in authenticated transactions offering security guarantees impossible to achieve by classical means. However, despite its central role in quantum cryptography, its experimental implementation has remained elusive because of the lack of quantum memories and of practical verification techniques. Here, we experimentally implement a quantum money protocol relying on classical verification that rigorously satises the security condition for unforgeability. Our system exploits polarization encoding of weak coherent states of light and operates under conditions that ensure compatibility with state-of-the-art quantum memories. We derive working regimes for our system using a security analysis taking into account all practical imperfections. Our results constitute a major step towards a real-world realization of this milestone protocol.

Invariant-based inverse engineering of crane control parameters. (arXiv:1705.06883v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

By applying invariant-based inverse engineering in the small-oscillations regime, we design the time dependence of the control parameters of an overhead crane (trolley displacement and rope length), to transport a load between two positions at different heights with minimal final energy excitation for a microcanonical ensemble of initial conditions. The analogies between ion transport in multisegmented traps or neutral atom transport in moving optical lattices and load manipulation by cranes opens a route for a useful transfer of techniques among very different fields.

Superposition of Macroscopically Distinct States in Adiabatic Quantum Computation. (arXiv:1705.08117v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

What are the conditions for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) to outperform classical computation? Although there exist several quantum adiabatic algorithms achieving the strong quantum speedup, the essential keys to their speedups are still unclear. Here, we investigate the connection between superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and known examples of the speedup in AQC. To formalize this notion we consider an index $p$ that quantifies a superposition of macroscopically distinct states from the asymptotic behaviors of fluctuations of additive observables. We determine this index for five examples of adiabatic algorithms exhibiting various degrees of the speedup. The results suggest that the superposition of macroscopically distinct states is an appropriate indicator of entanglement crucial to the strong quantum speedup in AQC.

Resonant Transmission in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics with Two Independent Point Interactions: Full Parameter Analysis. (arXiv:1706.01595v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

We discuss the scattering of a quantum particle by two independent successive point interactions in one dimension. The parameter space for two point interactions is given by $U(2)\times U(2)$, which is described by eight real parameters. We perform an analysis of perfect resonant transmission on the whole parameter space. By investigating the effects of the two point interactions on the scattering matrix of plane wave, we find the condition under which perfect resonant transmission occurs. We also provide the physical interpretation of the resonance condition.

Finite-resource teleportation stretching for continuous-variable systems. (arXiv:1706.06065v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

We show how adaptive protocols of quantum and private communication through bosonic Gaussian channels can be simplified into much easier block versions that involve resource states with finite energy. This is achieved by combining the adaptive-to-block reduction technique devised in [Pirandola et al., arXiv:1510.08863], based on teleportation stretching and relative entropy of entanglement, with the simulation of Gaussian channels introduced by [Liuzzo-Scorpo et al., arXiv:1705.03017]. In this way, we derive weak converse upper bounds for the secret-key capacity of phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which closely approximate the optimal limit for infinite energy. Our results apply to both point-to-point and repeater-assisted private communications.

Levitated optomechanics with a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer. (arXiv:1706.10227v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

In recent years quantum phenomena have been experimentally demonstrated on variety of optomechanical systems ranging from micro-oscillators to photonic crystals. Since single photon couplings are quite small, most experimental approaches rely on the realization of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities in order to enhance the effective coupling. Here we show that by exploiting a, long path, low finesse fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer ground state cooling can be achieved. We model a 100 m long cavity with a finesse of 10 and analyze the impact of additional noise sources arising from the fiber. As a mechanical oscillator we consider a levitated microdisk but the same approach could be applied to other optomechanical systems.

Quantum-assisted Helmholtz machines: A quantum-classical deep learning framework for industrial datasets in near-term devices. (arXiv:1708.09784v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Machine learning has been presented as one of the key applications for near-term quantum technologies, given its high commercial value and wide range of applicability. In this work, we introduce the quantum-assisted Helmholtz machine: a hybrid quantum-classical framework with the potential of tackling high-dimensional real-world machine learning datasets on continuous variables. Instead of using quantum computers to only assist deep learning, as previous approaches have suggested, we use deep learning to extract a low-dimensional binary representation of data, suitable for relatively small quantum processors which can assist the training of an unsupervised generative model. To demonstrate this concept on a real-world dataset, we used 1644 quantum bits of a noisy non-fault-tolerant quantum device, the D-Wave 2000Q, to assist the training of a sub-sampled version of the MNIST handwritten digit dataset with 16 x 16 continuous valued pixels. Although we illustrate this concept on a quantum annealer, adaptations to other quantum platforms, such as ion-trap technologies or superconducting gate-model architectures, could be explored within this flexible framework.

Quantum Path Computing: A Quantum Computing Architecture with Feynman's Path Integrals, Wave-Particle Duality and Entangled Histories. (arXiv:1709.00735v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Double slit interference experiment is at the heart of quantum mechanics by clearly presenting wave-particle duality and quantum nature for particles as emphasized by Richard Feynman. Previous quantum computing (QC) architectures utilizing wave nature with simple set-ups in combination with quantum superposition interference result in QC speed-up with the cost of exponential increase in resources such as time, space or energy. In this article, wave-particle duality of propagating electrons is exploited in a simple interference set-up to present a novel computing architecture denoted by quantum path computing (QPC) targeting a low complexity QC architecture. It is composed of multiple planes and Gaussian slits combining trajectories of the particle nature with constructive and destructive interference measurements of the wave nature. QPC does not explicitly require exponential complexity of resources by utilizing entangled path history inherently existing in set-up with a unique formulation of Feynman's path integral which naturally includes path histories. Hidden subgroup problem (HSP) is solved with QPC in complete analogy with period finding algorithms utilizing quantum gate circuits and entanglement resources as a fundamental QC tool. QPC promises solutions of particular instances of simultaneous Diophantine approximation problem as a practical application while determining the computational complexity of the problem solving capability is an open issue. Previous models of interference set-ups analyzing exotic paths in single plane systems are extended to multi-plane set-up while simulations consider non-negligible effects of multiple exotic paths. The challenges are discussed for modeling computational complexity of efficiently solvable problems, designing optimum set-up and experimental aspects including source energy and detection sensitivity depending on problem complexity.

Quantum error correction for non-maximally entangled states. (arXiv:1709.04301v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Quantum states have high affinity for errors and hence error correction is of utmost importance to realise a quantum computer. Laflamme showed that 5 qubits are necessary to correct a single error on a qubit. In a Pauli error model, four different types of errors can occur on a qubit. Maximally entangled states are orthogonal to each other and hence can be uniquely distinguished by a measurement in the Bell basis. Thus a measurement in Bell basis and a unitary transformation is sufficient to correct error in Bell states. However, such a measurement is not possible for non-maximally entangled states. In this work we show that the 16 possible errors for a non-maximally entangled two qubit system map to only 8 distinct error states. Hence, it is possible to correct the error without perfect knowledge of the type of error. Furthermore, we show that the possible errors can be grouped in such a way that all 4 errors can occur on one qubit, whereas only bit flip error can occur on the second qubit. As a consequence, instead of 10, only 8 qubits are sufficient to correct a single error. We propose an 8-qubit error correcting code to correct a single error in a non-maximally entangled state. We further argue that for an $n$-qubit non-maximally entangled state of the form $a|0>^{n} + b|1>^{n}$, it is always possible to correct a single error with fewer than $5n$ qubits, in fact only $3n+2$ qubits suffice.

Quantum walks on regular uniform hypergraphs. (arXiv:1709.05015v2 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

Quantum walks on graphs have shown prioritized benefits and applications in wide areas. In some scenarios, however, it may be more natural and accurate to mandate high-order relationships for hypergraphs, due to the density of information stored inherently. Therefore, we can explore the potential of quantum walks on hypergraphs. In this paper, by presenting the one-to-one correspondence between regular uniform hypergraphs and bipartite graphs, we construct a model for quantum walks on bipartite graphs of regular uniform hypergraphs with Szegedy's quantum walks, which gives rise to a quadratic speed-up. Furthermore, we deliver spectral properties of the transition matrix, given that the cardinalities of the two disjoint sets are different in the bipartite graph. Our model provides the foundation for building quantum algorithms on the strength of quantum walks, suah as quantum walks search, quantized Google's PageRank and quantum machine learning, based on hypergraphs.

Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology. (arXiv:1709.04947v1 [gr-qc] CROSS LISTED)

The fundamental physical description of Nature is based on two mutually incompatible theories: Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. Their unification in a theory of Quantum Gravity (QG) remains one of the main challenges of theoretical physics. Quantum Gravity Phenomenology (QGP) studies QG effects in low-energy systems. The basis of one such phenomenological model is the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), which is a modified Heisenberg uncertainty relation and predicts a deformed canon ical commutator. In this thesis, we compute Planck-scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment, and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We then rigorously analyze the GUP-perturbed harmonic oscillator and study new coherent and squeezed states. Furthermore, we introduce a scheme for increasing the sensitivity of optomechanical experiments for testing QG effects. Finally, we suggest future projects that may potentially test QG effects in the laboratory.

A quantum phase transition induced by a microscopic boundary condition. (arXiv:1709.06386v1 [cond-mat.str-el] CROSS LISTED)

Quantum phase transitions are sudden changes in the ground-state wavefunction of a many-body system that can occur as a control parameter such as a concentration or a field strength is varied. They are driven purely by the competition between quantum fluctuations and mutual interactions among constituents of the system, not by thermal fluctuations; hence they can occur even at zero temperature. Examples of quantum phase transitions in many-body physics may be found in systems ranging from high-temperature superconductors to topological insulators. A quantum phase transition usually can be characterized by nonanalyticity/discontinuity in certain order parameters or divergence of the ground state energy eigenvalue and/or its derivatives with respect to certain physical quantities. Here in a circular one-dimensional spin model with Heisenberg XY interaction and no magnetic field, we observe critical phenomena for the $n_0=1/N\rightarrow0$ Mott insulator caused by a qualitative change of the boundary condition. We demonstrate in the vicinity of the transition point a sudden change in ground-state properties accompanied by an avoided level-crossing between the ground and the first excited states. Notably, our result links conventional quantum phase transitions to microscopic boundary conditions, with significant implications for quantum information, quantum control, and quantum computing.