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Nuclear Theory (nucl-th) updates on the e-print archive

Published: 2017-09-19T20:30:00-05:00


Spectroscopy of Exotic Hadrons Formed from Dynamical Diquarks. (arXiv:1709.06097v1 [hep-ph])

The dynamical diquark picture asserts that exotic hadrons can be formed from widely separated colored diquark or triquark components. We use the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation to study the spectrum of states thus constructed, both in the basis of diquark spins and in the basis of heavy quark-antiquark spins. We develop a compact notation for naming these states, and use the results of lattice simulations for hybrid mesons to predict the lowest expected BO potentials for both tetraquarks and pentaquarks. We then compare to the set of exotic candidates with experimentally determined quantum numbers, and find that all of them can be accommodated. Once decay modes are also considered, one can develop selection rules of both exact ($J^{PC}$ conservation) and approximate (within the context of the BO approximation) types and test their effectiveness. We find that the most appealing way to satisfy both sets of selection rules requires including additional low-lying BO potentials, a hypothesis that can be checked on the lattice.

Effects of tensor forces in neutron drops. (arXiv:1709.06289v1 [nucl-th])

Neutron drops confined in an external field are studied in the framework of relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. A strong influence of the tensor forces on the evolution of spin-orbit splittings with neutron number is found. This result provides interesting insight for neutron rich systems and forms an important guide for future microscopic derivations of nuclear energy density functionals.

Dissipative Properties and Isothermal Compressibility of Hot and Dense Hadron Gas using Non-extensive Statistics. (arXiv:1709.06352v1 [hep-ph])

We evaluate the transport properties such as shear viscosity ($\eta$), bulk viscosity ($\zeta$) and their ratios over entropy density ($s$) for hadronic matter using relativistic non-extensive Boltzmann transport equation (NBTE) in relaxation time approximation (RTA). In NBTE, we argue that the system far from equilibrium may not reach to an equilibrium described by extensive (Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG)) statistics but to a $q$-equilibrium defined by Tsallis non-extensive statistics after subsequent evolution, where $q$ denotes the degree of non-extensivity. We observe that $\eta/s$ and $\zeta/s$ initially decrease rapidly with the temperature ($T$) for various $q$-values while they become independent of $q$ at higher $T$. As $q$ increases, the magnitudes of $\eta/s$ and $\zeta/s$ increase in the lower temperature region. We also show the upper mass cutoff dependence of these ratios for a particular $q$ and find that they decrease with the increase in mass cutoff of hadrons. Further, we present the first estimation of isothermal compressibility ($\kappa_T$) using non-extensive Tsallis statistics at finite baryon chemical potential ($\mu_B$). It is observed that, $\kappa_T$ changes significantly with the degree of non-extensivity. We also study the squared speed of sound ($c_{s}^{2}$) as a function of temperature at finite baryon chemical potential for various $q$ and upper mass cutoff. It is noticed that there is a strong impact of $q$ and mass cutoff on the behaviour of $c_{s}^{2}$.

Elliptic Flow in Pb+Pb Collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the LHC Using Boltzmann Transport Equation with Non-extensive Statistics. (arXiv:1709.06354v1 [hep-ph])

Elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions is an important signature of a possible de-confinement transition from hadronic phase to partonic phase. In the present work, we use non-extensive statistics, which has been used for transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) distribution in proton+proton ($p+p$) collisions, as the initial particle distribution function in Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). A Boltzmann-Gibbs Blast Wave (BGBW) function is taken as an equilibrium function to get the final distribution to describe the particle production in heavy-ion collisions. In this formalism, we try to estimate the elliptic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the LHC for different centralities. The elliptic flow ($v_2$) of identified particles seems to be described quite well in the available $p_{\rm T}$ range. An approach, which combines the non-extensive nature of particle production in $p+p$ collisions through an evolution in kinetic theory using BTE, with BGBW equilibrium distribution is successful in describing the spectra and elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions.

Role of Multi-Parton Interactions on $J/\psi$ production in $p+p$ collisions at LHC Energies. (arXiv:1709.06358v1 [hep-ph])

The production mechanism of quarkonia states in hadronic collisions is still to be understood by the scientific community. In high-multiplicity $p+p$ collisions, Underlying Event (UE) observables are of major interest. The Multi-Parton Interactions (MPI) is a UE observable, where several interactions occur at the partonic level in a single $p+p$ event. This leads to dependence of particle production on event multiplicity. If the MPI occurs in a harder scale, there will be a correlation between the yield of quarkonia and total charged particle multiplicity. The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 13 TeV has observed an approximate linear increase of relative $J/\psi$ yield ($\frac{dN_{J/\psi}/dy}{}$) with relative charged particle multiplicity density ($\frac{dN_{ch}/dy}{}$). In our present work we have performed a comprehensive study of the production of charmonia as a function of charged particle multiplicity in $p+p$ collisions at LHC energies using pQCD-inspired multiparton interaction model, PYTHIA8 tune 4C, with and without Color Reconnection (CR) scheme. A detail multiplicity and energy dependent study is performed to understand the effects of MPI on $J/\psi$ production. The ratio of $\psi(2S)$ to $J/\psi$ is also studied as a function of charged particle multiplicity at LHC energies.

Hyperfine splitting in ordinary and muonic hydrogen. (arXiv:1709.06544v1 [hep-ph])

We provide an accurate evaluation of the two-photon exchange correction to the hyperfine splitting of S energy levels in muonic hydrogen exploiting the corresponding measurements in electronic hydrogen. The proton structure uncertainty in the calculation of $\alpha^5$ contribution is reduced from $100~\mathrm{ppm}$ level to $16~\mathrm{ppm}$.

Mesic nuclei with a heavy antiquark. (arXiv:1612.08925v2 [nucl-th] UPDATED)

The binding system of a hadron and a nucleus is a topic of great interest for investigating the hadron properties. In the heavy-flavor region, the attraction between a $P(=\bar{D},B)$ meson and a nucleon $N$ can appear, where the $PN-P^\ast N$ mixing plays an important role in relation to the heavy-quark spin symmetry. The attraction can produce exotic heavy mesic nuclei that are stable against the strong decay. We study an exotic system where the $\bar{D}$ ($B$) meson and nucleus are bound. The meson-nucleus interaction is given by a folding potential with single-channel $PN$ interaction and the nucleon number distribution function. By solving the Schr\"odinger equations of the heavy meson and the nucleus, we obtain several bound and resonant states for nucleon number $A=16,\dots,208$. The results indicate the possible existence of exotic mesic nuclei with a heavy antiquark.

On the existence of Rydberg nuclear molecules. (arXiv:1706.01150v2 [nucl-th] UPDATED)

Present nuclear detection techniques prevents us from determining if the analogue of a Rydberg molecule exists for the nuclear case. But nothing in nature disallows their existence. As in the atomic case, Rydberg nuclear molecules would be a laboratory for new aspects and applications of nuclear physics. We propose that Rydberg nuclear molecules, which represent the exotic, halo nuclei version, such as 11Be + 11Be, of the well known quasimolecules observed in stable nuclei such as 12C + 12C, might be common structures that could manifest their existence along the dripline. A study of possible candidates and the expected structure of such exotic clustering of two halo nuclei: the Rydberg nuclear molecules, is made on the basis of three diferent methods. It is shown that such cluster structures might be stable and unexpectedly common.

Parity doubling of baryons in a chiral approach with three flavors. (arXiv:1707.05081v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

We formulate a set of mass relations for the baryon octet and decuplet with positive and negative parity in terms of the order parameter of QCD chiral symmetry. The Gell-Mann--Okubo mass formula and Gell-Mann's equal spacing rule hold manifestly in this approach. Thermal masses of the baryons are calculated in the mean field approximation for various pion masses, and the results are compared with the recent lattice studies. A general trend of the nucleon, $\Delta$ and $\Omega$ parity-doublers seen in the available lattice data can be understood qualitatively. Expected mass modifications of other strange baryons are also given with the physical and heavier pion masses.

Strangeon Matter in a Liquid Drop Model. (arXiv:1708.03908v4 [astro-ph.HE] UPDATED)

The liquid drop model of 2-flavored ($u$ and $d$) nucleus is well known and successful, analogically, a similar drop model for 3-flavored ($u$, $d$ and $s$) nucleus is developed. A 3-flavored nucleus conjectured could be stable only if its baryon number is lager than a critical one, $A_{\rm c}$, in which strangeons are the constituent as an analogy of nucleons for nucleus. We try to model strangeon matter in a sense of phenomenological liquid drop, with two free parameters: the mass per bayron of a strangeon in vacuum, $M$, and potential deep between strangeons, $\epsilon$. It is found that, for $M\sim$ GeV and $\epsilon\sim 100$ MeV, strangeon matter could be stable and its critical number could be as low as $A_{\rm c}=300$.

Electromagnetic fields in small systems from a multiphase transport model. (arXiv:1709.05962v2 [hep-ph] UPDATED)

We calculate the electromagnetic fields generated in small systems by using the a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Compared to A+A collisions, we find that the absolute electric and magnetic fields are not small in p+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC energy and in p+Pb collisions at the LHC energy. We study the centrality dependences and the spatial distributions of electromagnetic fields. We further investigate the azimuthal fluctuations of magnetic field and its correlation with the fluctuating geometry using event-by-event simulations. We find that the azimuthal correlation $$ between the magnetic field direction and the second harmonic participant plane is almost zero in small systems with high multiplicities, but not in those with low multiplicities. This indicates that the charge azimuthal correlation, $$, is not a valid probe to study Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in small systems with high multiplicities. However, we suggest to search for possible CME effects in small systems with low multiplicities.