Preview: cond-mat updates on arXiv.org

Published: 2018-02-19T20:30:00-05:00

Boson-fermion duality in three dimensions. (arXiv:1802.06087v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

We study the 2+1 dimensional boson-fermion duality in the presence of background curvature and electromagnetic fields. The main players are, on the one hand, free massive complex scalar fields coupled to U(1) Maxwell-Chern-Simons gauge fields at Chern-Simons levels $\pm1$, representing relativistic composite bosons with one unit of attached flux, and on the other hand, free massive Dirac fermions. We prove, in a curved background and at the level of the partition function, that a doublet of relativistic composite bosons, in the infinite coupling limit, is dual to a doublet of Dirac fermions. The spin connection arises from the expectation value of the Wilson loop in the Chern-Simons theory, whereas a non-minimal coupling of bosons to the scalar curvature is necessary in order to obtain agreement between partition functions. Remarkably, we find that the correspondence does not hold in the presence of background electromagnetic fields, a pathology rooted to the coupling of electromagnetism to the spin angular momentum of the Dirac spinor, which can not be reproduced from minimal coupling in the bosonic side. The presence of framing and parity anomalies in the Chern-Simons and fermionic theories, respectively, poses a difficulty in realizing the duality as an exact mapping between partition functions. The existence of non matching anomalies is circumvented by the Dirac fermions coming in pairs, making the fermionic theory parity anomaly free, and by the inclusion of a Maxwell term in the bosonic side, acting as a regulator forcing the CS theory to be quantized in a non-topological way. The Coulomb interaction stemming from the Maxwell term is also of key importance to prevent intersections of worldlines in the path integral. An extension of the duality to the massless case fails if bosons and fermions are in a topological phase, but is possible when the mapping is between trivial theories.

Mapping fast evolution of transient surface photovoltage dynamics using G-Mode Kelvin probe force microscopy. (arXiv:1802.06102v1 [physics.app-ph])

Optoelectronic phenomena in materials such as organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites depend on a complex interplay between light induced carrier generation and fast (electronic) and slower (ionic) processes, all of which are known to be strongly affected by structural inhomogeneities such as interfaces and grain boundaries. Here, we develop a time resolved Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach, based on the G-Mode SPM platform, allowing quantification of surface photovoltage (SPV) with microsecond temporal and nanoscale spatial resolution. We demonstrate the approach on methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) thin films and further highlight the usefulness of unsupervised clustering methods to quickly discern spatial variability in the information rich SPV dataset. Using this technique, we observe concurrent spatial and ultra-fast temporal variations in the SPV generated across the thin film, indicating that structure is likely responsible for the heterogenous behavior.

Light, the universe, and everything -- 12 Herculean tasks for quantum cowboys and black diamond skiers. (arXiv:1802.06110v1 [quant-ph])

The Winter Colloquium on the Physics of Quantum Electronics (PQE) has been a seminal force in quantum optics and related areas since 1971. It is rather mindboggling to recognize how the concepts presented at these conferences have transformed scientific understanding and human society. In January, 2017, the participants of PQE were asked to consider the equally important prospects for the future, and to formulate a set of questions representing some of the greatest aspirations in this broad field. The result is this multi-authored paper, in which many of the world's leading experts address the following fundamental questions: (1) What is the future of gravitational wave astronomy? (2) Are there new quantum phases of matter away from equilibrium that can be found and exploited - such as the time crystal? (3) Quantum theory in uncharted territory: What can we learn? (4) What are the ultimate limits for laser photon energies? (5) What are the ultimate limits to temporal, spatial, and optical resolution? (6) What novel roles will atoms play in technology? (7) What applications lie ahead for nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond? (8) What is the future of quantum coherence, squeezing, and entanglement for enhanced superresolution and sensing? (9) How can we solve (some of) humanity's biggest problems through new quantum technologies? (10) What new understanding of materials and biological molecules will result from their dynamical characterization with free electron lasers? (11) What new technologies and fundamental discoveries might quantum optics achieve by the end of this century? (12) What novel topological structures can be created and employed in quantum optics?

Superconductivity in Cage Compounds La$Tr_{2}$Al$_{20}$ with $Tr$ = Ti, V, Nb, and Ta. (arXiv:1802.06119v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

Electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements on single crystals of La$Tr_{2}$Al$_{20}$ ($Tr$ = Ti, V, Nb, and Ta) revealed that these four compounds exhibit weak-coupling superconductivity with transition temperatures $T_{\rm c}$ = 0.46, 0.15, 1.05, and 1.03 K, respectively. LaTi$_{2}$Al$_{20}$ is most probably a type-I superconductor, which is quite rare among intermetallic compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction suggests "rattling" anharmonic large-amplitude oscillations of Al ions (16$c$ site) on the Al$_{16}$ cage, while no such feature is suggested for the cage-center La ion. Using a parameter $d_{\rm GFS}$ quantifying the "guest free space" of the cage-center ion, we demonstrate that nonmagnetic $RTr_{2}$Al$_{20}$ superconductors are classified into two groups, i.e., (A) $d_{\rm GFS} \ne 0$ and $T_{\rm c}$ correlates with $d_{\rm GFS}$, and (B) $d_{\rm GFS} \simeq 0$ and $T_{\rm c}$ seems to be governed by other factors.

Topological edge states in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model subject to balanced particle gain and loss. (arXiv:1802.06128v1 [quant-ph])

We investigate the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model in presence of an injection and removal of particles, introduced via a master equation in Lindblad form. It is shown that the dynamics of the density matrix follows the predictions of calculations in which the gain and loss are modeled by complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials. In particular it is found that there is a clear distinction in the dynamics between the topologically different cases known from the stationary eigenstates.

Robust s+/- pairing in CaK[Fe(1-x)Ni(x)]4As4$ (x = 0 and 0.05) from the response to electron irradiation. (arXiv:1802.06150v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

Controlled point-like disorder introduced by 2.5 MeV electron irradiation was used to probe the superconducting state of single crystals of \CaKx\ superconductor at $x = 0$ and 0.05 doping levels. Both compositions show an increase of the residual resistivity and a decrease of the superconducting transition temperature, $T_c$ at the rate of $dT_c/d\rho(T_c) \approx$ 0.19 K(\textmu$\Omega$cm)$^{-1}$ for $x=0$ and 0.38 K(\textmu$\Omega$cm)$^{-1}$ for $x=\:$0.05, respectively. In Ni - doped, $x = 0.05$, compound the coexisting spin-vortex crystal (SVC) magnetic phase is suppressed at the rate of $dT_N/d\rho(T_N)\approx$ 0.16 K(\textmu$\Omega$cm)$^{-1}$. Low - temperature variation of London penetration depth is well approximated by the power law, $\Delta \lambda (T) = AT^n$ with $n\approx\,$2.5 for $x=0$ and $n\approx\,$1.9 for $x=0.05$ in the pristine state. Electron irradiation leads to the exponent $n$ increase above 2 in $x=0.05$ suggesting superconducting gap with significant anisotropy that is smeared by the disorder scattering. Detailed analysis of $\lambda (T)$ and \(T_{c}\) evolution with disorder is consistent with two effective nodeless superconducting energy gaps due to robust s$_{\pm}$ pairing. Overall the behavior of \CaKx\ at $x = 0$ is similar to a slightly overdoped \BaK\ at $y \approx$ 0.5 and at $x= 0.05$ to an underdoped composition at $y \approx$ 0.2.

Effect of $\alpha$-particle irradiation on a NdFeAs(O,F) thin film. (arXiv:1802.06160v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

The effect of $\alpha$-particle irradiation on a NdFeAs(O,F) thin film has been investigated to determine how the introduction of defects affects basic superconducting properties, including the critical temperature $T_c$ and the upper critical field $H_{c2}$, and properties more of interest for applications, like the critical current density $J_c$ and the related pinning landscape. The irradiation-induced suppression of the film $T_c$ is significantly smaller than on a similarly damaged single crystal. Moreover $H_{c2}$ behaves differently, depending on the field orientation: for H//c the $H_{c2}$ slope monotonically increases with increasing disorder, whereas for H//ab it remains constant at low dose and it increases only when the sample is highly disordered. This suggests that a much higher damage level is necessary to drive the NdFeAs(O,F) thin film into the dirty limit. Despite the increase in the low temperature $H_{c2}$, the effects on the $J_c$(H//c) performances are moderate in the measured temperature and field ranges, with a shifting of the pinning force maximum from 4.5 T to 6 T after an irradiation of $2\times10^{15} cm^{-2}$. On the contrary, $J_c$(H//ab) is always suppressed. The analysis demonstrates that irradiation does introduce point defects acting as pinning centres proportionally to the irradiation fluence but also suppresses the effectiveness of c-axis correlated pinning present in the pristine sample. We estimate that significant performance improvements may be possible at high field or at temperatures below 10 K. The suppression of the $J_c$(H//ab) performance is not related to a decrease of the $J_c$ anisotropy as found in other superconductors. Instead it is due to the presence of point defects that decrease the efficiency of the ab-plane intrinsic pinning typical of materials with a layered structure.

Potential and spin-exchange interaction between Anderson impurities in graphene. (arXiv:1802.06171v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

The effective interaction between resonant magnetic Anderson impurities in graphene, mediated by conduction electrons, is studied as a function of the strength of the onsite energy level of the impurities and the amplitude of coupling to conduction electrons. The sign and character of the interaction depend on whether the impurities reside on the same or opposite sublattices. For the same (opposite) sublattice, the potential interaction is attractive (repulsive) in the weak coupling limit with $1/R^3$ dependence on the distance; the interaction reverses sign and becomes repulsive (attractive) in the strong coupling limit and displays $1/R$ behavior. The spin-exchange coupling is ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) at both large and small distances, but reverses sign and becomes anti-ferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) for intermediate distances. For opposite sublattices, the effective spin exchange coupling is resonantly enhanced at distances where the energy levels cross the Dirac points.

Classical simulation of a topological quantum computer. (arXiv:1802.06176v1 [quant-ph])

Topological quantum computers promise a fault tolerant means to perform quantum computation. Topological quantum computers use particles with exotic exchange statistics called non-Abelian anyons, and the simplest anyon model which allows for universal quantum computation by particle exchange or braiding alone is the Fibonacci anyon model. One classically hard problem that can be solved efficiently using quantum computation is finding the value of the Jones polynomial of knots at roots of unity. We aim to provide a pedagogical, self-contained, review of topological quantum computation with Fibonacci anyons, from the braiding statistics and matrices to the layout of such a computer and the compiling of braids to perform specific operations. Then we use a simulation of a topological quantum computer to explicitly demonstrate a quantum computation using Fibonacci anyons, evaluating the Jones polynomial of a selection of simple knots.

Symmetry Enforced Self-Learning Monte Carlo Method Applied to the Holstein Model. (arXiv:1802.06177v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

Self-learning Monte Carlo method (SLMC), using a trained effective model to guide Monte Carlo sampling processes, is a powerful general-purpose numerical method recently introduced to speed up simulations in (quantum) many-body systems. In this work, we further improve the efficiency of SLMC by enforcing the symmetry of the original problem on the effective model. We demonstrate its effectiveness in the Holstein Hamiltonian, one of the most fundamental many-body descriptions of electron-phonon coupling. Simulations of the Holstein model are notoriously difficult due to the combination of the cubic scaling typical of fermionic Monte Carlo and the presence of much longer autocorrelation times than those occurring in the Hubbard model. Our method addresses both these bottlenecks. This enables simulations on large lattices in the most difficult parameter regions, and the evaluation of the critical point for the charge density wave transition at half-filling with high precision.

Bogolon-mediated electron capture by impurities in hybrid Bose-Fermi systems. (arXiv:1802.06228v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We investigate the processes of electron capture by a Coulomb impurity center residing in a hybrid system consisting of spatially separated two-dimensional layers of electron and Bose-condensed dipolar exciton gases coupled via the Coulomb forces. We calculate the probability of the electron capture accompanied by the emission of a single Bogoliubov excitation (bogolon), similar to regular phonon-mediated scattering in solids. Further, we study the electron capture mediated by the emission of a pair of bogolons in a single capture event and show that these processes not only should be treated in the same order of the perturbation theory, but also they give more important contribution than single bogolon-mediated capture, in contrast with regular phonon scattering. As a result, electric conductivity can be dramatically modified in the presence of charged impurities.

Dark-bright soliton pairs: bifurcations and collisions. (arXiv:1802.06230v1 [nlin.PS])

The statics, stability and dynamical properties of dark-bright soliton pairs are investigated motivated by applications in a homogeneous system of two-component repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. One of the intra-species interaction coefficients is used as the relevant parameter controlling the deviation from the integrable Manakov limit. Two different families of stationary states are identified consisting of dark-bright solitons that are either anti-symmetric (out-of-phase) or asymmetric (mass imbalanced) with respect to their bright soliton. Both of the above dark-bright configurations coexist at the integrable limit of equal intra- and inter-species repulsions and are degenerate in that limit. However, they are found to bifurcate from it in a transcritical bifurcation. The latter interchanges the stability properties of the bound dark-bright pairs rendering the anti-symmetric states unstable and the asymmetric ones stable past the associated critical point (and vice versa before it). Finally, on the dynamical side, it is found that large kinetic energies and thus rapid soliton collisions are essentially unaffected by the intra-species variation, while cases involving near equilibrium states or breathing dynamics are significantly modified under such a variation.

Superconducting properties of tellurium hydride at high pressure. (arXiv:1802.06234v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

At present hydrogen-based compounds constitute one of the most promising classes of materials towards their applications as a phonon-mediated high-temperature superconductors. Herein, the behavior of the superconducting phase in tellurium hydride (HTe) at high pressure ($p=300$ GPa) is analyzed in details, in the framework of the isotropic Migdal-Eliashberg equations. The chosen pressure conditions are considered here as a case study, which correspond to the highest critical temperature value ($T_{c}$) in the analyzed material; as determined within recent density functional theory simulations. It is found that the Migdal-Eliashberg formalism, which constitute strong-coupling generalization of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, predicts that the critical temperature value ($T_{c}=52.73$ K) is higher than previous estimates of the McMillan formula. Further investigations show that the characteristic dimensionless ratios for the the thermodynamic critical field, the specific heat for the superconducting state, and the superconducting band gap exceeds the limits set by the BCS theory. In this context, also the effective electron mass is not equal to the bare electron mass as provided by the BCS theory. On the basis of these findings it is predicted that the strong-coupling and retardation effects play pivotal role in the superconducting phase of HTe at 300 GPa, in agreement with similar theoretical estimates for the sibling hydrogen and hydrogen-based compounds. Hence, it is suggested that the superconducting state in HTe cannot be properly described within the mean-field picture of the BCS theory.

Evidence for two spin-glass transitions with magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings in the multiferroic (Bi$_{1-x}$Ba$_x$)(Fe$_{1-x}$Ti$_x$)O$_3$ system. (arXiv:1802.06235v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

For disordered Heisenberg systems with small single ion anisotropy, two spin glass transitions below the long range ordered phase transition temperature has been predicted theoretically for compositions close to the percolation threshold. Experimental verification of these predictions is still controversial for conventional spin glasses. We show that multiferroic spin glass systems can provide a unique platform for verifying these theoretical predictions via a study of change in magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings, obtained from an analysis of diffraction data, at the spin glass transition temperatures. Results of macroscopic and microscopic (x-ray and neutron scattering) measurements are presented on disordered BiFeO3, a canonical Heisenberg system with small single ion anisotropy, which reveal appearance of two spin glass phases SG1 and SG2 in coexistence with the LRO phase below the A-T and G-T lines. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the integrated intensity of the antiferromagnetic peak shows dips with respect to the Brillouin function behaviour around the SG1 and SG2 transition temperatures. The ferroelectric polarisation changes significantly at the two spin glass transition temperatures. These results, obtained using microscopic techniques, clearly demonstrate that the SG1 and SG2 transitions occur on the same magnetic sublattice and are intrinsic to the system. We also construct a phase diagram showing all the magnetic phases in BF-xBT system. While our results on the two spin glass transitions support the theoretical predictions, it also raises several open questions which need to be addressed by revisiting the existing theories of spin glass transitions by taking into account the effect of magnetoelastic and magnetoelectric couplings as well as electromagnons.

Quantum phase transitions and the degree of nonidentity in the system with two different species of vector bosons. (arXiv:1802.06236v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We address the system with two species of vector bosons in an optical lattice. In addition to the the standard parameters characterizing such a system, we are dealing here with the "degree of atomic nonidentity", manifesting itself in the difference of tunneling amplitudes and on-site Coulomb interactions. We obtain a cascade of quantum phase transitions occurring with the increase in the degree of atomic nonidentity. In particular, we show that the phase diagram for strongly distinct atoms is qualitatively different from that for (nearly) identical atoms considered earlier. The resulting phase diagrams evolve from the images similar to the "J. Mir\'o-like paintings" to "K. Malewicz-like" ones.

Tetramers of two heavy and two light bosons. (arXiv:1802.06237v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

This article considers the bound states of two heavy and two light bosons, when a short-range force attracts the bosons of different mass, and a short-range force repel the light bosons. The existence of such four-body bound states results from the competition between these two forces. For a given strength of the attraction, the critical strength of the repulsion necessary to unbind the four particles is calculated. This study is motivated by the experimental realisation of impurity atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, and aims at determining in which regime only one boson contributes to binding two impurities.

FeTaSb and FeMnTiSb as promising thermoelectric materials: An ab initio approach. (arXiv:1802.06254v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

Thermoelectricity in principle provides a pathway to put waste heat to good use. Motivated by this we investigate thermal and electrical transport properties of two new Fe-based Heusler alloys, FeTaSb and FeMnTiSb, by a first principles approach and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant relaxation-time approximation. We find a high power factor of \textit{p}-doped FeTaSb, competitive with best performing Heusler alloy FeNbSb at 1100 K. The obtained power factor of \textit{n}-doped FeMnTiSb at room temperature is higher than that of both FeNbSb and FeTaSb. Remarkably, FeMnTiSb can be used for both \textit{n}-type and \textit{p}-type legs in a thermoelectric module. The Seebeck coefficients of the two proposed systems are in line with those of earlier reported Heusler alloys. We also provide conservative estimates of the figure of merit for the two systems. Overall, our findings suggest a high temperature thermoelectric potential of FeTaSb while the low cost FeMnTiSb is a viable room temperature thermoelectric candidate material.

Electric-field control of magnetism in few-layered van der Waals magnet. (arXiv:1802.06255v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Manipulating quantum state via electrostatic gating has been intriguing for many model systems in nanoelectronics. When it comes to the question of controlling the electron spins, more specifically, the magnetism of a system, tuning with electric field has been proven to be elusive. Recently, magnetic layered semiconductors have attracted much attention due to their emerging new physical phenomena. However, challenges still remain in the demonstration of a gate controllable magnetism based on them. Here, we show that, via ionic gating, strong field effect can be observed in few-layered semiconducting Cr$_{2}$Ge$_{2}$Te$_{6}$ devices. At different gate doping, micro-area Kerr measurements in the studied devices demonstrate tunable magnetization loops below the Curie temperature, which is tentatively attributed to the moment re-balance in the spin-polarized band structure. Our findings of electric-field controlled magnetism in van der Waals magnets pave the way for potential applications in new generation magnetic memory storage, sensors, and spintronics.

Gelation of patchy gold nanoparticles decorated by liquid-crystalline ligands: computer simulation study. (arXiv:1802.06267v1 [cond-mat.soft])

We consider patchy gold nanoparticles decorated by liquid crystalline ligands. The cases of two, three, four and six symmetrically arranged patches of ligands are discussed, as well as the cases of their equatorial and uniform arrangement. A solution of decorated nanoparticles is considered within a flat pore with the solid walls and the interior filled by a polar solvent. The ligands form physical crosslinks between the nanoparticles due to strong liquid crystalline interaction, turning the solution into a gel-like structure. Gelation is done repeatedly starting each time from freshly equilibrated dispersed state of nanoparticles. The gelation dynamics and the range of network characteristics of gel are examined, depending on the type of patchy decoration and the solution density. The emphasis is given to the suitability of a gel for catalytic applications

Superconductivity induced by flexural modes in non $\sigma_{\rm h}$-symmetric Dirac-like two-dimensional materials: A theoretical study for silicene and germanene. (arXiv:1802.06272v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

In two-dimensional crystals that lack symmetry under reflections on the horizontal plane of the lattice (non-$\sigma_{\rm h}$-symmetric), electrons can couple to flexural modes (ZA phonons) at first order. We show that in materials of this type that also exhibit a Dirac-like electron dispersion, the strong coupling can result in electron pairing mediated by these phonons, as long as the flexural modes are not damped or suppressed by additional interactions with a supporting substrate or gate insulator. We consider several models: The weak-coupling limit, which is applicable only in the case of gapped and parabolic materials, like stanene and HfSe$_{2}$, thanks to the weak coupling; the full gap-equation, solved using the constant-gap approximation and considering statically screened interactions; its extensions to energy-dependent gap and to dynamic screening. We argue that in the case of silicene and germanene superconductivity mediated by this process can exhibit a critical temperature of a few degrees K, or even a few tens of degrees K when accounting for the effect of a high-dielectric-constant environment. We conclude that the electron/flexural-modes coupling should be included in studies of possible superconductivity in non-$\sigma_{\rm h}$-symmetric two-dimensional crystals, even if alternative forms of coupling are considered.

Spin Solid versus Magnetic Charge Ordered State in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements. (arXiv:1802.06322v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T --> 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. We report on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultra-small elements, with a typical length of ~ 12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature dependent micromagnetic simulations. Numerical modeling of the polarized neutron reflectometry data elucidates the temperature dependent evolution of spin correlation in this system. As temperature reduces to ~ 7 K, the system tends to develop novel spin solid state, manifested by the alternating distribution of magnetic vortex loops of opposite chiralities. Experimental results are complemented by temperature dependent micromagnetic simulations that confirm the dominance of spin solid state over local magnetic charge ordered state in the artificial honeycomb lattice with connected elements. Our results enable a direct investigation of novel spin solid correlation in the connected honeycomb geometry of two-dimensional artificial structure.

New Description of Evolution of Magnetic Phases in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice. (arXiv:1802.06323v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice provides a two-dimensional archetypal system to explore novel phenomena of geometrically frustrated magnets. According to theoretical reports, an artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is expected to exhibit several phase transitions to unique magnetic states as a function of reducing temperature. Experimental investigations of permalloy artificial honeycomb lattice of connected ultra- small elements, ~ 12 nm, reveal a more complicated behavior. First, upon cooling the sample to intermediate temperature, T ~ 175 K, the system manifests a non-unique state where the long range order co-exists with short-range magnetic charge order and weak spin ice state. Second, at much lower temperature, T ~ 6 K, the long-range spin solid state exhibits a re-entrant behavior. Both observations are in direct contrast to the present understanding of this system. New theoretical approaches are needed to develop a comprehensive formulation of this two dimensional magnet.

Fractional electrical dimensionality in the spin solid phase of artificial honeycomb lattice. (arXiv:1802.06324v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is at the forefront of research on unconventional magnetic materials. Among the many emergent magnetic phases that are predicted to arise as a function of temperature, the low temperature spin solid phase with zero magnetization and entropy is of special importance. Here, we report an interesting perspective to the consequence of spin solid order in an artificial honeycomb lattice of ultra-small connected elements using electrical dimensionality analysis. At low temperature, $T \leq$ 30 K, the system exhibits a very strong insulating characteristic. The electrical dimensionality analysis of the experimental data reveals a fractional dimensionality of $d$ = 0.6(0.04) in the spin solid phase of honeycomb lattice at low temperature. The much smaller electrical dimension in the spin solid phase, perhaps, underscores the strong insulating behavior in this system. Also, the fractional dimensionality in an otherwise two-dimensional system suggests a non-surface-like electrical transport at low temperature in an artificial honeycomb lattice.

Scaling of nonlinear susceptibilities in artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice. (arXiv:1802.06325v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is predicted to manifest thermodynamic phase transition to the spin solid order ground state at low temperature. Nonlinear susceptibilities are very sensitive to thermodynamic phase transition. We have performed the analysis of nonlinear susceptibility to explore the thermodynamic nature of spin solid phase transition in artificial honeycomb lattice of ultra-small connected permalloy (Ni$_{0.81}$Fe$_{0.19}$) elements, typical length of $\simeq$ 12 nm. The nonlinear susceptibility, $\chi_{n1}$, is found to exhibit an unusual cross-over character in both temperature and magnetic field. The higher order susceptibility $\chi_3$ changes from positive to negative as the system traverses through the spin solid phase transition at $T_s$ = 29 K. Additionally, the static critical exponents, used to test the scaling of $\chi_{n1}$, do not follow the conventional scaling relation. We conclude that the transition to the ground state is not truly thermodynamic, thus raises doubt about the validity of predicted zero entropy state in the spin solid phase.

Large thermoelectric response in a diluted ferroelectric system: Ba0.7Eu0.3Ti1-xNbxO3. (arXiv:1802.06337v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

We investigated the electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower as a function of Nb content (x) in Ba0.7Eu0.3Ti1-xNbxO3 (x = 0.001- 0.10) in the temperature range T = 400-2 K. The substitution of Nb destabilizes the ferroelectric insulating ground state of Ba0.7Eu0.3TiO3 and transforms into a paramagnetic metal for x = 0.1. Thermopower is negative in the entire composition range (S = -613 microVolt/K at 400 K for x = 0.001) and its magnitude decreases with increasing Nb content which suggests doping of electrons into empty Ti-3d(t2g) conduction band. In this series, the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) increases with temperature for all the compositions and the x = 0.03 composition exhibits the maximum ZT (= 0.12 at 400 K). The enhanced value of ZT is primarily due to the low thermal conductivity of samples in this series (~ 0.7 to 1 W/(m.K) at 400 K) compared to other potential high temperature n-type thermoelectric oxides such as carrier doped SrTiO3 and CaMnO3. The low thermal conductivity in our compounds most likely arises from heavy Eu2+ ion and lattice disorder introduced by Nb5+ which scatter phonons effectively.

Dynamic spin injection into a quantum well coupled to a spin-split bound state. (arXiv:1802.06352v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We present a theoretical analysis of dynamic spin injection due to spin-dependent tunneling between a quantum well (QW) and a bound state split in spin projection due to an exchange interaction or external magnetic field. We focus on the impact of Coulomb correlations at the bound state on spin polarization and sheet density kinetics of the charge carriers in the QW. The theoretical approach is based on kinetic equations for the electron occupation numbers taking into account high order correlation functions for the bound state electrons. It is shown that the on-site Coulomb repulsion leads to an enhanced dynamic spin polarization of the electrons in the QW and a delay in the carriers tunneling into the bound state. The interplay of these two effects leads to non-trivial dependence of the spin polarization degree, which can be probed experimentally using time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. It is demonstrated that the influence of the Coulomb interactions can be controlled by adjusting the relaxation rates. These findings open a new way of studying the Hubbard-like electron interactions experimentally.

Lamellar ordering, droplet formation and phase inversion in exotic active emulsions. (arXiv:1802.06356v1 [physics.bio-ph])

We study numerically the behaviour of a mixture of a passive isotropic fluid and an active polar gel, in the presence of a surfactant favouring emulsification. Focussing on parameters for which the underlying free energy favours the lamellar phase in the passive limit, we show that the interplay between nonequilibrium and thermodynamic forces creates a range of multifarious exotic emulsions. When the active component is contractile (e.g., an actomyosin solution), moderate activity enhances the efficiency of lamellar ordering, whereas strong activity favours the creation of passive droplets within an active matrix. For extensile activity (occurring, e.g., in microtubule-motor suspensions), instead, we observe an emulsion of spontaneously rotating droplets of different size. By tuning the overall composition, we can create high internal phase emulsions, which undergo sudden phase inversion when activity is switched off. Therefore, we find that activity provides a single control parameter to design composite materials with a strikingly rich range of morphologies.

Orbitally limited pair-density wave phase of multilayer superconductors. (arXiv:1802.06365v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

We investigate the magnetic field dependence of an ideal superconducting vortex lattice in the parity-mixed pair-density wave phase of multilayer superconductors within a circular cell Ginzburg-Landau approach. In multilayer systems, due to local inversion symmetry breaking, a Rashba spin-orbit coupling is induced at the outer layers. This combined with a perpendicular paramagnetic (Pauli) limiting magnetic field stabilizes a staggered layer dependent pair-density wave phase in the superconducting singlet channel. The high-field pair-density wave phase is separated from the low-field BCS phase by a first-order phase transition. The motivating guiding question in this paper is: what is the minimal necessary Maki parameter $\alpha_M$ for the appearance of the pair-density wave phase of a superconducting trilayer system? To address this problem we generalize the circular cell method for the regular flux-line lattice of a type-II superconductor to include paramagnetic depairing effects. Then, we apply the model to the trilayer system, where each of the layers are characterized by Ginzburg-Landau parameter $\kappa_0$, and a Maki parameter $\alpha_M$. We find that when the spin-orbit Rashba interaction compares to the superconducting condensation energy, the orbitally limited pair-density wave phase stabilizes for Maki parameters $\alpha_M> 10$.

Current-density implementation for calculating flexoelectric coefficients. (arXiv:1802.06390v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

The flexoelectric effect refers to polarization induced in an insulator when a strain gradient is applied. We have developed a first-principles methodology based on density-functional perturbation theory to calculate the elements of the bulk, clamped-ion flexoelectric tensor. In order to determine the transverse and shear components directly from a unit cell calculation, we calculate the current density induced by the adiabatic atomic displacements of a long-wavelength acoustic phonon. Previous implementations based on the charge-density response required supercells to capture these components. Our density-functional-theory implementation requires the development of an expression for the current density that is valid for the case of nonlocal pseudopotentials, and long-wavelength phonon perturbations. We benchmark our methodology on simple systems of isolated noble gas atoms, and apply it to calculate the clamped-ion flexoelectric constants for a variety of technologically important cubic oxides. We also discuss some technical issues that are associated with the definition of current density in a nonlocal pseudopotential context, and their relevance to the calculation of macroscopic response properties of crystals.

Semiclassical approach to finite temperature quantum annealing with trapped ions. (arXiv:1802.06397v1 [quant-ph])

Recently it has been demonstrated that an ensemble of trapped ions may serve as a quantum annealer for the number-partitioning problem [Nature Comm. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11524]. This hard computational problem may be addressed employing a tunable spin glass architecture. Following the proposal of the trapped ions annealer, we study here its robustness against thermal effects, that is, we investigate the role played by thermal phonons. For the efficient description of the system, we use a semiclassical approach, and benchmark it against the exact quantum evolution. The aim is to understand better and characterize how the quantum device approaches a solution of, an otherwise, difficult to solve NP-hard problem.

Magnetoelectric effect and orbital magnetization in skyrmion crystals: New ways for detection and characterization of skyrmions. (arXiv:1802.06411v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

Skyrmions are small magnetic quasiparticles, which are uniquely characterized by their topological charge and their helicity. In this Letter, we show via calculations how both properties can be determined without relying on real-space imaging. The orbital magnetization and topological Hall conductivity measure the arising magnetization due to circulation of electrons in the bulk and the occurrence of topologically protected edge channels due to the emergent field of a skyrmion crystal. Both observables quantify the topological Hall effect and distinguish skyrmions from antiskyrmions by sign. Additionally we predict a magnetoelectric effect in skyrmion crystals, which is the generation of a magnetization (polarization) by application of an electric (magnetic) field. This new effect is quantified by spin toroidization and magnetoelectric polarizability. Its dependence on the skyrmion helicity fits that of the classical toroidal moment of the spin texture and allows to differentiate skyrmion helicities: it is largest for Bloch skyrmions and zero for Neel skyrmions. We predict distinct features of the four observables that can be used to detect and characterize skyrmions in experiments.

Magnetoanisotropic spin-triplet Andreev reflection in ferromagnet-Ising superconductor junctions. (arXiv:1802.06414v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

We theoretically study the electronic transport through a ferromagnet-Ising superconductor junction. A tight-binding Hamiltonian describing the Ising superconductor is presented. Then by combing the non-equilibrium Green's function method, the expressions of Andreev reflection coefficient and conductance are obtained. A strong magnetoanisotropic spin-triplet Andreev reflection is shown, and the magnetoanisotropic period is $\pi$ instead of $2\pi$ as in the conventional magnetoanisotropic system. We demonstrate a significant increase of the spin-triplet Andreev reflection for the single-band Ising superconductor. Furthermore, the dependence of the Andreev reflection on the incident energy and incident angle are also investigated. A complete Andreev reflection can occur when the incident energy is equal to the superconductor gap, regardless of the Fermi energy (spin polarization) of the ferromagnet. For the suitable oblique incidence, the spin-triplet Andreev reflection can be strongly enhanced. In addition, the conductance spectroscopies of both zero bias and finite bias are studied, and the influence of gate voltage, exchange energy, and spin-orbit coupling on the conductance spectroscopy are discussed in detail. The conductance reveals a strong magnetoanisotropy with period $\pi$ as the Andreev reflection coefficient. When the magnetization direction is parallel to the junction plane, a large conductance peak always emerges at the superconductor gap. This work offers a comprehensive and systematic study of the spin-triplet Andreev reflection, and has underlying application of $\pi$-periodic spin valve in spintronics.

Hot electron cooling in Dirac semimetal Cd$_3$As$_2$ due to polar optical phonons. (arXiv:1802.06418v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

A theory of hot electron cooling power due to polar optical phonons $P_{\rm op}$ is developed in three-dimensional Dirac semimetal($3$DDS) Cd$_3$As$_2$ taking account of hot phonon effect. Hot phonon distribution $N_q$ and $P_{\rm op}$ are investigated as a function of electron temperature $T_e$, electron density $n_e$, and phonon relaxation time $\tau_p$. It is found that $P_{\rm op}$ increases rapidly (slowly) with $T_e$ at lower (higher) temperature regime. Whereas, $P_{\rm op}$ is weakly deceasing with increasing $n_e$. The results are compared with those for three-dimensional electron gas ($3$DEG) in Cd$_3$As$_2$ semiconductor. Hot phonon effect is found to reduce $P_{\rm op}$ considerably and it is stronger in 3DDS Cd$_3$As$_2$ than in Cd$_3$As$_2$ semiconductor. $P_{\rm op}$ is also compared with the hot electron cooling power due to acoustic phonons $P_{\rm ac}$. We find that a crossover takes place from $P_{\rm ac}$ dominated cooling at low $T_e$ to $P_{\rm op}$ dominated cooling at higher $T_e$. The temperature at which this crossover occurs shifts towards higher values with the increase of $n_e$. Also, hot electron energy relaxation time $\tau_e$ is discussed and estimated.

Multicritical edge statistics for the momenta of fermions in non-harmonic traps. (arXiv:1802.06436v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

We compute the joint statistics of the momenta $p_i$ of $N$ non-interacting fermions in a trap, near the Fermi edge, with a particular focus on the largest one $p_{\max}$. For a $1d$ harmonic trap, momenta and positions play a symmetric role and hence, the joint statistics of momenta is identical to that of the positions. In particular, $p_{\max}$, as $x_{\max}$, is distributed according to the Tracy-Widom distribution. Here we show that novel "momentum edge statistics" emerge when the curvature of the potential vanishes, i.e. for "flat traps" near their minimum, with $V(x) \sim x^{2n}$ and $n>1$. These are based on generalisations of the Airy kernel that we obtain explicitly. The fluctuations of $p_{\max}$ are governed by new universal distributions determined from the $n$-th member of the second Painlev\'e hierarchy of non-linear differential equations, with connections to multicritical random matrix models. Finite temperature extensions and possible experimental signatures in cold atoms are discussed.

Theory of nonlinear microwave absorption by interacting two-level systems. (arXiv:1802.06438v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

The microwave absorption and noise caused by quantum two-level systems (TLS) dramatically suppress the coherence in Josephson junction qubits that are promising candidates for a quantum information applications. Microwave absorption by TLSs is not clearly understood yet because of the complexity of their interactions leading to the spectral diffusion. Here, the theory of the non-linear absorption in the presence of spectral diffusion is developed using the generalized master equation formalism. The theory predicts that the linear absorption regime holds while a TLS Rabi frequency is smaller than their phase decoherence rate. At higher external fields, a novel non-linear absorption regime is found with the loss tangent inversely proportional to the intensity of the field. The theory can be generalized to acoustic absorption and lower dimensions realized in superconducting qubits.

Particle resuspension from complex surfaces: current knowledge and limitations. (arXiv:1802.06448v1 [physics.flu-dyn])

This review explores particle resuspension from surfaces due to fluid flows. The objective of this review is to provide a general framework and terminology for particle resuspension while highlighting the future developments needed to deepen our understanding of these phenomena. For that purpose, the manuscript is organized with respect to three mechanisms identified in particle resuspension, namely: the incipient motion of particles (i.e. how particles are set in motion), their migration on the surface (i.e. rolling or sliding motion) and their re-entrainment in the flow (i.e. their motion in the near-wall region after detachment). Recent measurements and simulations of particle resuspension are used to underline our current understanding of each mechanism for particle resuspension. These selected examples also highlight the limitations in the present knowledge of particle resuspension, while providing insights into future developments that need to be addressed. In particular, the paper addresses the issue of adhesion forces between complex surfaces - where more detailed characterizations of adhesion force distributions are needed - and the issue of particle sliding/rolling motion on the surface - which can lead to particles halting/being trapped in regions with high adhesion forces.

Active fluids at circular boundaries: Swim pressure and anomalous droplet ripening. (arXiv:1802.06469v1 [cond-mat.soft])

We investigate the swim pressure exerted by non-chiral and chiral active particles on convex or concave circular boundaries. Active particles are modeled as non-interacting and non-aligning self-propelled Brownian particles. The convex and concave circular boundaries are used as models representing a fixed inclusion immersed in an active bath and a cavity (or container) enclosing the active particles, respectively. We first present a detailed analysis of the role of convex versus concave boundary curvature and of the chirality of active particles on their spatial distribution, chirality-induced currents, and the swim pressure they exert on the bounding surfaces. The results will then be used to predict the mechanical equilibria of suspended fluid enclosures (generically referred to as 'droplets') in a bulk with active particles being present either inside the bulk fluid or within the suspended droplets. We show that, while droplets containing active particles and suspended in a normal bulk behave in accordance with standard capillary paradigms, those containing a normal fluid exhibit anomalous behaviors when suspended in an active bulk. In the latter case, the excess swim pressure results in non-monotonic dependence of the inside droplet pressure on the droplet radius. As a result, we find a regime of anomalous capillarity for a single droplet, where the inside droplet pressure increases upon increasing the droplet size. In the case of two interconnected droplets, we show that mechanical equilibrium can occur also when they have different sizes. We further identify a regime of anomalous ripening, where two unequal-sized droplets can reach a final state of equal sizes upon interconnection, in stark contrast with the standard Ostwald ripening phenomenon, implying shrinkage of the smaller droplet in favor of the larger one.

On the exact solvability of the anisotropic central spin model: An operator approach. (arXiv:1802.06490v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

Using an operator approach based on a commutator scheme that has been previously applied to Richardson's reduced BCS model and the inhomogeneous Dicke model, we obtain general exact solvability requirements for an anisotropic central spin model with $XXZ$-type hyperfine coupling between the central spin and the spin bath, without any prior knowledge of integrability of the model. We outline the basic steps of the usage of the operator approach, and pedagogically summarize them into two \emph{Lemmas} and two \emph{Constraints}. Through a step-by-step construction of the eigen-problem, we show that the condition $g'^2_j-g_j^2=c$ naturally arises for the model to be exactly solvable, where $c$ is a constant independent of the bath-spin index $j$, and $\{g_j\}$ and $\{g'_j\}$ are the longitudinal and transverse hyperfine interactions, respectively. The obtained conditions and the resulting Bethe ansatz equations are consistent with that in previous literature.

Thermodynamics and structural transition of binary atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in box or harmonic potentials: A path-integral study. (arXiv:1802.06510v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

Experimental realizations of a variety of atomic binary Bose-Fermi mixtures have brought opportunities for studying composite quantum systems with different spin-statistics. The binary atomic mixtures can exhibit a structural transition from a mixture into phase separation as the boson-fermion interaction increases. By using a path-integral formalism to evaluate the grand partition function and thermodynamic grand potential, we obtain the effective potential of binary Bose-Fermi mixtures. Thermodynamic quantities in a broad range of temperatures and interactions are also derived. The structural transition can be identified as a loop of the effective potential curve, and the volume fraction of phase separation can be determined by the lever rule. For $^6$Li-$^7$Li and $^6$Li-$^{41}$K mixtures, we present the phase diagrams of the mixtures in a box potential at zero and finite temperatures. Due to the flexible densities of atomic gases, the construction of phase separation is more complicated when compared to conventional liquid or solid mixtures where the individual densities are fixed. For harmonically trapped mixtures, we use the local density approximation to map out the finite-temperature density profiles and present typical trap structures, including the mixture, partially separated phases, and fully separated phases.

Spin-Orbit Coupling Induced Resonance in an Ultracold Bose Gas. (arXiv:1802.06522v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

We study a two-component Bose gas with artificial spin-orbit coupling (SOC) which couples the center-of-mass momentum of atom to its internal states. We show that in this system resonance can be induced by tuning SOC strength. With a two-dimensional SOC, resonances in two scattering channels can be induced by tuning the aspect ratio of SOC strengths. With a three-dimensional SOC, resonance in all scattering channels can be induced by tuning the appropriate SOC strength. Similarly, we also find that in a Fermi gas with two- or three-dimensional SOC resonance can be induced by tuning SOC strength.

Chern-Simons layers on dielectrics and metals. (arXiv:1802.06523v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

A diffraction problem for a flat Chern-Simons layer on the surface of a dielectric semispace is solved. The crossing from the repulsive to the attractive Casimir force is analyzed for two Au and two Si semispaces covered by Chern-Simons layers and separated by a vacuum slit.

Non-self averagings and ergodicity in quenched trap model with finite system size. (arXiv:1802.06524v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

Tracking tracer particles in heterogeneous environments plays an important role in unraveling the material properties. These heterogeneous structures are often static and depend on the sample realizations. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of such disorder realizations sometimes become considerably large. When we investigate the sample-to-sample fluctuations, fundamental averaging procedures are a thermal average for a single disorder realization and the disorder average for different disorder realizations. Here, we report on the self-averaging and non-self-averaging transitions in quenched trap models with finite system sizes, where we consider the periodic and the reflecting boundary conditions. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of diffusivity greatly exceeds trajectory-to-trajectory fluctuations of diffusivity in the corresponding annealed model. For a single disorder realization, the time-averaged mean square displacement and position-dependent observables converge to constants with the aid of the existence of the equilibrium distribution. This is a manifestation of ergodicity. As a result, the time-averaged quantities do not depend on the initial condition nor on the thermal histories but depend crucially on the disorder realization.

Efficiency and power of minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines with broken time-reversal symmetry. (arXiv:1802.06525v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

We study the minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines in which the time-reversal symmetry for the systems may b e broken. The expressions for the power and the efficiency are derived, in which the effects of the nonlinear terms due to dissipations are included. We show that, as within the linear responses, the minimally nonlinear irreversible heat engines enable attainment of Carnot efficiency at positive power. We also find that the Curzon-Ahlborn limit imposed on the efficiency at maximum power can be overcomed if the time-reversal symmetry is broken.

Scaling theory for Mott-Hubbard transitions. (arXiv:1802.06528v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

A comprehensive understanding of the physics of the Mott insulator has proved elusive due to the absence of any small parameter in the problem. We present a zero-temperature renormalisation group analysis of the one-band Hubbard model in two dimensions at, and away from, half-filling. We find that the transition in the half-filled system involves, for any Hubbard repulsion, passage from a non-Fermi liquid metallic state to a topologically-ordered gapped Mott liquid through a pseudogapped phase. The pseudogap is bookended by Fermi surface topology-changing Lifshitz transitions: one involving a disconnection at the antinodes, the other a final gapping at the nodes. Upon doping, we demonstrate the collapse of the Mott state at a quantum critical point possessing a nodal non-Fermi liquid with superconducting fluctuations, and spin-gapping away from the nodes. d-wave Superconducting order is shown to arise from this critical state of matter. Our findings are in striking agreement with results obtained in the cuprates, settling a long-standing debate on the origin of superconductivity in strongly correlated quantum matter.

A Simple and Effective Solution to the Constrained QM/MM Simulations. (arXiv:1802.06534v1 [cond-mat.soft])

It is a promising extension of the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach to incorporate the solvent molecules surrounding the QM solute into the QM region to ensure the adequate description of the electronic polarization of the solute. However, the solvent molecules in the QM region inevitably diffuse into the MM bulk during the QM/MM simulation. In this article we developed a simple and efficient method, referred to as boundary constraint with correction (BCC), to prevent the diffusion of the solvent water molecules by means of a constraint po- tential. The point of the BCC method is to compensate the error in a statistical property due to the bias potential by adding a correction term obtained through a set of QM/MM simulations. The BCC method is designed so that the effect of the bias potential completely vanishes when the QM solvent is identical with the MM solvent. Furthermore, the desirable conditions, that is, the continuities of energy and force and the conservations of energy and momentum, are fulfilled in principle. We applied the QM/MM-BCC method to a hydronium ion in aqueous solution to construct the radial distribution function(RDF) of the solvent around the solute. It was demonstrated that the correction term fairly compensated the error and led the RDF in good agreement with the result given by an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation.

Ferromagnetic Peierls insulator state in $\mathit{A}$Mg$_4$Mn$_6$O$_{15}$ ($\mathit{A}$ = K, Rb, Cs). (arXiv:1802.06536v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

Using the density-functional-theory based electronic structure calculations, we study the electronic state of recently discovered mixed-valent manganese oxides $A$Mg$_4$Mn$_6$O$_{15}$ ($A=$ K, Rb, Cs), which are fully spin-polarized ferromagnetic insulators with a cubic crystal structure. We show that the system may be described as a three-dimensional arrangement of the one-dimensional chains of a $2p$ orbital of O and a $3d$ orbital of Mn running along the three axes of the cubic lattice. We thereby argue that in the ground state the chains are fully spin polarized due to the double-exchange mechanism and are distorted by the Peierls mechanism to make the system insulating.

Thermodynamics of energy, charge and spin currents in thermoelectric quantum-dot spin valve. (arXiv:1802.06549v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We provide a thermodynamically consistent description of energy, charge and spin transfers in a thermoelectric quantum-dot spin valve in the collinear configuration based on nonequilibrium Green's function and full counting statistics. We use the fluctuation theorem symmetry and the concept of entropy production to characterize the efficiency with which thermal gradients can be used to pump charges or spins against their chemical potentials, arbitrary far from equilibrium. Close to equilibrium, we recover the Onsager reciprocal relations and the connection to linear response notions of performance such as the figure of merit. We also identify regimes where work extraction is more efficient far then close from equilibrium.

Speed Limit for Classical Stochastic Processes. (arXiv:1802.06554v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech])

Speed limit for classical stochastic Markov processes with discrete states is studied. We find that a trade-off inequality exists between the speed of the state transformation and the entropy production. The dynamical activity determines the time scale and plays a crucial role in the inequality. For systems with stationary current, a similar trade-off inequality with the Hatano-Sasa entropy production gives a much better bound on the speed of the state transformation. Our inequalities contain only physically well-defined quantities, and thus the physical picture of these inequalities is clear.

Slowest kinetic modes revealed by metabasin renormalization. (arXiv:1802.06558v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Understanding the slowest relaxations of complex systems, such as relaxation of glass-forming materials, diffusion in nanoclusters, and folding of biomolecules, is important for physics, chemistry, and biology. For a kinetic system, the relaxation modes are determined by diagonalizing its transition rate matrix. However, for realistic systems of interest, numerical diagonalization, as well as extracting physical understanding from the diagonalization results, is difficult due to the high dimensionality. Here, we develop an alternative and generally applicable method of extracting the long-time scale relaxation dynamics by combining the metabasin analysis of Okushima et al. [Phys. Rev. E 80, 036112 (2009)] and a Jacobi method. We test the method on a illustrative model of a four-funnel model, for which we obtain a renormalized kinematic equation of much lower dimension sufficient for determining slow relaxation modes precisely. The method is successfully applied to the vacancy transport problem in ionic nanoparticles [Niiyama et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 654, 52 (2016)], allowing a clear physical interpretation that the final relaxation consists of two successive, characteristic processes.

A replica implementation of the maximum-caliber principle. (arXiv:1802.06560v1 [q-bio.BM])

We present an algorithm to correct molecular dynamics non-equilibrium simulations based on the knowledge of time-dependent experimental data. This is inspired by a similar scheme used for equilibrium simulations, and is based on the principle of maximum caliber that guarantees that as little subjective information as possible is added to a model, besides the available experimental data. We also show that the same algorithm, in the case of simplified models, can be used to speed up the computational time needed by a simulation by one to two orders of magnitude.

Oscillation death induced by time-varying network. (arXiv:1802.06580v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn])

The synchronous dynamics of an array of excitable oscillators, coupled via a generic graph, is studied. Non homogeneous perturbations can grow and destroy synchrony, via a self-consistent instability which is solely instigated by the intrinsic network dynamics. By acting on the characteristic time-scale of the network modulation, one can make the examined system to behave as its (partially) averaged analog. This result if formally obtained by proving an extended version of the averaging theorem, which allows for partial averages to be carried out. Oscillation death are reported to follow the onset of the network driven instability.

Surface-mode-assisted amplification of radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles. (arXiv:1802.06583v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We show that the radiative heat flux between two nanoparticles can be significantly amplified when they are placed in proximity of a planar substrate supporting a surface resonance. The amplification factor goes beyond two orders of magnitude in the case of dielectric nanoparticles, whereas it is lower in the case of metallic nanoparticles. We analyze how this effect depends on the frequency and on the particles-surface distance, by clearly identifying the signature of the surface mode producing the amplification. Finally, we show how the presence of a graphene sheet on top of the substrate can modify the effect, by making an amplification of two orders of magnitude possible also in the case of metallic nanoparticles. This long range amplification effect should play an important role in the thermal relaxation dynamics of nanoparticle networks.

Electron pairing: from metastable electron pair to bipolaron. (arXiv:1802.06593v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

Starting from the shell structure in atoms and the significant correlation within electron pairs, we distinguish the exchange-correlation effects between two electrons of opposite spins occupying the same orbital from the average correlation among many electrons in a crystal. In the periodic potential of the crystal with lattice constant larger than the effective Bohr radius of the valence electrons, these correlated electron pairs can form a metastable energy band above the corresponding single-electron band separated by an energy gap. In order to determine if these metastable electron pairs can be stabilized, we calculate the many-electron exchange-correlation renormalization and the polaron correction to the two-band system with single electrons and electron pairs. We find that the electron-phonon interaction is essential to counterbalance the Coulomb repulsion and to stabilize the electron pairs. The interplay of the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, manifested in the exchange-correlation energies, polaron effects, and screening, is responsible for the formation of electron pairs (bipolarons) that are located on the Fermi surface of the single-electron band.

The quest for Casimir repulsion between Chern-Simons surfaces. (arXiv:1802.06598v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

In this paper we critically reconsider the Casimir repulsion between surfaces that carry the Chern-Simons interaction (corresponding to the Hall type conductivity). We present a derivation of the Lifshitz formula valid for arbitrary planar geometries and discuss its properties. This analysis allows us to resolve some contradictions in the previous literature. We compute the Casimir energy for two surfaces that have constant longitudinal and Hall conductivities. The repulsion is possible only if both surfaces have Hall conductivities of the same sign. However, there is a critical value of the longitudinal conductivity above which the repulsion disappears. We also consider a model where both parity odd and parity even terms in the conductivity are produced by the polarization tensor of surface modes. In contrast to the previous publications L. Chen and S.-L. Wan, Phys. Rev. B84, 075149 (2011); B85, 115102 (2012), we include the parity anomaly term. This term ensures that the conductivities vanish for infinitely massive surface modes. We find that at least for a single mode regardless of the sign and value of its mass, there is no Casimir repulsion.

Ultrafast perturbation maps as a quantitative tool for testing of multi-port photonic devices. (arXiv:1802.06600v1 [physics.optics])

Advanced photonic probing techniques are of great importance for the development of non-contact wafer-scale testing of photonic chips. Ultrafast photomodulation has been identified as a powerful new tool capable of remotely mapping photonic devices through a scanning perturbation. Here, we develop photomodulation maps into a quantitative technique through a general and rigorous method based on Lorentz reciprocity that allows the prediction of transmittance perturbation maps for arbitrary linear photonic systems with great accuracy and minimal computational cost. Excellent agreement is obtained between predicted and experimental maps of various optical multimode-interference devices, thereby allowing direct comparison of a device under test with a physical model of an ideal design structure. In addition to constituting a promising route for optical testing in photonics manufacturing, ultrafast perturbation mapping may be used for design optimization of photonic structures with reconfigurable functionalities.

A Helium-Surface Interaction Potential of Bi$_2$Te$_3$(111) from Ultrahigh-Resolution Spin-Echo Measurements. (arXiv:1802.06605v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

We have determined an atom-surface interaction potential for the He$-$Bi$_2$Te$_3$(111) system by analysing ultrahigh resolution measurements of selective adsorption resonances. The experimental measurements were obtained using $^3$He spin-echo spectrometry. Following an initial free-particle model analysis, we use elastic close-coupling calculations to obtain a three-dimensional potential. The three-dimensional potential is then further refined based on the experimental data set, giving rise to an optimised potential which fully reproduces the experimental data. Based on this analysis, the He$-$Bi$_2$Te$_3$(111) interaction potential can be described by a corrugated Morse potential with a well depth $D=(6.22\pm0.05)~\mathrm{meV}$, a stiffness $\kappa =(0.92\pm0.01)~\mathrm{\AA}^{-1}$ and a surface electronic corrugation of $(9.6\pm0.2)$% of the lattice constant. The improved uncertainties of the atom-surface interaction potential should also enable the use in inelastic close-coupled calculations in order to eventually study the temperature dependence and the line width of selective adsorption resonances.

A variational approach to Navier-Stokes. (arXiv:1802.06606v1 [math.AP])

We present a variational resolution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes system by means of stabilized Weighted-Inertia-Dissipation-Energy (WIDE) functionals. The minimization of these parameter-dependent functionals corresponds to an elliptic-in-time regularization of the system. By passing to the limit in the regularization parameter along subsequences of WIDE minimizers one recovers a classical Leray-Hopf weak solution.

Non-perturbative method to compute thermal correlations in one-dimensional systems: A detailed analysis. (arXiv:1802.06610v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

We develop a highly efficient method to numerically simulate thermal fluctuations and correlations in non-relativistic continuous bosonic one-dimensional systems. The method is suitable for arbitrary local interactions as long as the system remains dynamically stable. We start by proving the equivalence of describing the systems through the transfer matrix formalism and a Fokker-Planck equation for a distribution evolving in space. The Fokker-Planck equation is known to be equivalent to a stochastic differential (It\={o}) equation. The latter is very suitable for computer simulations, allowing the calculation of any desired correlation function. As an illustration, we apply our method to the case of two tunnel-coupled quasi-condensates of bosonic atoms. The results are compared to the predictions of the sine-Gordon model for which we develop analytic expression directly from the transfer matrix formalism.

Suppression of photo-oxidation of organic chromophores by strong coupling to plasmonic nanoantennas. (arXiv:1802.06616v1 [physics.optics])

Intermixed light-matter quasiparticles - polaritons - possess unique optical properties owned to their compositional nature. These intriguing hybrid states have been extensively studied over the past decades in a wide range of realizations aiming at both basic science and emerging applications. However, recently it has been demonstrated that not only optical, but also material-related properties, such as chemical reactivity and charge transport, may be significantly altered in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interactions. Here, we show that a nanoscale system, comprised of a plasmonic nanoprism strongly coupled to excitons in J-aggregated form of organic chromophores, experiences modified excited state dynamics and therefore modified photo-chemical reactivity. Our experimental results reveal that photobleaching, one of the most fundamental photochemical reactions, can be effectively controlled and suppressed by the degree of plasmon-exciton coupling and detuning. In particular, we observe a 100-fold stabilization of organic dyes for the red-detuned nanoparticles. Our findings contribute to understanding of photochemical properties in the strong coupling regime and may find important implications for the performance and improved stability of optical devices incorporating organic dyes.

Temperature Dependent Magnetism in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements. (arXiv:1802.06631v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Artificial magnetic honeycomb lattices are expected to exhibit a broad and tunable range of novel magnetic phenomena that would be difficult to achieve in natural materials, such as long-range spin ice, entropy-driven magnetic charge-ordered state and spin-order due to the spin chirality. Eventually, the spin correlation is expected to develop into a unique spin solid state density ground state, manifested by the distribution of the pairs of vortex states of opposite chirality. Here we report the creation of a new artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultra-small connecting bonds, with a typical size of $\simeq$ 12 nm. Detail magnetic and neutron scattering measurements on the newly fabricated honeycomb lattice demonstrate the evolution of magnetic correlation as a function of temperature. At low enough temperature, neutron scattering measurements and micromagnetic simulation suggest the development of loop state of vortex configuration in this system.

Interfacing planar superconducting qubits with high overtone bulk acoustic phonons. (arXiv:1802.06642v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Mechanical resonators are a promising way for interfacing qubits in order to realize hybrid quantum systems that offer great possibilities for applications. Mechanical systems can have very long energy lifetimes, and they can be further interfaced to other systems. Moreover, integration of mechanical oscillator with qubits creates a potential platform for exploration of quantum physics in macroscopic mechanical degrees of freedom. Utilization of high overtone bulk acoustic resonators coupled to superconducting qubits is an intriguing platform towards these goals. These resonators exhibit a combination of high frequency and high quality factors. They can reach their quantum ground state at dilution refrigeration temperatures and they can be strongly coupled to superconducting qubits via their piezoelectric effect. In this report, we demonstrate our system where bulk acoustic phonons of a high overtone resonator are coupled to a transmon qubit in a planar circuit architecture. We show that the bulk acoustic phonons are interacting with the qubit in the simple design architecture at the quantum level, representing further progress towards quantum control of mechanical motion.

Electrically Conductive Diamond Membrane for Electrochemical Separation Processes. (arXiv:1802.06643v1 [physics.app-ph])

Electrochemically switchable selective membranes play an important role in selective filtration processes such as water desalination, industrial waste treatment and hemodialysis. Currently, membranes for these purposes need to be optimized in terms of electrical conductivity and stability against fouling and corrosion. In this paper, we report the fabrication of boron-doped diamond membrane by template diamond growth on quartz fiber filters. The morphology and quality of the diamond coating are characterized via SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The membrane is heavily boron doped (> 1021 cm-3) with > 3 V potential window in aqueous electrolyte. By applying a membrane potential against the electrolyte, redox active species can be removed via flow-through electrolysis. Compared to planar diamond electrodes, the ~250 times surface enlargement provided by such a membrane ensures an effective removal of target chemicals from the input electrolyte. The high stability of diamond enables the membrane to not only work at high membrane bias but also to be self-cleaning via in situ electrochemical oxidation. Therefore, we believe that the diamond membrane presented in this paper will provide a solution to future selective filtration applications especially in extreme conditions.

A Comprehensive First Principles Study of Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide/Nitride Based MXenes. (arXiv:1802.06648v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) titanium carbide and nitride based pristine and functionalized MXenes. Simulation results show that carbide-based MXenes have larger lattice constants and monolayer thicknesses than nitride-based MXenes. The in-plane elastic moduli of titanium nitride based pristine MXenes are larger than those of titanium carbide based pristine MXenes, whereas in both systems they decrease with the increase of the monolayer thickness. Cohesive energy calculations indicate that MXenes with a larger monolayer thickness have a better structural stability. The nitride-based MXenes are found to be less stable with respect to carbide-based MXenes, similar to experimental reports. However, adsorption energy calculations imply that titanium nitride based pristine MXenes has stronger preference to adhere to the terminal groups, particularly the -O groups, which suggests more active surfaces. By analyzing the electron localization function and charge density distribution, the interactions between Ti-C, Ti-N, Ti-T are determined to be essentially ionic bonding. More importantly, nearly free electron states are observed to exist outside the surfaces of -OH functionalized carbide and nitride based MXenes, which provide almost perfect transmission channels without nuclear scattering for electron transport. Density of states analysis shows that the overall electrical conductivity of nitride-based MXenes is higher than that of carbide-based MXenes. The exceptional properties of titanium nitride based MXenes, including strong surface adsorption, high elastic constants and elastic modulus, and good metallic conductivity, make them promising materials for catalysis and energy storage applications.

High precision displacement sensing of monolithic piezoelectric disk resonators using a single-electron transistor. (arXiv:1802.06658v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

A single-electron transistor (SET) can be used as an extremely sensitive charge detector. Mechanical displacements can be converted into charge, and hence, SETs can become sensitive detectors of mechanical oscillations. For studying small-energy oscillations, an important approach to realize the mechanical resonators is to use piezoelectric materials. Besides coupling to traditional electric circuitry, the strain-generated piezoelectric charge allows for measuring ultrasmall oscillations via SET detection. Here, we explore the usage of SETs to detect the shear-mode oscillations of a 6-mm-diameter quartz disk resonator with a resonance frequency around 9 MHz. We measure the mechanical oscillations using either a conventional DC SET, or use the SET as a homodyne or heterodyne mixer, or finally, as a radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET). The RF-SET readout is shown to be the most sensitive method, allowing us to measure mechanical displacement amplitudes below 1E-13 m. We conclude that a detection based on a SET offers a potential to reach the sensitivity at the quantum limit of the mechanical vibrations.

Emergence of Jack ground states from two-body pseudopotentials in fractional quantum Hall systems. (arXiv:1802.06666v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

The family of "Jack states" related to antisymmetric Jack polynomials are the exact zero-energy ground states of particular model short-range {\em many-body} repulsive interactions, defined by a few non-vanishing leading pseudopotentials. Some Jack states are known or anticipated to accurately describe many-electron incompressible ground states emergent from the {\em two-body} Coulomb repulsion in fractional quantum Hall effect. By extensive numerical diagonalization we demonstrate emergence of Jack states from suitable pair interactions. We find empirically a simple formula for the optimal two-body pseudopotentials for the series of most prominent Jack states generated by {\em contact} many-body repulsion. Furthermore, we seek realization of arbitrary Jack states in realistic quantum Hall systems with Coulomb interaction, i.e., in partially filled lowest and excited Landau levels in quasi-two-dimensional layers of conventional semiconductors like GaAs or in graphene.

Multi-valley superconductivity in ion-gated MoS$_2$ layers. (arXiv:1802.06675v1 [cond-mat.supr-con])

Layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) conjugate the enhanced effects of correlations associated to the two-dimensional limit with electrostatic control over their phase transitions by means of an electric field. Several semiconducting TMDs, such as MoS$_2$, develop superconductivity (SC) at their surface when doped with an electrostatic field, but the mechanism is still debated. It is often assumed that Cooper pairs reside only in the two electron pockets at the K/K' points of the Brillouin Zone. However, experimental and theoretical results suggest that a multi-valley Fermi surface (FS) is associated with the SC state, involving 6 electron pockets at the Q/Q' points. Here, we perform low-temperature transport measurements in ion-gated MoS$_2$ flakes. We show that a fully multi-valley FS is associated with the SC onset. The Q/Q' valleys fill for doping$\gtrsim2\cdot10^{13}$cm$^{-2}$, and the SC transition does not appear until the Fermi level crosses both spin-orbit split sub-bands Q$_1$ and Q$_2$. The SC state is associated to the FS connectivity and promoted by a Lifshitz transition due to the simultaneous population of multiple electron pockets. This FS topology will serve as a guideline in the quest for new superconductors.

A Comment on the Scale Length Validity of the Position Dependent Diffusion Coefficient Representation of Structural Heterogeneity. (arXiv:1802.06682v1 [cond-mat.soft])

Experimental studies of the variation of the mean square displacement (MSD) of a particle in a confined colloid suspension that exhibits density variations on the scale length of the particle diameter are not in agreement with the prediction that the spatial variation in MSD should mimic the spatial variation in density. The predicted behavior is derived from the expectation that the MSD of a particle depends on the system density and the assumption that the force acting on a particle is a point function of position. The experimental data come from studies of the MSDs of particles in narrow ribbon channels and between narrowly spaced parallel plates, and from new data, reported herein, of the radial and azimuthal MSDs of a colloid particle in a dense colloid suspension confined to a small circular cavity. In each of these geometries a dense colloid suspension exhibits pronounced density oscillations with spacing of a particle diameter. We remove the discrepancy between prediction and experiment using the Fisher-Methfessel interpretation of how local equilibrium in an inhomogeneous system is maintained to argue that the force acting on a particle is delocalized over a volume with radius equal to a particle diameter. Our interpretation has relevance to the relationship between the scale of inhomogeneity and the utility of translation of the particle MSD into a position dependent diffusion coefficient, and to the use of a spatially dependent diffusion coefficient to describe mass transport in a heterogeneous system.

Quantum criticality of two-dimensional quantum magnets with long-range interactions. (arXiv:1802.06684v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

We study the critical breakdown of two-dimensional quantum magnets in the presence of algebraically decaying long-range interactions by investigating the transverse-field Ising model on the square and triangular lattice. This is achieved technically by combining perturbative continuous unitary transformations with classical Monte Carlo simulations to extract high-order series for the one-particle excitations in the high-field quantum paramagnet. We find that the unfrustrated systems change from mean-field to nearest-neighbor universality with continuously varying critical exponents, while the system remains in the universality class of the nearest-neighbor model in the frustrated cases independent of the long-range nature of the interaction.

The Role of Solvent for Sodium Intercalation into Graphite. (arXiv:1802.06689v1 [physics.chem-ph])

Na is known to deliver very low energy capacity for sodium intercalation compared to Lithium. In this study, we use quantum mechanics based metadynamics simulations to obtain the free energy landscape for sodium ion intercalation from Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent into graphite. We find that the lowest free energy minima from the metadynamics are associated with sodium solvated by 3 or 4 DMSO. The free energy minima of these states are activated by a free energy of solvation computed to be 0.17 eV, which in turn are the most thermodynamically stable. We observe weak interactions of sodium with graphite sheets during the unbiased and biased molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations results indicate that solvent plays an important role in stabilizing the sodium intercalation into graphite through shielding of the sodium while modulating the interaction of the solvent with the graphite sheets. In order to facilitate this intercalation, we propose solvents with negatively charged groups and aromatic cores (e.g., cyclic ethers) that could allow a greater rate of anion exchange to increase Na+ mobility.

Quench Dynamics of Finite Bosonic Ensembles in Optical Lattices with Spatially Modulated Interactions. (arXiv:1802.06693v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

The nonequilibrium quantum dynamics of few boson ensembles which experience a spatially modulated interaction strength and are confined in finite optical lattices is investigated. Performing quenches either on the wavevector or the phase of the interaction profile an enhanced imbalance of the interatomic repulsion between distinct spatial regions of the lattice is induced. Following both quench protocols triggers various tunneling channels and a rich excitation dynamics consisting of a breathing and a cradle mode. All modes are shown to be amplified for increasing inhomogeneity amplitude of the interaction strength. Especially the phase quench induces a directional transport enabling us to discern energetically, otherwise, degenerate tunneling pathways. Moreover, a periodic population transfer between distinct momenta for quenches of increasing wavevector is observed, while a directed occupation of higher momenta can be achieved following a phase quench. Finally, during the evolution regions of partial coherence are revealed between the predominantly occupied wells.

Atiyah-Hirzebruch Spectral Sequence in Band Topology: General Formalism and Topological Invariants for 230 Space Groups. (arXiv:1802.06694v1 [cond-mat.str-el])

We study the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence (AHSS) for equivariant K-theory in the context of band theory. Various notions in the band theory such as irreducible representations at high-symmetric points, the compatibility relation, topological gapless and singular points naturally fits into the AHSS. As an application of the AHSS, we get the complete list of topological invariants for 230 space groups without time-reversal or particle-hole invariance. We find that a lot of torsion topological invariants appear even for symmorphic space groups.

Dielectric Properties of Metal-Organic Frameworks Probed via Synchrotron Infrared Reflectivity. (arXiv:1802.06702v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

We present the frequency-dependant (dynamic) dielectric response of a group of topical polycrystalline zeolitic imidazolate-based metal-organic framework (MOF) materials in the extended infrared spectral region. Using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy in specular reflectance, in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have revealed detailed structure-property trends linking the THz region dielectric response to framework porosity and structural density. The work demonstrates that MOFs are promising candidate materials not only for low-\k{appa} electronics applications but could also be pioneering for terahertz (THz) applications, such as next-generation broadband communications technologies.

Quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using Wilson fermions. (arXiv:1802.06704v1 [cond-mat.quant-gas])

Quantum simulators have the exciting prospect of giving access to real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories, in particular in regimes that are difficult to compute on classical computers. Future progress towards scalable quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories, however, hinges crucially on the efficient use of experimental resources. As we argue in this work, due to the fundamental non-uniqueness of discretizing the relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian, the lattice representation of gauge theories allows for an optimization that up to now has been left unexplored. We exemplify our discussion with lattice quantum electrodynamics in two-dimensional space-time, where we show that the formulation through Wilson fermions provides several advantages over the previously considered staggered fermions. Notably, it enables a strongly simplified optical lattice setup and it reduces the number of degrees of freedom required to simulate dynamical gauge fields. Exploiting the optimal representation, we propose an experiment based on a mixture of ultracold atoms trapped in a tilted optical lattice. Using numerical benchmark simulations, we demonstrate that a state-of-the-art quantum simulator may access the Schwinger mechanism and map out its non-perturbative onset.

Identification and tunable optical coherent control of transition-metal spins in silicon carbide. (arXiv:1802.06714v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

Color centers in wide-bandgap semiconductors are attractive systems for quantum technologies since they can combine long-coherent electronic spin and bright optical properties. Several suitable centers have been identified, most famously the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. However, integration in communication technology is hindered by the fact that their optical transitions lie outside telecom wavelength bands. Several transition-metal impurities in silicon carbide do emit at and near telecom wavelengths, but knowledge about their spin and optical properties is incomplete. We present all-optical identification and coherent control of molybdenum-impurity spins in silicon carbide with transitions at near-infrared wavelengths. Our results identify spin $S=1/2$ for both the electronic ground and excited state, with highly anisotropic spin properties that we apply for implementing optical control of ground-state spin coherence. Our results show optical lifetimes below 100 ns and inhomogenous spin dephasing times near 1 $\mu$s, establishing relevance quantum spin-photon interfacing.

Regularization methods for finding the relaxation time spectra of linear polydisperse polymer melts. (arXiv:1802.06725v1 [cond-mat.soft])

The calculation of discrete or continuous relaxation time spectra from rheometric measurables of polydisperse polymers is an ill-posed problem. In this paper, a curve fitting method for solving this problem is presented and compared to selected models from the literature. It is shown that the new method is capable of correctly predicting the molecular mass distributions of linear polydisperse polymer melts as well as their relaxation time spectra.

Spin-orbit coupling effects in zinc-blende InSb and wurtzite InAs nanowires: realistic calculations with multiband $\vec{k} \cdot \vec{p}$ method. (arXiv:1802.06734v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

A systematic numerical investigation of spin-orbit fields in the conduction bands of III-V semiconductor nanowires is performed. Zinc-blende InSb nanowires are considered along [001], [011], and [111] directions, while wurtzite InAs nanowires are studied along [0001] and [10$\overline{1}$0] or [11$\overline{2}$0] directions. Realistic multiband $\vec{k} \cdot \vec{p}\,$ Hamiltonians are solved by using plane-wave expansions of real-space parameters. In all cases the linear and cubic spin-orbit coupling parameters are extracted for nanowire widths from 30 to 100 nm. Typical spin-orbit energies are on the $\mu$eV scale, except for InAs wurtzite nanowires grown along [10$\overline{1}$0] or [11$\overline{2}$0], in which the spin-orbit energy is about meV, largely independent of the wire diameter. Significant spin-orbit coupling is obtained by applying a transverse electric field, causing the Rashba effect. For an electric field of about 4 mV/nm the obtained spin-orbit energies are about 1 meV for both materials in all investigated growth directions. The most favorable system, in which the spin-orbit effects are maximal, are InAs WZ nanowires grown along [1010] or [11$\overline{2}$0], since here spin-orbit energies are giant (meV) already in the absence of electric field. The least favorable are InAs WZ nanowires grown along [0001], since here even the electric field does not increase the spin-orbit energies beyond 0.1 meV. The presented results should be useful for investigations of optical orientation, spin transport, weak localization, and superconducting proximity effects in semiconductor nanowires.

Static properties and current-induced dynamics of pinned 90$^\circ$ magnetic domain walls. (arXiv:1802.06741v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

Magnetic domain walls are pinned strongly by abrupt changes in magnetic anisotropy. When driven into oscillation by a spin-polarized current, locally pinned domain walls can be exploited as tunable sources of short-wavelength spin waves. Here, we develop an analytical framework and discrete Heisenberg model to describe the static and dynamic properties of pinned domain walls with a head-to-tail magnetic structure. We focus on magnetic domain walls that are pinned by 90$^\circ$ rotations of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. Our model captures the domain wall response to a spin-transfer torque that is exerted by an electric current. Model predictions of the domain wall resonance frequency and its evolution with magnetic anisotropy strength and external magnetic field are compared to micromagnetic simulations.

Thermal stability of metastable magnetic skyrmions, Entropic narrowing and significance of internal eigenmodes. (arXiv:1802.06744v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall])

We compute annihilation rates of metastable magnetic skyrmions using a form of Langer's theory in the intermediate-to-high damping (IHD) regime. We look at three possible paths to annihilation: isotropic collapse of an isolated skyrmion, isotropic collapse induced by another skyrmion and annihilation at a boundary. We find that the skyrmion's internal modes play a dominant role in the thermally activated transitions compared to the spin-wave excitations and that the relative contribution of internal modes depends on the nature of the transition process. Additionally, the eigenmodes at saddle point configurations are characterized by broken symmetries. Our calculations for a small skyrmion stabilized at zero-field show that the annihilation is largely dominated by the mechanism at the boundary, even though in this case the activation energy is higher than that of isotropic collapses. The potential source of stability of metastable skyrmions is therefore found not to lie in high activation energies, nor in the dynamics at the transition state, but comes from entropic narrowing in the saddle point region which leads to low attempt frequencies. This narrowing effect is found to be primarily associated with the skyrmion's internal modes. Isotropic collapse induced by another skyrmion exhibits the same internal energy barrier as a single skyrmion, but with a different entropic barrier. The probability of induced isotropic collapse is expected to increase with the number of skyrmions present on a racetrack.

Borderline Magnetism: How Does Adding Magnesium to Paramagnetic CeCo$_3$ Make a 450 K Ferromagnet with Large Magnetic Anisotropy?. (arXiv:1802.06747v1 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci])

A recent experimental study~\cite{tej-CeCo3-Mg} on paramagnetic CeCo$_3$ finds that Magnesium alloying induces a ferromagnetic transition with intrinsic properties large enough for permanent magnet applications. Here we explain these surprising results \textit{via} a first principles study of the electronic structure and magnetism of Magnesium-alloyed CeCo$_3$. We find the origin of this Magnesium-induced ferromagnetic transition to be Stoner physics - the substantial increase in the Fermi-level density-of-states $N(E_F)$ with Mg alloying. Interestingly, the magnetic anisotropy arises primarily from the Ce $4f$ orbital, suggesting the viability of Ce for the generation of magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnets. These results offer a new route to the discovery of permanent magnet materials and provide fundamental insight into the magnetic properties of these alloys.

Spontaneous polarization of composite fermions in the $n=1$ Landau level of graphene. (arXiv:1507.01334v3 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

Motivated by recent experiments that reveal expansive fractional quantum Hall states in the $n=1$ graphene Landau level and suggest a nontrivial role of the spin degree of freedom [Amet {\em et al.}, Nat. Common. {\bf 6}, 5838 (2014)], we perform accurate quantitative study of the the competition between fractional quantum Hall states with different spin polarizations. We find that the fractional quantum Hall effect is well described in terms of composite fermions, but the spin physics is qualitatively different from that in the $n=0$ Landau level. In particular, for the states at filling factors $n/(2n\pm 1)$, both exact diagonalization and the composite fermion theory show that the ground state is fully spin polarized and supports a robust spin wave mode even in the limit of vanishing Zeeman coupling. Thus, even though composite fermions are formed, a mean field description that treats them as weakly interacting particles breaks down, and the exchange interaction between them is strong enough to cause a qualitative change in the behavior by inducing full spin polarization. We also verify that the fully spin polarized composite fermion Fermi sea has lower energy than the paired Pfaffian state at the relevant half fillings in the $n=1$ graphene Landau level, indicating a lack of fractional quantum Hall effect at half filling in the $n=1$ graphene Landau level.

Fast and slow thinking -- of networks: The complementary 'elite' and 'wisdom of crowds' of amino acid, neuronal and social networks. (arXiv:1511.01238v3 [q-bio.MN] UPDATED)

Complex systems may have billion components making consensus formation slow and difficult. Recently several overlapping stories emerged from various disciplines, including protein structures, neuroscience and social networks, showing that fast responses to known stimuli involve a network core of few, strongly connected nodes. In unexpected situations the core may fail to provide a coherent response, thus the stimulus propagates to the periphery of the network. Here the final response is determined by a large number of weakly connected nodes mobilizing the collective memory and opinion, i.e. the slow democracy exercising the 'wisdom of crowds'. This mechanism resembles to Kahneman's "Thinking, Fast and Slow" discriminating fast, pattern-based and slow, contemplative decision making. The generality of the response also shows that democracy is neither only a moral stance nor only a decision making technique, but a very efficient general learning strategy developed by complex systems during evolution. The duality of fast core and slow majority may increase our understanding of metabolic, signaling, ecosystem, swarming or market processes, as well as may help to construct novel methods to explore unusual network responses, deep-learning neural network structures and core-periphery targeting drug design strategies. (Illustrative videos can be downloaded from here: this http URL)

Criterion for the occurrence of many body localization in the presence of a single particle mobility edge. (arXiv:1602.02067v3 [cond-mat.dis-nn] UPDATED)

Non-interacting fermions in one dimension can undergo a localization-delocalization transition in the presence of a quasi-periodic potential as a function of that potential. In the presence of interactions, this transition transforms into a Many-Body Localization (MBL) transition. Recent studies have suggested that this type of transition can also occur in models with quasi-periodic potentials that possess single particle mobility edges. Two such models were studied in PRL 115,230401(2015) but only one was found to exhibit an MBL transition in the presence of interactions while the other one did not. In this work we investigate the occurrence of MBL in the presence of weak interactions in five different models with single particle mobility edges in one dimension with a view to obtaining a criterion for the same. We find that not all such models undergo a thermal-MBL phase transition in presence of weak interactions. We propose a criterion to determine whether MBL is likely to occur in presence of interaction based only on the properties of the non-interacting models. The relevant quantity $\epsilon$ is a measure of how localized the localized states are relative to how delocalized the delocalized states are in the non-interacting model. We also study various other features of the non-interacting models such as the divergence of the localization length at the mobility edge and the presence or absence of `ergodicity' and localization in their many-body eigenstates. However, we find that these features cannot be used to predict the occurrence of MBL upon the introduction of weak interactions.

Computer Algebra and Material Design. (arXiv:1612.02275v4 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)

This article is intended to an introductory lecture in material physics, in which the modern computational group theory and the electronic structure calculation are in collaboration. The effort of mathematicians in field of the group theory, have ripened as a new trend, called "computer algebra", outcomes of which now can be available as handy computational packages, and would also be useful to physicists with practical purposes. This article, in the former part, explains how to use the computer algebra for the applications in the solid-state simulation, by means of one of the computer algebra package, the GAP system. The computer algebra enables us to obtain various group theoretical properties with ease, such as the representations, the character tables, the subgroups, etc. Furthermore it would grant us a new perspective of material design, which could be executed in mathematically rigorous and systematic way. Some technical details and some computations which require the knowledge of a little higher mathematics (but computable easily by the computer algebra) are also given. The selected topics will provide the reader with some insights toward the dominating role of the symmetry in crystal, or, the "mathematical first principles" in it. In the latter part of the article, we analyze the relation between the structural symmetry and the electronic structure in C$_{60}$ (as an example to the sysmem without periodicity). The principal object of the study is to illustrate the hierarchical change of the quantum-physical properties of the molecule, in accordance with the reduction of the symmetry (as it descends down in the ladder of subgroups). In order to serve the common interest of the researchers, the details of the computations (the required initial data and the small programs developed for the purpose) are explained as minu[...]

This article is intended to an introductory lecture in material physics, in which the modern computational group theory and the electronic structure calculation are in collaboration. The effort of mathematicians in field of the group theory, have ripened as a new trend, called "computer algebra", outcomes of which now can be available as handy computational packages, and would also be useful to physicists with practical purposes. This article, in the former part, explains how to use the computer algebra for the applications in the solid-state simulation, by means of one of the computer algebra package, the GAP system. The computer algebra enables us to obtain various group theoretical properties with ease, such as the representations, the character tables, the subgroups, etc. Furthermore it would grant us a new perspective of material design, which could be executed in mathematically rigorous and systematic way. Some technical details and some computations which require the knowledge of a little higher mathematics (but computable easily by the computer algebra) are also given. The selected topics will provide the reader with some insights toward the dominating role of the symmetry in crystal, or, the "mathematical first principles" in it. In the latter part of the article, we analyze the relation between the structural symmetry and the electronic structure in C$_{60}$ (as an example to the sysmem without periodicity). The principal object of the study is to illustrate the hierarchical change of the quantum-physical properties of the molecule, in accordance with the reduction of the symmetry (as it descends down in the ladder of subgroups). In order to serve the common interest of the researchers, the details of the computations (the required initial data and the small programs developed for the purpose) are explained as minu[...]

At the limits of criticality-based quantum metrology: apparent super-Heisenberg scaling revisited. (arXiv:1702.05660v3 [quant-ph] UPDATED)

We address the question whether the super-Heisenberg scaling for quantum estimation is realizable. We unify the results of two approaches. In the first one, the original system is compared with its copy rotated by the parameter dependent dynamics. If the parameter is coupled to the one-body part of the Hamiltonian the precision of its estimation is known to scale at most as $N^{-1}$ (Heisenberg scaling) in terms of the number of elementary subsystems used, $N$. The second approach considers fidelity at criticality often leading to an apparent super-Heisenberg scaling. However, scaling of time needed to ensure adiabaticity of the evolution brings back the the Heisenberg limit. We illustrate the general theory on a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain which exhibits such super-Heisenberg scaling of fidelity around the critical value of the magnetic field. Even an elementary estimator represented by a single-site magnetization already outperforms the Heisenberg behavior providing the $N^{-1.5}$ scaling. In this case Fisher information sets the ultimate scaling as $N^{-1.75}$ which can be saturated by measuring magnetization on all sites simultaneously. We discuss universal scaling predictions of the estimation precision offered by such observables, both at zero and finite temperatures, and support them with numerical simulations in the model. We provide an experimental proposal of realization of the considered model via mapping the system to ultra-cold bosons in periodically shaken optical lattice. We explicitly derive that the Heisenberg limit is recovered when time needed for preparation of quantum states involved is taken into acocunt.

Measurement and control of a Coulomb-blockaded parafermion box. (arXiv:1704.03241v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

Parafermionic zero modes are fractional topologically protected quasiparticles expected to arise in various platforms. We show that Coulomb charging effects define a parafermion box with unique access options via fractional edge states and/or quantum antidots. Basic protocols for the detection, manipulation, and control of parafermionic quantum states are formulated. With those tools, one may directly observe the dimension of the zero-mode Hilbert space, prove the degeneracy of this space, and perform on-demand digital operations satisfying a parafermionic algebra.

Interface magnetism and electronic structure: ZnO(0001)/Co3O4(111). (arXiv:1704.07148v3 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)

We have studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of spinel Co$_3$O$_4$ (111) surface and its interface with ZnO (0001) using density functional theory (DFT) at the Generalized Gradient Approximation with on-site Coulomb repulsion term (GGA+U). Two possible forms of spinel surface, containing $\rm Co^{2+} $ and $\rm Co^{3+} $ ions and terminated with either cobalt or oxygen ions were considered, as well as their interface with zinc oxide. Our calculations shows that $\rm Co^{3+} $ ions have non-zero magnetic moments at the surface and interface, in contrast to the bulk where they are not magnetic, leading to the ferromagnetic ordering. Since some heavily Co-doped ZnO samples may contain $\rm Co_3O_4$ secondary phase, such a magnetic ordering might be the possible origin of the magnetism.

Robust valley polarization of helium ion modified atomically thin MoS$_{2}$. (arXiv:1705.01375v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

Atomically thin semiconductors have dimensions that are commensurate with critical feature sizes of future optoelectronic devices defined using electron/ion beam lithography. Robustness of their emergent optical and valleytronic properties is essential for typical exposure doses used during fabrication. Here, we explore how focused helium ion bombardment affects the intrinsic vibrational, luminescence and valleytronic properties of atomically thin MoS$_{2}$. By probing the disorder dependent vibrational response we deduce the interdefect distance by applying a phonon confinement model. We show that the increasing interdefect distance correlates with disorder-related luminescence arising 180 meV below the neutral exciton emission. We perform ab-initio density functional theory of a variety of defect related morphologies, which yield first indications on the origin of the observed additional luminescence. Remarkably, no significant reduction of free exciton valley polarization is observed until the interdefect distance approaches a few nanometers, namely the size of the free exciton Bohr radius. Our findings pave the way for direct writing of sub-10 nm nanoscale valleytronic devices and circuits using focused helium ions.

The mixing of polarizations in the acoustic excitations of an isotropic random medium. (arXiv:1705.09951v4 [cond-mat.dis-nn] UPDATED)

An approximate solution of the Dyson equation related to a stochastic Helmholtz equation, describing acoustic dynamics of an isotropic random medium with spatial fluctuating elastic constants in the three-dimensional space, is given in the framework of the Random Media Theory. The wavevector-dependence of the self-energy is maintained, thus allowing a description of the acoustic dynamics at wavelengths comparable with the size of heterogeneity domains. This in turn permits to quantitatively describe the mixing of longitudinal and transverse dynamics induced by the medium elastic heterogeneity and occurring at such wavelengths. A functional analysis aimed to attest the mathematical coherence and to define the region of validity in the frequency-wavevector plane of the proposed approximate solution is presented, with particular emphasis dedicated to the case of disorder characterized by an exponential decay covariance function.

Detecting Majorana modes through Josephson junction ring-quantum dot hybrid architectures. (arXiv:1706.08181v2 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)

Unequivocal signatures of Majorana zero energy modes in condensed matter systems and manipulation of the associated electron parity states are highly sought after for fundamental reasons as well as for the prospect of topological quantum computing. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a ring of Josephson coupled topological superconducting islands threaded by magnetic flux and attached to a quantum dot acts as an excellent parity-controlled probe of Majorana mode physics. As a function of flux threading through the ring, standard Josephson coupling yields a $\Phi_0=h/(2 e)$ periodic features corresponding to $2\pi$ phase difference periodicity. In contrast, Majorana mode assisted tunneling provides additional features with $2\Phi_0$ ($4\pi$ phase difference) periodicity, associated with single electron processes. We find that increasing the number of islands in the ring enhances the visibility of the desired $4\pi$ periodic components in the groundstate energy. Moreover as a unique characterization tool, tuning the occupation energy of the quantum dot allows controlled groundstate parity changes in the ring, enabling a toggling between $\Phi_0$ and $2\Phi_0$ periodicity.

Discrete Lorentz symmetry and discrete time translational symmetry. (arXiv:1708.00924v2 [cond-mat.stat-mech] UPDATED)

The Lorentz symmetry and the space and time translational symmetry are fundamental symmetries of nature. Crystals are the manifestation of the continuous space translational symmetry being spontaneously broken into a discrete one. We argue that, following the space translational symmetry, the continuous Lorentz symmetry should also be broken into a discrete one, which further implies that the continuous time translational symmetry is broken into a discrete one. We deduce all the possible discrete Lorentz and discrete time translational symmetries in 1+1-dimensional spacetime, and show how to build a field theory or a lattice field theory that has these symmetries.

Membrane undulations in a structured fluid: Universal dynamics at intermediate length and time scales. (arXiv:1708.06097v3 [cond-mat.soft] UPDATED)

The dynamics of membrane undulations inside a viscous solvent is governed by distinctive, anomalous, power laws. Inside a viscoelastic continuous medium these universal behaviors are modified by the specific bulk viscoelastic spectrum. Yet, in structured fluids the continuum limit is reached only beyond a characteristic correlation length. We study the crossover to this asymptotic bulk dynamics. The analysis relies on a recent generalization of the hydrodynamic interaction in structured fluids, which shows a slow spatial decay of the interaction toward the bulk limit. For membranes which are weakly coupled to the structured medium we find a wide crossover regime characterized by different, universal, dynamic power laws. We discuss various systems for which this behavior is relevant, and delineate the time regime over which it may be observed.

Connecting thermodynamic and dynamical anomalies of water-like liquid-liquid phase transition in the Fermi-Jagla model. (arXiv:1709.03224v3 [cond-mat.soft] UPDATED)

We present a study using molecular dynamics simulations based on the Fermi-Jagla potential model, which is the continuous version of the mono-atomic core-softened Jagla model [J. Y. Abraham, S. V. Buldyrev, and N. Giovambattista, J. Phys. Chem. B, 115, 14229 (2011)]. This model shows the water-like liquid-liquid phase transition between high-density and low-density liquids at the liquid-liquid critical point. In particular, the slope of the coexistence line becomes weakly negative, which is expected to represent one of anomalies of liquid polyamorphism. In this study, we examined the density, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point. The boundaries of density, self-diffusion, shear viscosity, and excess entropy anomalies were characterized. Furthermore, these anomalies are connected according to the Rosenfeld's scaling relationship between the excess entropy and the transport coefficients such as diffusion and viscosity. The results demonstrate the hierarchical and nested structures regarding the thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies of the Fermi-Jagla model.

On applicability of differential mixing rules for statistically homogeneous and isotropic dispersions. (arXiv:1709.03461v3 [cond-mat.other] UPDATED)

The classical differential mixing rules are assumed to be independent effective-medium approaches, applicable to certain classes of systems. In the present work, the inconsistency of differential models for macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic systems is illustrated with a model for the effective permittivity of simple dielectric systems of impenetrable balls. The analysis is carried out in terms of the compact group approach reformulated in a way that allows one to analyze the role of different contributions to the permittivity distribution in the system. It is shown that the asymmetrical Bruggeman model (ABM) is physically inconsistent since the electromagnetic interaction between previously added constituents and those being added is replaced by the interaction of the latter with recursively formed effective medium. The overall changes in the effective permittivity due to addition of one constituent include the contributions from both constituents and depend on the system structure before the addition. Ignoring the contribution from one of the constituents, we obtain generalized versions of the original ABM mixing rules. They still remain applicable only in a certain concentration ranges, as is shown with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results obtained can be generalized to macroscopically homogeneous and isotropic systems with complex permittivities of constituents.

Elliptical vortex and oblique vortex lattice in the FeSe superconductor based on the nematicity and mixed superconducting orders. (arXiv:1709.04786v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)

The electronic nematic phase is characterized as an ordered state of matter with rotational symmetry breaking, and has been well studied in the quantum Hall system and the high-$T_c$ superconductors, regardless of cuprate or pnictide family. The nematic state in high-$T_c$ systems often relates to the structural transition or electronic instability in the normal phase. Nevertheless, the electronic states below the superconducting transition temperature is still an open question. With high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope measurements, direct observation of vortex core in FeSe thin films revealed the nematic superconducting state by Song \emph{et al}. Here, motivated by the experiment, we construct the extended Ginzburg-Landau free energy to describe the elliptical vortex, where a mixed \emph{s}-wave and \emph{d}-wave superconducting order is coupled to the nematic order. The nematic order induces the mixture of two superconducting orders and enhances the anisotropic interaction between the two superconducting orders, resulting in a symmetry breaking from $C_4$ to $C_2$. Consequently, the vortex cores are stretched into an elliptical shape. In the equilibrium state, the elliptical vortices assemble a lozenge-like vortex lattice, being well consistent with experimental results.

Metastable Phase Diagram and Precipitation Kinetics of Magnetic Nanocrystals in FINEMET Alloys. (arXiv:1709.08306v2 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci] UPDATED)

Research over the years has shown that the formation of the Fe$_3$Si phase in FINEMET (Fe-Si-Nb-B-Cu) alloys leads to superior soft magnetic properties. In this work, we use a CALPHAD approach to derive Fe-Si phase diagrams to identify the composition-temperature domain where the Fe$_3$Si phase can be stabilized. Thereafter, we have developed a precipitation model capable of simulating the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals via Langer-Schwartz theory. For optimum magnetic properties, prior work suggests that it is desirable to precipitate Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals with 10-15 nm diameter and with the crystalline volume fraction of about 70 \%. Based on our parameterized model, we simulated the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals by isothermal annealing of Fe$_{72.89}$Si$_{16.21}$B$_{6.90}$Nb$_{3}$Cu$_{1}$ (composition in atomic \%). In numerical experiments, the alloys were annealed at a series of temperatures from 490 to 550 \degree C for two hours to study the effect of holding time on mean radius, volume fraction, size distribution, nucleation rate, number density, and driving force for the growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals. With increasing annealing temperature, the mean radius of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals increases, while the volume fraction decreases. We have also studied the effect of composition variations on the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals. As Fe content decreases, it is possible to achieve the desired mean radius and volume fraction within one hour holding time. T[...]

Research over the years has shown that the formation of the Fe$_3$Si phase in FINEMET (Fe-Si-Nb-B-Cu) alloys leads to superior soft magnetic properties. In this work, we use a CALPHAD approach to derive Fe-Si phase diagrams to identify the composition-temperature domain where the Fe$_3$Si phase can be stabilized. Thereafter, we have developed a precipitation model capable of simulating the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals via Langer-Schwartz theory. For optimum magnetic properties, prior work suggests that it is desirable to precipitate Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals with 10-15 nm diameter and with the crystalline volume fraction of about 70 \%. Based on our parameterized model, we simulated the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals by isothermal annealing of Fe$_{72.89}$Si$_{16.21}$B$_{6.90}$Nb$_{3}$Cu$_{1}$ (composition in atomic \%). In numerical experiments, the alloys were annealed at a series of temperatures from 490 to 550 \degree C for two hours to study the effect of holding time on mean radius, volume fraction, size distribution, nucleation rate, number density, and driving force for the growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals. With increasing annealing temperature, the mean radius of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals increases, while the volume fraction decreases. We have also studied the effect of composition variations on the nucleation and growth of Fe$_3$Si nanocrystals. As Fe content decreases, it is possible to achieve the desired mean radius and volume fraction within one hour holding time. T[...]

Impact of high-frequency pumping on anomalous finite-size effects in three-dimensional topological insulators. (arXiv:1709.10303v2 [cond-mat.mes-hall] UPDATED)

Lowering of the thickness of a thin-film three-dimensional topological insulator down to a few nanometers results in the gap opening in the spectrum of topologically protected two-dimensional surface states. This phenomenon, which is referred to as the anomalous finite-size effect, originates from hybridization between the states propagating along the opposite boundaries. In this work, we consider a bismuth-based topological insulator and show how the coupling to an intense high-frequency linearly polarized pumping can further be used to manipulate the value of a gap. We address this effect within recently proposed Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory that allows us to map a time-dependent problem into a stationary one. Our analysis reveals that both the gap and the components of the group velocity of the surface states can be tuned in a controllable fashion by adjusting the intensity of the driving field within an experimentally accessible range and demonstrate the effect of light-induced band inversion in the spectrum of the surface states for high enough values of the pump.

Elasticity in the Gauge Theory of Active Nematics with Topological Defects. (arXiv:1710.00256v2 [cond-mat.soft] UPDATED)

We analyze the phase behavior of lyotropic nematic liquid crystals in the self-organizing flow, viz. so called active nematics (AN). Their elastic properties are mutually caused by evolution of topological defects (for instance, disclinations and boojums) and the flow regime. Such changes in elasticity of AN comparing with conventional inactive ones set the new working characteristics of these materials, have an influence on their switchable and tunable properties. In this work, we study the uniaxial droplet AN phases with topological defects in their collective flow, we apply the gauge string-like theory using the method of differential forms on a lattice interchanging the drive-force concept. The results of our numerical modeling with Monte Carlo method show, that under certain conditions, the type of the phase transition from nematic to isotropic (N-I) phase and the thermodynamical characteristics in an active regime may differ from such one in the conventional lyotropic nematcis.

Evidence from quantum Monte Carlo of large gap superfluidity and BCS-BEC crossover in double electron-hole layers. (arXiv:1710.06863v3 [cond-mat.supr-con] UPDATED)

We report quantum Monte Carlo evidence of the existence of large gap superfluidity in electron-hole double layers over wide density ranges. The superfluid parameters evolve from normal state to BEC with decreasing density, with the BCS state restricted to a tiny range of densities due to the strong screening of Coulomb interactions, which causes the gap to rapidly become large near the onset of superfluidity. The superfluid properties exhibit similarities to ultracold fermions and iron-based superconductors, suggesting an underlying universal behavior of BCS-BEC crossovers in pairing systems.

Entanglement entropy of (3+1)D topological orders with excitations. (arXiv:1710.11168v2 [cond-mat.str-el] UPDATED)

Excitations in (3+1)D topologically ordered phases have very rich structures. (3+1)D topological phases support both point-like and string-like excitations, and in particular the loop (closed string) excitations may admit knotted and linked structures. In this work, we ask the question how different types of topological excitations contribute to the entanglement entropy, or alternatively, can we use the entanglement entropy to detect the structure of excitations, and further obtain the information of the underlying topological orders? We are mainly interested in (3+1)D topological orders that can be realized in Dijkgraaf-Witten gauge theories, which are labeled by a finite group $G$ and its group 4-cocycle $\omega\in\mathcal{H}^4[G;U(1)]$ up to group automorphisms. We find that each topological excitation contributes a universal constant $\ln d_i$ to the entanglement entropy, where $d_i$ is the quantum dimension that depends on both the structure of the excitation and the data $(G,\,\omega)$. The entanglement entropy of the excitations of the linked/unlinked topology can capture different information of the DW theory $(G,\,\omega)$. In particular, the entanglement entropy introduced by Hopf-link loop excitations can distinguish certain group 4-cocycles $\omega$ from the others.

BPS Sphalerons in the $F_2$ Non-Linear Sigma Model. (arXiv:1711.00933v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

We construct static and also time-dependent solutions in a non-linear sigma model with target space being the flag manifold $F_2=SU(3)/U(1)^2$ on the four dimensional Minkowski space-time by analytically solving the second order Euler-Lagrange equation. We show the static solutions saturate an energy lower bound and can be derived from coupled first order equations though they are saddle point solutions. We also discuss basic properties of the time-dependent solutions.