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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Advance Access





Published: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Last Build Date: Fri, 19 Jan 2018 06:48:45 GMT

 



Evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a review on the molecular determinants of resistance and implications for personalized care

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) remains a significant challenge in TB treatment and control programmes worldwide. Advances in sequencing technology have significantly increased our understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to anti-TB drugs. This review provides an update on advances in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms to new, existing drugs and repurposed agents. Recent advances in WGS technology hold promise as a tool for rapid diagnosis and clinical management of TB. Although the standard approach to WGS of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is slow due to the requirement for organism culture, recent attempts to sequence directly from clinical specimens have improved the potential to diagnose and detect resistance within days. The introduction of new databases may be helpful, such as the Relational Sequencing TB Data Platform, which contains a collection of whole-genome sequences highlighting key drug resistance mutations and clinical outcomes. Taken together, these advances will help devise better molecular diagnostics for more effective DR-TB management enabling personalized treatment, and will facilitate the development of new drugs aimed at improving outcomes of patients with this disease.



Dissemination of linezolid-dependent, linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates belonging to CC5 in German hospitals

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Objectives
Linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) and linezolid-dependent ST22 strains have been shown to predominate in tertiary care facilities all over Greece. We report herein the dissemination of ST22 but also ST2, ST5 and ST168 linezolid-dependent LRSE clones in four unrelated German hospitals.
Methods
Fourteen LRSE clinical isolates recovered during 2012–14 from five distantly located German hospitals were tested by for MIC determination broth microdilution and Etest, PCR/sequencing for cfr and for mutations in 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes, MLST, PFGE and growth curves without and with linezolid at 16 and 32 mg/L.
Results
Most (11, 78.6%) isolates had linezolid MICs >256 mg/L. Five isolates carried the cfr gene. Eight isolates belonged to ST22, two isolates each to ST168 and ST2 and one isolate each to ST5 and ST23. Ten isolates [seven belonging to ST22 and one to each of ST2, ST5 and ST168; all these STs belong to clonal complex (CC) 5] exhibited linezolid-dependent growth, growing significantly faster in linezolid-containing broth. Four isolates were non-dependent (one belonging to each of ST22, ST2, ST23 and ST168). Four isolates came from three different hospitals, whereas four and six isolates were recovered during outbreaks of LRSE in two distinct hospitals.
Conclusions
The multi-clonal dissemination of CC5 linezolid-dependent LRSE throughout German hospitals along with the clonal expansion of ST22 linezolid-dependent LRSE in Greek hospitals is of particular concern. It is plausible that this characteristic is inherent and provides a selective advantage to CC5 LRSE under linezolid pressure, contributing to their dissemination throughout hospitals in these countries.



PBP4 activity and its overexpression are necessary for PBP4-mediated high-level β-lactam resistance

Fri, 19 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT

Abstract
Background
PBP4 is typically considered unimportant for conferring high-level β-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Mutations in PBP4 have been associated with β-lactam non-susceptibility among natural strains of S. aureus. We have previously shown that PBP4 can mediate high-level β-lactam resistance in laboratory-generated strains passaged in β-lactam antibiotics. Mutations in the pbp4 promoter that up-regulate its expression and missense mutations that surround PBP4’s active site were detected in high frequencies among passaged strains, suggesting PBP4 plays a key role in resistance. How these mutations participate in PBP4’s ability to provide high-level β-lactam resistance is unknown.
Objectives
To determine whether enzymatic activity of PBP4 is required for high-level β-lactam resistance and to investigate how the pbp4-associated mutations provide β-lactam resistance.
Methods
The catalytic activity of PBP4 was disabled through introduction of a serine to alanine point mutation in its active site (Ser-75→Ala) in a representative and well-studied passaged strain, CRB. pbp4 promoter and missense mutations detected in CRB were reconstituted in a WT strain individually and in combination. β-Lactam resistance of the resultant strains was evaluated by population analysis. Bacterial peptidoglycan composition of the pbp4 mutants was evaluated with and without antibiotic treatment using LC.
Results
PBP4 inactivation imparted complete β-lactam susceptibility of CRB. Reconstitution of PBP4 missense mutations alone did not impart β-lactam resistance, but did so in synergism with pbp4 promoter mutation. A similar synergistic interaction of pbp4 mutations was observed in enhanced peptidoglycan cross-linking upon antibiotic treatment.
Conclusions
PBP4’s activity and overexpression both contribute to high-level β-lactam resistance.