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Combined list of the recent articles of the journal Ocean Science and the recent discussion forum Ocean Science Discussions



 



Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice
Algot K. Peterson
Ocean Sci., 14, 127-138, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-127-2018, 2018
This study presents observations of brine descending from melting Arctic sea ice. The brine passed an under-ice turbulence instrument in plumes and was associated with very high heat fluxes. The salt flux indicates that the melting sea ice lost most of its salt content during the observations. The observations provide evidence of a desalination process not previously reported from drifting Arctic sea ice and is an important contribution to understanding ice–ocean interaction during melt.



Numerical modeling of surface wave development under the action of wind

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Numerical modeling of surface wave development under the action of wind
Dmitry Chalikov
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-11,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Waves obtain the energy from wind; they grow, increase their size and the speed of propagation. The structure of wave field becomes complicated due to appearance of the new wave components. Finally, the sea surface looks as a poorly organized motion consisting of quickly running large hills and hollows covered with smaller waves. This process can be successfully simulated at computers. Such investigations allow us to understand the physics of sea waves, which is important for practice.



Dynamics of North Balearic Front during an autumn Tramontane and Mistral storm: air–sea coupling processes and stratification budget diagnostic

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Dynamics of North Balearic Front during an autumn Tramontane and Mistral storm: air–sea coupling processes and stratification budget diagnostic
Léo Seyfried, Claude Estournel, Patrick Marsaleix, and Evelyne Richard
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-14,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
The north Balearic front forms the southern branch of the cyclonic gyre in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. Its dynamics exhibits significant seasonal variability. During autumn, the front spreads northward during the calm wind periods and rapidly moves back southward when it is exposed to strong northerly wind events such as the Tramontane and Mistral. These strong winds considerably enhance the air–sea exchanges. To investigate the role of air–sea exchanges on the dynamics of the North Balearic front, we used observations and a high-resolution air–sea coupled modelling system, and focused on a strong wind event observed in late October 2012, which was well-documented during the Hydrological Cycle Mediterranean Experiment. The coupled model was able to correctly reproduce the 4 °C sea surface temperature drop recorded in the frontal zone together with the observed southwestward displacement of the front. The comparison between the weak wind period preceding the event and the strong wind event itself highlighted the impact of the wind regime on the air–sea coupling, with both thermal and dynamical couplings during the low wind period and mainly thermal coupling during the strong wind period. The effect of air–sea exchanges on the stratification variations in the frontal zone was investigated with a stratification budget diagnosis. The stratification variations are controlled by diabatic air–sea buoyancy flux, adiabatic Ekman buoyancy flux, and advective processes. During the strong wind period, the Ekman buoyancy flux was found to be three times greater than the air–sea buoyancy flux and thus played a major role in the destratification of the frontal zone. The role of Ekman pumping and inertial wave on the advective processes is also discussed.



Some aspects of the deep abyssal overflow between the middle and southern basins of the Caspian Sea

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Some aspects of the deep abyssal overflow between the middle and southern basins of the Caspian Sea
Javad Babagoli Matikolaei, Abbasali Aliakbari Bidokhti, and Maryam Shiea
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-13,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
This study investigates the deep gravity current between the middle and southern Caspian Sea basins, caused by density difference of deep waters. Oceanographic data, numerical model and dynamic models are used to consider the structure of this Caspian Sea abyssal overflow. The CTD data are obtained from UNESCO, and the three-dimensional ocean model COHERENS results are used to study the abyssal currents in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea.

The deep overflow is driven by the density difference mainly due to the temperature difference between the middle and southern basins especially in winter. For this reason, water sinks in high latitudes and after filling the middle basin it overflows into the southern basin. As the current passes through the Absheron Strait (or sill), we use an analytic model for the overflow gravity current with inertial effects, bottom friction and entrainment, to consider its structure. The dynamical characteristics of this deep baroclinic flow are investigated with different initial and boundary conditions. The results show that after time passes, the flow adjusts itself, moving as a deepening gravity driven topographically trapped current. This flow is considered for different seasons and its velocity and width are obtained. Because of the topography of the Southern Caspian basin, the flow is trapped after the sill; thus, another simple dynamical model of the overflow, based on potential vorticity similar to that of Bidokhti and Ezam (2009) but with the bottom friction and entrainment included, is used to find the horizontal extent of the outflow from the western coast. To estimate the changes of vorticity and potential vorticity of the flow over the Absheron sill, we use the method of Falcini and Salusti (2015), in this work, the effects of entrainment and friction are considered. Because of the importance of the overflow in deep water ventilation, a simple dynamical model of the boundary currents based on the shape of strait is used to estimate typical mass transport and flushing time which is found to be about 15 to 20 years for the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. This time scale is important for the possible effects on the ecosystem here of pollution due to oil exploration.



Mixed layer depth variability in the Red Sea

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Mixed layer depth variability in the Red Sea
Cheriyeri P. Abdulla, Mohammed A. Alsaafani, Turki M. Alraddadi, and Alaa M. Albarakati
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-6,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
For the first time in the Red Sea, a monthly climatology of mixed layer depth (MLD) has been derived based on in-situ temperature profiles. The Red Sea MLD pattern displays significant spatial and temporal variability with exceptional features. The MLD variability is dominantly driven by the wind stress in the southern part while heat exchange plays a major role in the remaining parts. The eddies and the Tokar gap summer jet winds are significantly changing the MLD of the localized regions.



An analytical study of M2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

An analytical study of M2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method
Di Wu, Guohong Fang, Xinmei Cui, and Fei Teng
Ocean Sci., 14, 117-126, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-117-2018, 2018
Taylor's problem is a classical tidal dynamic problem and in its previous applications all of the studied basins had a closed end. In this study, the Taylor's method is extended so that it can also provide an analytical model for the M2 tide in the Taiwan Strait (TS), which shows that the reflection of the southward wave at the abruptly deepened topography south of the TS is a major contribution to the formation of the northward propagating wave in the strait.



Assimilating High-resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data Improves the Ocean Forecast in the Baltic Sea

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Assimilating High-resolution Sea Surface Temperature Data Improves the Ocean Forecast in the Baltic Sea
Ye Liu and Weiwei Fu
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-8,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
We assess the impact of assimilating the SST data on the Baltic forecast by comparing with both independent and dependent observations. we find that the quality of SST forecast is considerably enhanced by data assimilation. To the Baltic forecast, the temperature in the water above 100 m and salinity in the deep layers have been largely and slightly improved by the SST assimilation, respectively. Besides, the forecasts of both SLA and sea ice are improved in the Baltic Sea by assimilating SST.



ADCP observations of migration patterns of zooplankton in the Cretan Sea

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

ADCP observations of migration patterns of zooplankton in the Cretan Sea
Emmanuel Potiris, Constantin Frangoulis, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Manolis Ntoumas, Manos Pettas, George Petihakis, and Vassilis Zervakis
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-10,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Zooplankton and fishes living deeper than 200 m, may perform a vertical migration to the surface waters. The migration patterns, from 400 m depth to the surface, of four groups of organisms were studied in the deep (1500 m) Eastern Mediterranean (Cretan Sea) for 2.5 years. The lunar cycle, daylight duration, cloudiness, the presence of prey and predators explains their migration variability. This phenomenon is important as it constitutes an active transport of organic matter over large distances.



Physical Modulation to the Biological Productivity in the Summer Vietnam Upwelling System

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Physical Modulation to the Biological Productivity in the Summer Vietnam Upwelling System
Wenfang Lu, Enhui Liao, Xiao-Hai Yan, Lie-Yauw Oey, Wei Zhuang, and Yuwu Jiang
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-9,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
In this study, we investigate the physical factors controlling the biological production in a coastal upwelling system, the Vietnam Boundary Upwelling System in the South China Sea. We found that, in addition to the effects from the wind (as a major factor driving the ocean), the ocean circulation could also contribute positively to the production here, which is distinct from other major coastal upwelling systems.



Numerical study of hydrodynamic and salinity transport process in Pink Beach wetlands of Liao River Estuary, China

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Numerical study of hydrodynamic and salinity transport process in Pink Beach wetlands of Liao River Estuary, China
Huiting Qiao, Mingliang Zhang, Hengzhi Jiang, Tianping Xu, and Hongxing Zhang
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-102,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment)
Suaeda heteroptera is a dominant species in the wetland of Liao River estuary and a typical saline-alkaline indicator plant, which is distributed in coastal tidal flat, forming a rare natural landscape pink beach. The MIKE 21 model is used to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics and salinity transport process in Pink Beach wetlands of Liao River estuary. The results are important to understand the suitable circumstances for the vegetation growth in Pink Beach.



Using kinetic energy measurements from altimetry to detect shifts in the positions of fronts in the Southern Ocean

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Using kinetic energy measurements from altimetry to detect shifts in the positions of fronts in the Southern Ocean
Don P. Chambers
Ocean Sci., 14, 105-116, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-105-2018, 2018
A novel analysis is performed utilizing ocean current kinetic energy computed from from along-track satellite altimetry data from 1993 to 2015. The position of enhanced kinetic energy is used to detect shifts in frontal positions in the Southern Ocean. Results indicate no significant shift in the front positions across the Southern Ocean, on average, although there are some localized, large movements, both north and south.



Dissolved organic matter and its optical characteristics in the Laptev and East Siberian seas: spatial distribution and interannual variability (2003–2011)

Tue, 06 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Dissolved organic matter and its optical characteristics in the Laptev and East Siberian seas: spatial distribution and interannual variability (2003–2011)
Svetlana P. Pugach, Irina I. Pipko, Natalia E. Shakhova, Evgeny A. Shirshin, Irina V. Perminova, Örjan Gustafsson, Valery G. Bondur, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
Ocean Sci., 14, 87-103, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-87-2018, 2018
This paper explores the possibility of using CDOM and its spectral parameters to identify the different biogeochemical regimes on the ESAS. The strong correlation between DOC and CDOM values in the surface shelf waters influenced by terrigenous discharge indicates that it is feasible to estimate DOC content from CDOM fluorescence assessed in situ. The direct estimation of DOM optical parameters in the surface ESAS waters provided by this study will be useful for validating remote sensing data.



An integrated open-coastal biogeochemistry, ecosystem and biodiversity observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cretan Sea component of POSEIDON system

Tue, 06 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

An integrated open-coastal biogeochemistry, ecosystem and biodiversity observatory of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cretan Sea component of POSEIDON system
George Petihakis, Leonidas Perivoliotis, Gerasimos Korres, Dionysis Ballas, Constantin Frangoulis, Paris Pagonis, Manolis Ntoumas, Manos Pettas, Antonis Chalkiopoulos, Maria Sotiropoulou, Margarita Bekiari, Alkiviadis Kalampokis, Michalis Ravdas, Evi Bourma, Sylvia Christodoulaki, Anna Zacharioudaki, Dimitris Kassis, Emmanuel Potiris, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Spyros Velanas, and Nikos Zisis
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-3,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Oceanic observations that examine several processes including biogeochemical ones are scarce. In the Eastern Mediterranean (Cretan Sea) the spatiotemporal coverage of such observations has increased with the expansion of the POSEIDON observatory. The observatory addresses scientific questions, provides services to policy-makers and society and serves as a technological test bed. It plays a key role in European and international observing programs, in harmonization procedures and data handling.



Response of O2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model

Fri, 02 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Response of O2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model
Giuliana Turi, Michael Alexander, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Antonietta Capotondi, James Scott, Charles Stock, John Dunne, Jasmin John, and Michael Jacox
Ocean Sci., 14, 69-86, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-69-2018, 2018
A high-resolution global model was used to study the influence of El Niño/La Niña events on the California Current System (CalCS). The mean surface oxygen (O2) response extends well offshore, where the pH response occurs within ~ 100 km of the coast. The surface O2 (pH) is primarily driven by temperature (upwelling) changes. Below 100 m, anomalously low O2 and low pH occurred during La Niña events near the coast, potentially stressing the ecosystem, but there are large variations between events.



South Atlantic meridional transports from NEMO-based simulations and reanalyses

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 02:16:35 +0100

South Atlantic meridional transports from NEMO-based simulations and reanalyses
Davi Mignac, David Ferreira, and Keith Haines
Ocean Sci., 14, 53-68, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-53-2018, 2018
Four ocean reanalyses and two free-running models are compared to study the meridional transports in the South Atlantic. We analyse the underlying causes of the product differences in an attempt to understand the potential impact (and limitations) of the data assimilation (DA) in improving the simulated ocean states. The DA schemes can consistently constrain the basin interior transports, but not the overturning circulation dominated by the narrow South Atlantic western boundary currents.



Impact of mesoscale eddies on water mass and oxygen distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific

Wed, 31 Jan 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Impact of mesoscale eddies on water mass and oxygen distribution in the eastern tropical South Pacific
Rena Czeschel, Florian Schütte, Robert A. Weller, and Lothar Stramma
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-5,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment)
The mean circulation on the poleward side of the Oxygen Minimum Zone is overlain by eddy activity playing an important role in the distribution of water masses and oxygen within the OMZ. The activity of different types of eddies was investigated during their westward propagation from the formation area off Peru/Chile into the open ocean. The focus was on the development of eddies, seasonal conditions during their formation and the change of water mass properties transported within the eddies.



Circulation of the Turkish Straits System between 2008–2013 under complete atmospheric forcings

Wed, 31 Jan 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Circulation of the Turkish Straits System between 2008–2013 under complete atmospheric forcings
Ali Aydoğdu, Nadia Pinardi, Emin Özsoy, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Özgür Gürses, and Alicia Karspeck
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2018-7,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
A six-year simulation of the Turkish Straits System is presented. The simulation is performed by a model using unstructured triangular mesh and realistic atmospheric forcing. The dynamics and circulation of the Marmara Sea is analysed and the mean state of the system is discussed on annual averages. Volume fluxes computed throughout the simulation is presented and the response of the model to severe storms is shown. Finally, it was possible to assess the kinetic energy budget in the Marmara Sea.



Acoustic mapping of mixed layer depth

Tue, 30 Jan 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Acoustic mapping of mixed layer depth
Christian Stranne, Larry Mayer, Martin Jakobsson, Elizabeth Weidner, Kevin Jerram, Thomas C. Weber, Leif G. Anderson, Johan Nilsson, Göran Björk, and Katarina Gårdfeldt
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-103,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 1 comment)
The ocean surface mixed layer is a nearly universal feature of the world oceans. The depth of the mixed layer (MLD) influences the exchange of heat and gases between the atmosphere and the ocean and constitutes one of the major factors controlling ocean primary production as it affects the vertical distribution of biological and chemical components in near-surface waters. Direct observations of the MLD are traditionally made by means of conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) casts. However, CTD instrument deployment limits the observation of temporal and spatial variability of the MLD. Here, we present an alternative method where acoustic mapping of the MLD is done remotely by means of commercially available ship-mounted echosounders. The method is shown to be highly accurate when the MLD is well defined and biological scattering does not dominate the acoustic returns. These prerequisites are often met in the open ocean and it is shown that the method is successful in 95 % of data collected in the central Arctic Ocean. The primary advantages of acoustically mapping the MLD over CTD measurements are: (1) considerably higher temporal and horizontal resolutions and (2) potentially larger spatial coverage.



One hundred years of atmospheric and marine observations at Utö Island, the Baltic Sea

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 02:16:35 +0100

One hundred years of atmospheric and marine observations at Utö Island, the Baltic Sea
Lauri Laakso, Santtu Mikkonen, Achim Drebs, Anu Karjalainen, Pentti Pirinen, and Pekka Alenius
Ocean Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-105,2018
Manuscript under review for OS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Meteorological observations at Utö Atmospheric and Marine Research Station, the Baltic Sea, started in 1881 and sea water temperature and salinity observations in 1900. Based on the dataset of more than 100 years of observations, we see a clear increase in atmospheric temperatures since 1980's, in-line with changes in ice cover and influence of Major Baltic Inflows in vertical stratification and sea-water temperatures close to bottom.



Note on the directional properties of meter-scale gravity waves

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 02:16:35 +0100

Note on the directional properties of meter-scale gravity waves
Charles Peureux, Alvise Benetazzo, and Fabrice Ardhuin
Ocean Sci., 14, 41-52, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-14-41-2018, 2018
Little is known on the short ocean wave (1 to 20 m wave length typically) directional distribution. It has been measured from a platform in the Adriatic Sea using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique, used for the first time for this purpose. In this record, while longer waves propagate along the wind direction, shorter waves have been found to propagate mainly along two oblique directions, more and more separated towards smaller scales.