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Preview: American Journal of Neuroradiology recent issues

American Journal of Neuroradiology recent issues



American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) RSS feed -- recent issue. AJNR (hwmaint.ajnr.org ) is the premier journal for diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology, publishing more than 200 fully reviewed scientific papers, case reports, and technical



 






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2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00




The Management and Imaging of Vestibular Schwannomas [HEAD & NECK]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

SUMMARY:

Vestibular schwannomas are the most common cerebellopontine angle tumor. During the past century, the management goals of vestibular schwannomas have shifted from total resection to functional preservation. Current treatment options include surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and observation. Imaging has become a crucial part of the initial screening, evaluation, and follow-up assessment of vestibular schwannomas. Recognizing and understanding the management objectives, various treatment modalities, expected posttreatment findings, and complications allows the radiologist to play an essential role in a multidisciplinary team by providing key findings relevant to treatment planning and outcome assessment. The authors provide a comprehensive discussion of the surgical management, role of radiation therapy and observation, imaging differential, and pre- and posttreatment imaging findings of vestibular schwannomas.




The Brain Thermal Response as a Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker of Cerebrovascular Impairment [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Brain temperature is critical for homeostasis, relating intimately to cerebral perfusion and metabolism. Cerebral thermometry is historically challenged by the cost and invasiveness of clinical and laboratory methodologies. We propose the use of noninvasive MR thermometry in patients with cerebrovascular disease, hypothesizing the presence of a measurable brain thermal response reflecting the tissue hemodynamic state.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Contemporaneous imaging and MR thermometry were performed in 10 patients (32–68 years of age) undergoing acetazolamide challenge for chronic, anterior circulation steno-occlusive disease. Cerebrovascular reactivity was calculated with blood oxygen level–dependent imaging and arterial spin-labeling methods. Brain temperature was calculated pre- and post-acetazolamide using previously established chemical shift thermometry. Mixed-effects models of the voxelwise relationships between the brain thermal response and cerebrovascular reactivity were computed, and the significance of model coefficients was determined with an F test (P < .05).

RESULTS:

We observed significant, voxelwise quadratic relationships between cerebrovascular reactivity from blood oxygen level–dependent imaging and the brain thermal response (x coefficient = 0.052, P < .001; x2coefficient = 0.0068, P < .001) and baseline brain temperatures (x coefficient = 0.59, P = .008; x2 coefficient = –0.13, P < .001). A significant linear relationship was observed for the brain thermal response with cerebrovascular reactivity from arterial spin-labeling (P = .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings support the presence of a brain thermal response exhibiting complex but significant interactions with tissue hemodynamics, which we posit to reflect a relative balance of heat-producing versus heat-dissipating tissue states. The brain thermal response is a potential noninvasive biomarker for cerebrovascular impairment.




Added Value of Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging for the Differentiation of Cerebellar Hemangioblastoma from Metastasis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

In adults with only cerebellar masses, hemangioblastoma and metastasis are the 2 most important differential diagnoses. Our aim was to investigate the added value of arterial spin-labeling MR imaging for differentiating hemangioblastoma from metastasis in patients with only cerebellar masses.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This retrospective study included a homogeneous cohort comprising patients with only cerebellar masses, including 16 hemangioblastomas and 14 metastases. All patients underwent enhanced MR imaging, including arterial spin-labeling. First, the presence or absence of a hyperperfused mass was determined. Next, in the hyperperfused mass, relative tumor blood flow (mean blood flow in the tumor divided by blood flow measured in normal-appearing cerebellar tissue) and the size ratio (size in the arterial spin-labeling images divided by size in the postcontrast T1WI) were measured. To validate the arterial spin-labeling findings, 2 observers independently evaluated the conventional MR images and the combined set of arterial spin-labeling images.

RESULTS:

All patients with hemangioblastomas and half of the patients with metastases presented with a hyperperfused mass (P < .001). The size ratio and relative tumor blood flow were significantly larger for hemangioblastomas than for metastases (P < .001 and P = .039, respectively). The size ratio revealed excellent diagnostic power (area under the curve = 0.991), and the relative tumor blood flow demonstrated moderate diagnostic power (area under the curve = 0.777). The diagnostic accuracy of both observers was significantly improved after the addition of arterial spin-labeling; the area under the curve improved from 0.574 to 0.969 (P < .001) for observer 2 and from 0.683 to 1 (P < .001) for observer 2.

CONCLUSIONS:

Arterial spin-labeling imaging can aid in distinguishing hemangioblastoma from metastasis in patients with only cerebellar masses.




Detection of Volume-Changing Metastatic Brain Tumors on Longitudinal MRI Using a Semiautomated Algorithm Based on the Jacobian Operator Field [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Accurate follow-up of metastatic brain tumors has important implications for patient prognosis and management. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of a semiautomated algorithm in detecting growing or shrinking metastatic brain tumors on longitudinal brain MRIs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We used 50 pairs of successive MR imaging datasets, 30 on 1.5T and 20 on 3T, containing contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted sequences. These yielded 150 growing or shrinking metastatic brain tumors. To detect them, we completed 2 major steps: 1) spatial normalization and calculation of the Jacobian operator field to quantify changes between scans, and 2) metastatic brain tumor candidate segmentation and detection of volume-changing metastatic brain tumors with the Jacobian operator field. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the detection accuracy of the algorithm, and it was verified with jackknife resampling. The reference standard was based on detections by a neuroradiologist.

RESULTS:

The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.925 for 1.5T and 0.965 for 3T. Furthermore, at its optimal performance, the algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 85.1% and 92.1% and specificity of 86.7% and 91.3% for 1.5T and 3T, respectively. Vessels were responsible for most false-positives. Newly developed or resolved metastatic brain tumors were a major source of false-negatives.

CONCLUSIONS:

The proposed algorithm could detect volume-changing metastatic brain tumors on longitudinal brain MRIs with statistically high accuracy, demonstrating its potential as a computer-aided change-detection tool for complementing the performance of radiologists, decreasing inter- and intraobserver variability, and improving efficacy.




Pituitary Macroadenoma and Visual Impairment: Postoperative Outcome Prediction with Contrast-Enhanced FIESTA [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Contrast-enhanced FIESTA can depict anterior optic pathways in patients with large suprasellar tumors. We assessed whether the degree of kink in the optic nerve at the optic canal orifice on contrast-enhanced FIESTA correlates with the postoperative improvement of visual impairment in patients with pituitary macroadenoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-one patients with pituitary macroadenoma who underwent preoperative MR imaging and an operation were evaluated. We measured the optic nerve kinking angle on sagittal oblique contrast-enhanced FIESTA parallel to the optic nerve; the optic nerve kinking angle was defined as the angle between a line parallel to the planum sphenoidale and a line parallel to the intracranial optic nerve at the optic canal orifice. We used logistic regression analyses to determine whether the clinical (sex, age, and duration of symptoms) and imaging (tumor height, chiasmal compression severity, hyperintense optic nerve on T2WI, and optic nerve kinking angle) characteristics were associated with the postoperative improvement (good-versus-little improvement) of visual acuity disturbance and visual field defect.

RESULTS:

There were 53 impaired sides before the operation: 2 sides with visual acuity disturbance alone, 25 with visual field defect alone, and 26 with both. After the operation, good improvement was found in 17 of the 28 sides with visual acuity disturbance and in 32 of the 51 sides with visual field defects. Only the optic nerve kinking angle was significantly associated with good improvement of the visual acuity disturbance (P = .011) and visual field defect (P = .002).

CONCLUSIONS:

The degree of the optic nerve kinking angle was an independent predictor of postoperative improvement, indicating that irreversible damage to the optic nerve may be associated with its kinking at the optic canal orifice.




Topographic Diagnosis of Craniopharyngiomas: The Accuracy of MRI Findings Observed on Conventional T1 and T2 Images [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The topography of craniopharyngiomas has proved fundamental in predicting the involvement of vital brain structures and the possibility of achieving a safe radical resection. Beyond the imprecise term "suprasellar," indiscriminately used for craniopharyngiomas, an accurate definition of craniopharyngioma topography should be assessed by preoperative MR imaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the MRI findings that help define craniopharyngioma topography.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This study retrospectively investigated a cohort of 200 surgically treated craniopharyngiomas with their corresponding preoperative midsagittal and coronal conventional T1- and T2-weighted MR images, along with detailed descriptions of the surgical findings. Radiologic variables related to the occupation of the tumor of intracranial compartments and the distortions of anatomic structures along the sella turcica–third ventricle axis were analyzed and correlated with the definitive craniopharyngioma topography observed during the surgical procedures. A predictive model for craniopharyngioma topography was generated by multivariate analysis.

RESULTS:

Five major craniopharyngioma topographies can be defined according to the degree of hypothalamic distortion caused by the tumor: sellar-suprasellar, pseudointraventricular, secondary intraventricular, not strictly intraventricular, and strictly intraventricular. Seven key radiologic variables identified on preoperative MRI allowed a correct overall prediction of craniopharyngioma topography in 86% of cases: 1) third ventricle occupation, 2) pituitary stalk distortion, 3) relative level of the hypothalamus in relation to the tumor, 4) chiasmatic cistern occupation, 5) mammillary body angle, 6) type of chiasm distortion, and 7) tumor shape.

CONCLUSIONS:

Systematic assessment of these 7 variables on conventional preoperative T1 and T2 MRI is a useful and reliable method to ascertain individual craniopharyngioma topography.




Arterial Spin-Labeling Perfusion MR Imaging Demonstrates Regional CBF Decrease in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Regional cerebral blood flow has previously been studied in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with imaging methods that require an intravenous contrast agent or expose the patient to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess regional CBF in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus compared with healthy controls using the noninvasive quantitative arterial spin-labeling MR imaging technique. A secondary aim was to compare the correlation between symptom severity and CBF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Differences in regional cerebral perfusion between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and healthy controls were investigated with pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling perfusion MR imaging. Twenty-one consecutive patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and 21 age- and sex-matched randomly selected healthy controls from the population registry were prospectively included. The controls did not differ from patients with respect to selected vascular risk factors. Twelve different anatomic ROIs were manually drawn on coregistered FLAIR images. The Holm-Bonferroni correction was applied to statistical analyses.

RESULTS:

In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, perfusion was reduced in the periventricular white matter (P < .001), lentiform nucleus (P < .001), and thalamus (P < .001) compared with controls. Cognitive function in patients correlated with CBF in the periventricular white matter (r = 0.60, P < .01), cerebellum (r = 0.63, P < .01), and pons (r = 0.71, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Using pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling, we could confirm findings of a reduced perfusion in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, and thalamus in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus previously observed with other imaging techniques.




Prevalence of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Aortic Dissection [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

There is an uncertainty about the association between intracranial aneurysms and aortic dissection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms in patients with aortic dissection and evaluate the independent risk factors for the presence of intracranial aneurysms in these patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Seventy-one patients with a confirmed aortic dissection who underwent additional brain imaging were enrolled as the aortic dissection group, and 2118 healthy individuals with brain imaging, as controls. Demographic data were obtained from their medical records, including age, sex, comorbidities, and arch vessel involvement of aortic dissection. Two readers reviewed all brain images independently regarding the presence, morphology, size, and location of intracranial aneurysms. Baseline characteristics were compared between the aortic dissection group and controls by propensity score matching, and logistic regression analysis was performed for independent risk factors for the presence of intracranial aneurysms.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms was 12.96% in the aortic dissection group and 1.85% in controls (P = .022). The mean diameter of intracranial aneurysms was significantly larger in the aortic dissection group (5.79 ± 3.26 mm in aortic dissection versus 3.04 ± 1.57 mm in controls; P = .008), and intracranial aneurysms of >7 mm were also more common in the aortic dissection group (28.6% in aortic dissection versus 5.3% in controls, P = .003). On multivariate analysis, arch vessel involvement of aortic dissection was an independent risk factor for the presence of intracranial aneurysms (odds ratio, 6.246; 95% confidence interval, 1.472–26.50; P = .013).

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with aortic dissection have a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysms, and selective screening for brain vessels could be considered in these patients with arch vessel involvement. A further prospective study is needed to demonstrate a substantial prevalence of intracranial aneurysms.




Reaction Time Is Negatively Associated with Corpus Callosum Area in the Early Stages of CADASIL [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Reaction time was recently recognized as a marker of subtle cognitive and behavioral alterations in the early clinical stages of CADASIL, a monogenic cerebral small-vessel disease. In unselected patients with CADASIL, brain atrophy and lacunes are the main imaging correlates of disease severity, but MR imaging correlates of reaction time in mildly affected patients are unknown. We hypothesized that reaction time is independently associated with the corpus callosum area in the early clinical stages of CADASIL.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty-six patients with CADASIL without dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24 and no cognitive symptoms) and without disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 1) were compared with 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Corpus callosum area was determined on 3D-T1 MR imaging sequences with validated methodology. Between-group comparisons were performed with t tests or 2 tests when appropriate. Relationships between reaction time and corpus callosum area were tested using linear regression modeling.

RESULTS:

Reaction time was significantly related to corpus callosum area in patients (estimate = –7.4 x 103, standard error = 3.3 x 103, P = .03) even after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and scores of depression and apathy (estimate = –12.2 x 103, standard error = 3.8 x 103, P = .005). No significant relationship was observed in controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

Corpus callosum area, a simple and robust imaging parameter, appears to be an independent correlate of reaction time at the early clinical stages of CADASIL. Further studies will determine whether corpus callosum area can be used as an outcome in future clinical trials in CADASIL or in more prevalent small-vessel diseases.




MR Imaging Features of the Cerebellum in Adult-Onset Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease: 8 Cases [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

SUMMARY:

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease is a neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions. A high-intensity signal along the corticomedullary junction on DWI has been described as a specific MR imaging finding of the cerebrum in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. However, MR imaging findings of the cerebellum in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease have not been fully evaluated. Here, we review MR imaging findings of the cerebellum in a series of 8 patients with pathologically confirmed neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. The MR imaging results showed cerebellar atrophy (8/8 patients) and high-intensity signal on FLAIR images in the medial part of the cerebellar hemisphere right beside the vermis (the "paravermal area") (6/8) and in the middle cerebellar peduncle (4/8). The paravermal abnormal signals had a characteristic distribution, and they could be an indicator of the diagnosis of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease even when using the results of past MR imaging examinations in which DWI findings were not examined.




Differences in Morphologic and Hemodynamic Characteristics for "PHASES-Based" Intracranial Aneurysm Locations [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Several recent prospective studies have found that unruptured intracranial aneurysms at various anatomic locations have different propensities for future rupture. This study aims to uncover the lack of understanding regarding rupture-prone characteristics, such as morphology and hemodynamic factors, associated with different intracranial aneurysm location.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We investigated the characteristics of 311 unruptured aneurysms at our center. Based on the PHASES study, we separated and compared morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics among 3 aneurysm location groups: 1) internal carotid artery; 2) middle cerebral artery; and 3) anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and posterior circulation arteries.

RESULTS:

A mixed model statistical analysis showed that size ratio, low wall shear stress area, and pressure loss coefficient were different between the intracranial aneurysm location groups. In addition, a pair-wise comparison showed that ICA aneurysms had lower size ratios, lower wall shear stress areas, and lower pressure loss coefficients compared with MCA aneurysms and compared with the group of anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and posterior circulation aneurysms. There were no statistical differences between MCA aneurysms and the group of anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and posterior circulation aneurysms for morphologic or hemodynamic characteristics.

CONCLUSIONS:

ICA aneurysms may be subjected to less rupture-prone morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics compared with other locations, which could explain the decreased rupture propensity of intracranial aneurysms at this location.




Angioarchitectures and Hemodynamic Characteristics of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms and Their Association with Rupture Status [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Intracranial aneurysms originating at the posterior communicating artery are known to have high rupture risk compared with other locations. We tested the hypothesis that different angioarchitectures (ie, branch point configuration) of posterior communicating artery aneurysms are associated with aneurysm hemodynamics, which in turn predisposes aneurysms to rupture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 313 posterior communicating artery aneurysms (145 ruptured, 168 unruptured) were studied with image-based computational fluid dynamics. Aneurysms were classified into different angioarchitecture types depending on the location of the aneurysm with respect to parent artery bifurcation. Hemodynamic characteristics were compared between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, as well as among aneurysms with different angioarchitectures.

RESULTS:

Angioarchitecture was associated with rupture (P = .003). Ruptured aneurysms had higher, more concentrated, and more oscillatory wall shear stress distributions (maximum wall shear stress, P < .001; shear concentration index, P < .001; mean oscillatory shear index, P < .001), stronger and more concentrated inflow jets (represented as Q, P = .01; inflow concentration index, P < .001), and more complex and unstable flow patterns (vortex core length, P < .001; proper orthogonal decomposition entropy, P < .001) compared with unruptured aneurysms. These adverse conditions were more common in aneurysms with bifurcation-type angioarchitectures compared with those with lateral or sidewall angioarchitectures. Interestingly, ruptured aneurysms also had lower normalized mean wall shear stress (P = .02) and minimum wall shear stress (P = .002) than unruptured aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS:

High-flow intrasaccular hemodynamic characteristics, commonly found in bifurcation-type angioarchitectures, are associated with the posterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture status. These characteristics include strong and concentrated inflow jets, concentrated regions of elevated wall shear stress, oscillatory wall shear stress, lower normalized wall shear stress, and complex and unstable flow patterns.




Patient Outcomes and Cerebral Infarction after Ruptured Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Treatment [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture and treatment is associated with high rates of dependency, which are more severe after clipping compared with coiling. To determine whether ischemic injury might account for these differences, we characterized cerebral infarction burden, infarction patterns, and patient outcomes after surgical or endovascular treatment of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Patient data and neuroimaging studies were reviewed. A propensity score for outcome measures was calculated to account for the nonrandom assignment to treatment. Primary outcome was the frequency of frontal lobe and striatum ischemic injury. Secondary outcomes were patient mortality and clinical outcome at discharge and at 3 months.

RESULTS:

Coiled patients were older (median, 55 versus 50 years; P = .03), presented with a worse clinical status (60% with Hunt and Hess Score >2 versus 34% in clipped patients; P = .02), had a higher modified Fisher grade (P = .01), and were more likely to present with intraventricular hemorrhage (78% versus 56%; P = .03). Ischemic frontal lobe infarction (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1–8.4; P = .03) and recurrent artery of Heubner infarction (OR, 20.9; 95% CI, 3.5–403.7; P < .001) were more common in clipped patients. Clipped patients were more likely to be functionally dependent at discharge (OR, 3.2; P = .05) compared with coiled patients. Mortality and clinical outcome at 3 months were similar between coiled and clipped patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Frontal lobe and recurrent artery of Heubner infarctions are more common after surgical clipping of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and are associated with poorer clinical outcomes at discharge.




Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Intracranial Aneurysms: Procedural Rupture versus Spontaneous Rupture [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Procedural rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a devastating complication in endovascular treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with procedural rupture of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms compared with those with spontaneously ruptured aneurysms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective review was performed for 1340 patients with 1595 unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms that underwent endovascular coil embolization between February 2010 and December 2014. The clinical outcomes of patients with procedural rupture of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms were compared with those of 198 patients presenting with spontaneously ruptured aneurysms.

RESULTS:

In this series, procedural rupture developed in 19 patients (1.4% per patient and 1.2% per aneurysm), and the morbidity related to procedural rupture was 26.3% (95% confidence interval, 8.5%–61.4%) with no mortality. Hunt and Hess scale grades and hospitalization days of patients with procedural rupture were equivalent to those of patients presenting with spontaneous aneurysm rupture. Subsequent treatment procedures after hemorrhage (including lumbar drainage, extraventricular drainage, decompressive craniectomy, and permanent shunt) showed no difference between the 2 groups. The hemorrhage volumes were smaller in the procedural-rupture group (P = .03), and the endovascular vasospasm therapies tended to be more frequently required in the spontaneous aneurysm–rupture group (P = .08). At postictus 6 months, the proportion of modified Rankin Scale scores of ≥2 were lower in the procedural-rupture group (5.3% versus 26.8%, P = .049). In multivariate analysis, spontaneous aneurysm rupture was a significant risk factor for worse clinical outcome (OR = 14.9; 95% CI, 1.2–193.1; P = .039).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study showed better clinical outcomes in the procedural-rupture group. Even though there is a potential chance of aneurysm rupture during treatment, the clinical outcomes after procedural bleeds seem to be more favorable than those of spontaneous rupture.




Flow Diversion with Low-Profile Braided Stents for the Treatment of Very Small or Uncoilable Intracranial Aneurysms at or Distal to the Circle of Willis [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The endovascular treatment of aneurysms located at or distal to the circle of Willis and not amenable to coiling remains a challenge. We report our experience with flow-diversion treatment using low-profile braided stents as a stent monotherapy procedure for treating distally located very small or uncoilable aneurysms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively reviewed our data bases to identify patients with aneurysms located at or distal to the circle of Willis who were treated with stent monotherapy using low-profile braided stents. The immediate and follow-up angiographic findings and clinical status of the patients were assessed.

RESULTS:

Twenty aneurysms in 19 patients were included in the study. The mean size of the aneurysms was 4.7 ± 2.4 mm. Patients were treated via telescopic implantation of 2 stents for 11 aneurysms; single-stent placement was used for the remaining aneurysms. The technical success rate was 95%. We observed a technical complication in 1 case (5.3%) and a late ischemic event in another (5.3%). The final angiographies during a mean follow-up of 14.7 months showed complete aneurysm occlusion in 73.7%. The complete occlusion rate of the aneurysms treated with telescopic stent placement was 81.8%. The modified Rankin scale scores of all patients at the last follow-up were between 0 and 2.

CONCLUSIONS:

Flow diversion with low-profile braided stents as a stent monotherapy procedure for very small or uncoilable intracranial aneurysms located at or beyond the circle of Willis is a promising, relatively safe, and durable endovascular procedure.




Anterior Circulation Acute Ischemic Stroke Associated with Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Cervical ICA: A Nosologic Entity Apart [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Mechanical thrombectomy for patients with acute ischemic stroke with tandem occlusions has been shown to present varying reperfusion successes and clinical outcomes. However, the heterogeneity of tandem occlusion etiology has been strongly neglected in previous studies. We retrospectively investigated patients with acute ischemic stroke atherothrombotic tandem occlusion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke with atherothrombotic tandem occlusions treated with mechanical thrombectomy in our center between September 2009 and April 2015 were analyzed. They were compared with patients with acute ischemic stroke with dissection-related tandem occlusion and isolated intracranial occlusion treated during the same period. Comparative univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, including demographic data, safety, and rates of successful recanalization and good clinical outcome.

RESULTS:

Despite comparable baseline severity of neurologic deficits and infarct core extension, patients with atherothrombotic tandem occlusions were older (P < .001), were more frequently smokers (P < .001), and had globally more cardiovascular risk factors (P < .001) than the other 2 groups of patients. The patients with atherothrombotic tandem occlusions had significantly longer procedural times (P < .001), lower recanalization rates (P = .004), and higher global burden of procedural complications (P < .001). In this group, procedural complications (OR = 0.15, P = .02) and the TICI 2b/3 reperfusion scores (OR = 17.76, P = .002) were independently predictive factors of favorable clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study suggests that atherothrombotic tandem occlusions represent a peculiar and different nosologic entity compared with dissection-related tandem occlusions. This challenging cause of acute ischemic stroke should be differentiated from other etiologies in patient management in future prospective studies.




Real-Time Motor Cortex Mapping for the Safe Resection of Glioma: An Intraoperative Resting-State fMRI Study [FUNCTIONAL]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Resting-state functional MR imaging has been used for motor mapping in presurgical planning but never used intraoperatively. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying intraoperative resting-state functional MR imaging for the safe resection of gliomas using real-time motor cortex mapping during an operation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Using interventional MR imaging, we conducted preoperative and intraoperative resting-state intrinsic functional connectivity analyses of the motor cortex in 30 patients with brain tumors. Factors that may influence intraoperative imaging quality, including anesthesia type (general or awake anesthesia) and tumor cavity (filled with normal saline or not), were studied to investigate image quality. Additionally, direct cortical stimulation was used to validate the accuracy of intraoperative resting-state fMRI in mapping the motor cortex.

RESULTS:

Preoperative and intraoperative resting-state fMRI scans were acquired for all patients. Fourteen patients who successfully completed both sufficient intraoperative resting-state fMRI and direct cortical stimulation were used for further analysis of sensitivity and specificity. Compared with those subjected to direct cortical stimulation, the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative resting-state fMRI in localizing the motor area were 61.7% and 93.7%, respectively. The image quality of intraoperative resting-state fMRI was better when the tumor cavity was filled with normal saline (P = .049). However, no significant difference between the anesthesia types was observed (P = .102).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrates the feasibility of using intraoperative resting-state fMRI for real-time localization of functional areas during a neurologic operation. The findings suggest that using intraoperative resting-state fMRI can avoid the risk of intraoperative seizures due to direct cortical stimulation and may provide neurosurgeons with valuable information to facilitate the safe resection of gliomas.




Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histograms of Human Papillomavirus-Positive and Human Papillomavirus-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Assessment of Tumor Heterogeneity and Comparison with Histopathology [HEAD & NECK]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma associated with human papillomavirus infection represents a distinct tumor entity. We hypothesized that diffusion phenotypes based on the histogram analysis of ADC values reflect distinct degrees of tumor heterogeneity in human papillomavirus–positive and human papillomavirus–negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

One hundred five consecutive patients (mean age, 64 years; range, 45–87 years) with primary oropharyngeal (n = 52) and oral cavity (n = 53) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent MR imaging with anatomic and diffusion-weighted sequences (b = 0, b = 1000 s/mm2, monoexponential ADC calculation). The collected tumor voxels from the contoured ROIs provided histograms from which position, dispersion, and form parameters were computed. Histogram data were correlated with histopathology, p16-immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction for human papillomavirus DNA.

RESULTS:

There were 21 human papillomavirus–positive and 84 human papillomavirus–negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. At histopathology, human papillomavirus–positive cancers were more often nonkeratinizing (13/21, 62%) than human papillomavirus–negative cancers (19/84, 23%; P = .001), and their mitotic index was higher (71% versus 49%; P = .005). ROI-based mean and median ADCs were significantly lower in human papillomavirus–positive (1014 ± 178 x 10–6 mm2/s and 970 ± 187 x 10–6 mm2/s, respectively) than in human papillomavirus–negative tumors (1184 ± 168 x 10–6 mm2/s and 1161 ± 175 x 10–6 mm2/s, respectively; P < .001), whereas excess kurtosis and skewness were significantly higher in human papillomavirus–positive (1.934 ± 1.386 and 0.923 ± 0.510, respectively) than in human papillomavirus–negative tumors (0.643 ± 0.982 and 0.399 ± 0.516, respectively; P < .001). Human papillomavirus–negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma had symmetric normally distributed ADC histograms, which corresponded histologically to heterogeneous tumors with variable cellularity, high stromal component, keratin pearls, and necrosis. Human papillomavirus–positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas had leptokurtic skewed right histograms, which corresponded to homogeneous tumors with back-to-back densely packed cells, scant stromal component, and scattered comedonecrosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Diffusion phenotypes of human papillomavirus–positive and human papillomavirus–negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas show significant differences, which reflect their distinct degree of tumor heterogeneity.




The Diagnostic Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced CT of the Neck for the Investigation of Sialolithiasis [HEAD & NECK]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Sialolithiasis is a common benign pathology affecting the salivary glands but it is unclear if contrast-enhanced CT, which is commonly used for investigation of head and neck pathology, can identify calculi as accurately as noncontrast CT. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in the diagnosis of sialolithiasis compared with noncontrast CT of the neck used as the criterion standard.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This was a retrospective, case-control study of 92 consecutive cases in 90 patients who underwent both noncontrast CT of the neck and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in 2 tertiary referral centers from January 2011 to December 2015 for investigation of sialolithiasis. Axial 3-mm-section images were assessed by a fellowship-trained diagnostic neuroradiologist and diagnostic neuroradiology fellow in consensus. Blinded assessment of the contrast-enhanced CT of the neck was performed first, followed by noncontrast CT of the neck after a 2-week interval. The presence or absence of a stone and stone location and size were documented. Statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the agreement between CT protocols and calculate the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck.

RESULTS:

Fifty calculi were identified on noncontrast CT of the neck in 31 cases; and 48 calculi, in 31 cases on contrast-enhanced CT of the neck. No calculi were identified in the remaining 61 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in the detection of sialolithiasis was 96% (95% CI, 86.3%–99.5%) and 100% (95% CI, 94.1%–100%), respectively. The positive predictive value of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck was 100% (95% CI, 92.6%–100%), and the negative predictive value was 96.8% (95% CI, 89%–99.6%). The accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT of the neck in diagnosing the presence or absence of salivary calculi was 98%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Contrast-enhanced CT of the neck is accurate in the detection of sialolithiasis, with no difference in diagnostic accuracy compared with noncontrast CT of the neck.




Prevalence of Internal Auditory Canal Diverticulum and Its Association with Hearing Loss and Otosclerosis [HEAD & NECK]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Focal low-attenuation outpouching or diverticulum at the anterolateral internal auditory canal is an uncommon finding on CT of the temporal bone. This finding has been described as cavitary otosclerosis in small case reports and histology series. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of internal auditory canal diverticulum and its association with classic imaging findings of otosclerosis and/or hearing loss.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Temporal bone CT scans of 807 patients, obtained between January 2013 and January 2016, were retrospectively reviewed to identify internal auditory canal diverticula and/or classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. Clinical evaluations for hearing loss were reviewed for patients with internal auditory canal diverticula and/or otosclerosis.

RESULTS:

Internal auditory canal diverticula were found in 43 patients (5%); classic otosclerosis, in 39 patients (5%); and both findings, in 7 patients (1%). Most temporal bones with only findings of internal auditory canal diverticula (91%) demonstrated hearing loss, with 63% of this group demonstrating sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing loss classification distribution was significantly different (P < .01) from that in the classic otosclerosis group and in the group with both diverticula and otosclerosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Internal auditory canal diverticula are not uncommon on CT examinations of the temporal bone and most commonly occur without classic imaging findings of otosclerosis. These lesions are associated with sensorineural hearing loss, and referral for hearing evaluation may be appropriate when present.




Clinical and Imaging Characteristics of Arteriopathy Subtypes in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke: Results of the VIPS Study [PEDIATRICS]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Childhood arteriopathies are rare but heterogenous, and difficult to diagnose and classify, especially by nonexperts. We quantified clinical and imaging characteristics associated with childhood arteriopathy subtypes to facilitate their diagnosis and classification in research and clinical settings.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The Vascular Effects of Infection in Pediatric Stroke (VIPS) study prospectively enrolled 355 children with arterial ischemic stroke (2010–2014). A central team of experts reviewed all data to diagnose childhood arteriopathy and classify subtypes, including arterial dissection and focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type, which includes transient cerebral arteriopathy, Moyamoya disease, and diffuse/multifocal vasculitis. Only children whose stroke etiology could be conclusively diagnosed were included in these analyses. We constructed logistic regression models to identify characteristics associated with each arteriopathy subtype.

RESULTS:

Among 127 children with definite arteriopathy, the arteriopathy subtype could not be classified in 18 (14%). Moyamoya disease (n = 34) occurred mostly in children younger than 8 years of age; focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type (n = 25), in children 8–15 years of age; and dissection (n = 26), at all ages. Vertigo at stroke presentation was common in dissection. Dissection affected the cervical arteries, while Moyamoya disease involved the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries. A banded appearance of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery was pathognomonic of focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type but was present in <25% of patients with focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type; a small lenticulostriate distribution infarct was a more common predictor of focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type, present in 76%. It remained difficult to distinguish focal cerebral arteriopathy–inflammatory type from intracranial dissection of the anterior circulation. We observed only secondary forms of diffuse/multifocal vasculitis, mostly due to meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Childhood arteriopathy subtypes have some typical features that aid diagnosis. Better imaging methods, including vessel wall imaging, are needed for improved classification of focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood.




Brain Temperature Is Increased During the First Days of Life in Asphyxiated Newborns: Developing Brain Injury Despite Hypothermia Treatment [PEDIATRICS]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Therapeutic hypothermia is the current treatment for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is believed to work by decreasing the brain temperature and reducing the baseline metabolism and energy demand of the brain. This study aimed to noninvasively assess brain temperature during the first month of life in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia and healthy neonates were enrolled prospectively. MR imaging was used to identify the presence and extent of brain injury. MR imaging multivoxel spectroscopy was used to derive brain temperatures in the basal ganglia and white matter at different time points during the first month of life. Brain temperature measurements were compared between neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and healthy neonates.

RESULTS:

Forty-three term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia had a total of 74 spectroscopy scans, and 3 healthy term neonates had a total of 9 spectroscopy scans during the first month of life. Brain temperatures were lower in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during hypothermia, compared with the healthy neonates (respectively, on day 1 of life: basal ganglia, 38.81°C ± 2.08°C, and white matter, 39.11°C ± 1.99°C; and on days 2–3 of life: basal ganglia, 38.25°C ± 0.91°C, and white matter, 38.54°C ± 2.79°C). However, neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who developed brain injury had higher brain temperatures during hypothermia (respectively, on day 1 of life: basal ganglia, 35.55°C ± 1.31°C, and white matter, 37.35°C ± 2.55°C; and on days 2–3 of life: basal ganglia, 35.20°C ± 1.15°C, and white matter, 35.44°C ± 1.90°C) compared with neonates who did not develop brain injury (respectively, on day 1 of life: basal ganglia, 34.46°C ± 1.09°C, and white matter, 33.97°C ± 1.42°C; and on days 2–3 of life: basal ganglia, 33.90°C ± 1.34°C, and white matter, 33.07°C ± 1.71°C). Also, brain temperatures tended to remain slightly higher in the neonates who developed brain injury around day 10 of life and around 1 month of age.

CONCLUSIONS:

Therapeutic hypothermia using current guidelines decreased the brain temperature of neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during the first days of life but did not prevent an early increase of brain temperature in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who developed brain injury despite this treatment.




Does the Addition of a "Black Bone" Sequence to a Fast Multisequence Trauma MR Protocol Allow MRI to Replace CT after Traumatic Brain Injury in Children? [PEDIATRICS]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Head CT is the current neuroimaging tool of choice in acute evaluation of pediatric head trauma. The potential cancer risks of CT-related ionizing radiation should limit its use in children. We evaluated the role of MR imaging, including a "black bone" sequence, compared with CT in detecting skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhages in children with acute head trauma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective evaluation of 2D head CT and brain MR imaging studies including the black bone sequence of children with head trauma. Two experienced pediatric neuroradiologists in consensus created the standard of reference. Another pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis evaluated brain MR images and head CT images in 2 separate sessions. The presence of skull fractures and intracranial posttraumatic hemorrhages was evaluated. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of CT and MR imaging with the black bone sequence in the diagnosis of skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhages.

RESULTS:

Twenty-eight children (24 boys; mean age, 4.89 years; range, 0–15.5 years) with head trauma were included. MR imaging with the black bone sequence revealed lower sensitivity (66.7% versus 100%) and specificity (87.5% versus 100%) in identifying skull fractures. Four of 6 incorrectly interpreted black bone MR imaging studies showed cranial sutures being misinterpreted as skull fractures and vice versa.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our preliminary results show that brain MR imaging complemented by a black bone sequence is a promising nonionizing alternative to head CT for the assessment of skull fractures in children. However, accuracy in the detection of linear fractures in young children and fractures of aerated bone remains limited.




Volume of Structures in the Fetal Brain Measured with a New Semiautomated Method [PEDIATRICS]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Measuring the volume of fetal brain structures is challenging due to fetal motion, low resolution, and artifacts caused by maternal tissue. Our aim was to introduce a new, simple, Matlab-based semiautomated method to measure the volume of structures in the fetal brain and present normal volumetric curves of the structures measured.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The volume of the supratentorial brain, left and right hemispheres, cerebellum, and left and right eyeballs was measured retrospectively by the new semiautomated method in MR imaging examinations of 94 healthy fetuses. Four volume ratios were calculated. Interobserver agreement was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient, and a Bland-Altman plot was drawn for comparison of manual and semiautomated method measurements of the supratentorial brain.

RESULTS:

We present normal volumetric curves and normal percentile values of the structures measured according to gestational age and of the ratios between the cerebellum and the supratentorial brain volume and the total eyeball and the supratentorial brain volume. Interobserver agreement was good or excellent for all structures measured. The Bland-Altman plot between manual and semiautomated measurements showed a maximal relative difference of 7.84%.

CONCLUSIONS:

We present a technologically simple, reproducible method that can be applied prospectively and retrospectively on any MR imaging protocol, and we present normal volumetric curves measured. The method shows results like manual measurements while being less time-consuming and user-dependent. By applying this method on different cranial and extracranial structures, anatomic and pathologic, we believe that fetal volumetry can turn from a research tool into a practical clinical one.




Transient Focal Neurologic Symptoms Correspond to Regional Cerebral Hypoperfusion by MRI: A Stroke Mimic in Children [PEDIATRICS]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

SUMMARY:

Children who present with acute transient focal neurologic symptoms raise concern for stroke or transient ischemic attack. We present a series of 16 children who presented with transient focal neurologic symptoms that raised concern for acute stroke but who had no evidence of infarction and had unilateral, potentially reversible imaging features on vascular and perfusion-sensitive brain MR imaging. Patients were examined with routine brain MR imaging, MRA, perfusion-sensitive sequences, and DWI. Fourteen (88%) children had lateralized MRA evidence of arterial tree pruning without occlusion, all had negative DWI findings, and all showed evidence of hemispheric hypoperfusion by susceptibility-weighted imaging or arterial spin-labeling perfusion imaging at presentation. These findings normalized following resolution of symptoms in all children who had follow-up imaging (6/16, 38%). The use of MR imaging with perfusion-sensitive sequences, DWI, and MRA can help to rapidly distinguish children with conditions mimicking stroke from those with acute stroke.




MR Neurography of Greater Occipital Nerve Neuropathy: Initial Experience in Patients with Migraine [PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

MR imaging of peripheral nerves (MR neurography) allows improved assessment of nerve anatomy and pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with unilateral occipital neuralgia using MR neurography and to assess the differences in greater occipital nerve signal and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this case-control evaluation using MR neurography, bilateral greater occipital nerve caliber, signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratios, and contrast-to-noise ratios were determined by 2 observers.

RESULTS:

Among 18 subjects with unilateral occipital migraines, the average greater occipital nerve diameter for the symptomatic side was significantly greater at 1.77 ± 0.4 mm than for the asymptomatic side at 1.29 ± 0.25 mm (P = .001). The difference in nerve signal intensity between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides was statistically significant at 269.06 ± 170.93 and 222.44 ± 170.46, respectively (P = .043). The signal-to-noise ratios on the symptomatic side were higher at 15.79 ± 4.59 compared with the asymptomatic nerve at 14.02 ± 5.23 (P = .009). Contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher on the symptomatic side than on the asymptomatic side at 2.57 ± 4.89 and –1.26 ± 5.02, respectively (P = .004). Intraobserver performance was good to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.68–0.93), and interobserver performance was fair to excellent (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.54–0.81).

CONCLUSIONS:

MR neurography can be reliably used for the diagnosis of greater occipital nerve neuropathy in patients with unilateral occipital migraines with a good correlation of imaging findings to the clinical presentation.




T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Perfusion Imaging Characterizes Tumor Response to Radiation Therapy in Chordoma [SPINE]

2017-11-15T08:00:43-08:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Chordomas notoriously demonstrate a paucity of changes following radiation therapy on conventional MR imaging. We hypothesized that dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging parameters of chordomas would change significantly following radiation therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eleven patients with pathology-proved chordoma who completed dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging pre- and postradiation therapy were enrolled. Quantitative tumor measurements were obtained by 2 attending neuroradiologists. ROIs were used to calculate vascular permeability and plasma volume and generate dynamic contrast-enhancement curves. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine mean and maximum plasma volume and vascular permeability values, while semiquantitative analysis on averaged concentration curves was used to determine the area under the curve. A Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of P < .05 was used to assess differences of the above parameters between pre- and postradiation therapy.

RESULTS:

Plasma volume mean (pretreatment mean = 0.82; posttreatment mean = 0.42), plasma volume maximum (pretreatment mean = 3.56; posttreatment mean = 2.27), and vascular permeability mean (pretreatment mean = 0.046; posttreatment mean = 0.028) in the ROIs significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P < .05); this change thereby demonstrated the potential for assessing tumor response. Area under the curve values also demonstrated significant differences (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Plasma volume and vascular permeability decreased after radiation therapy, suggesting that these dynamic contrast-enhanced MR perfusion parameters may be useful for monitoring chordoma growth and response to radiation therapy. Additionally, the characteristic dynamic MR signal intensity–time curve of chordoma may provide a radiographic means of distinguishing chordoma from other spinal lesions.







American Society of Functional Neuroradiology-Recommended fMRI Paradigm Algorithms for Presurgical Language Assessment [FUNCTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

INTRODUCTION:

Functional MR imaging is increasingly being used for presurgical language assessment in the treatment of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, vascular malformations, and other conditions. The inherent complexity of fMRI, which includes numerous processing steps and selective analyses, is compounded by institution-unique approaches to patient training, paradigm choice, and an eclectic array of postprocessing options from various vendors. Consequently, institutions perform fMRI in such markedly different manners that data sharing, comparison, and generalization of results are difficult. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology proposes widespread adoption of common fMRI language paradigms as the first step in countering this lost opportunity to advance our knowledge and improve patient care.

LANGUAGE PARADIGM REVIEW PROCESS:

A taskforce of American Society of Functional Neuroradiology members from multiple institutions used a broad literature review, member polls, and expert opinion to converge on 2 sets of standard language paradigms that strike a balance between ease of application and clinical usefulness.

ASFNR RECOMMENDATIONS:

The taskforce generated an adult language paradigm algorithm for presurgical language assessment including the following tasks: Sentence Completion, Silent Word Generation, Rhyming, Object Naming, and/or Passive Story Listening. The pediatric algorithm includes the following tasks: Sentence Completion, Rhyming, Antonym Generation, or Passive Story Listening.

DISCUSSION:

Convergence of fMRI language paradigms across institutions offers the first step in providing a "Rosetta Stone" that provides a common reference point with which to compare and contrast the usefulness and reliability of fMRI data. From this common language task battery, future refinements and improvements are anticipated, particularly as objective measures of reliability become available. Some commonality of practice is a necessary first step to develop a foundation on which to improve the clinical utility of this field.



















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2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00







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2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00




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2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00




Neuroimaging Changes in Menkes Disease, Part 1 [PEDIATRICS]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

SUMMARY:

Menkes disease is a rare multisystem X-linked disorder of copper metabolism. Despite an early, severe, and progressive neurologic involvement, our knowledge of brain involvement remains unsatisfactory. The first part of this retrospective and review MR imaging study aims to define the frequency rate, timing, imaging features, and evolution of intracranial vascular and white matter changes. According to our analysis, striking but also poorly evolutive vascular abnormalities characterize the very early phases of disease. After the first months, myelination delay becomes evident, often in association with protean focal white matter lesions, some of which reveal an age-specific brain vulnerability. In later phases of the disease, concomitant progressive neurodegeneration might hinder the myelination progression. The currently enriched knowledge of neuroradiologic finding evolution provides valuable clues for early diagnosis, identifies possible MR imaging biomarkers of new treatment efficacy, and improves our comprehension of possible mechanisms of brain injury in Menkes disease.




Neuroimaging Changes in Menkes Disease, Part 2 [PEDIATRICS]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

SUMMARY:

This is the second part of a retrospective and review MR imaging study aiming to define the frequency rate, timing, imaging features, and evolution of gray matter changes in Menkes disease, a rare multisystem X-linked disorder of copper metabolism characterized by early, severe, and progressive neurologic involvement. According to our analysis, neurodegenerative changes and focal basal ganglia lesions already appear in the early phases of the disease. Subdural collections are less common than generally thought; however, their presence remains important because they might challenge the differential diagnosis with child abuse and might precipitate the clinical deterioration. Anecdotal findings in our large sample seem to provide interesting clues about the protean mechanisms of brain injury in this rare disease and further highlight the broad spectrum of MR imaging findings that might be expected while imaging a child with the suspicion of or a known diagnosis of Menkes disease.




Maximizing the Tweet Engagement Rate in Academia: Analysis of the AJNR Twitter Feed [research-article]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

SUMMARY:

The use of social media by medical professionals and organizations is increasing, with Twitter receiving the most attention. User engagement is an important goal of social media activity, and engagement metrics represent a viable gauge of value in social media. No thorough analysis of tweet characteristics that increase academic user engagement has yet been published. In this study, the authors analyzed the American Journal of Neuroradiology Twitter feed to determine the tweet characteristics that were associated with higher engagement rates.




Spinal and Paraspinal Plexiform Neurofibromas in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Novel Scoring System for Radiological-Clinical Correlation [SPINE]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a common tumor predisposition syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterize the radiologic presentation of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 with widespread spinal disease and to correlate it to clinical presentation and outcome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We conducted a historical cohort study of adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 with spinal involvement. Longitudinal clinical evaluation included pain and neurologic deficits. Radiologically, spinal involvement was classified according to a novel classification system, and a radiologic risk score was calculated.

RESULTS:

Two hundred fifty-seven adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 are followed in our center. Thirty-four of these patients qualified for inclusion in this study. Three independent factors were found to be associated with increased risk for neurologic deficit: 1) bilateral tumors at the same level in the cervical region that approximated each other, 2) paraspinal tumors at the lumbar region, and 3) intradural lesions. On the basis of these factors, we calculated a combined risk score for neurologic deficits for each patient. We found a clear correlation between patient status and the calculated radiologic risk score. Patients with neurologic deficits were found to have a higher risk score (9 ± 8.3) than patients without neurologic deficits (2.5 ± 2.9, P < .05). Patients who progressed during the follow-up period had significantly higher scores at presentation than patients with stable conditions (9.9 ± 8.73 versus 3.9 ± 5.3, respectively; P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this series, neurologic deficit is correlated with tumor burden and subtype. We found no direct correlation with tumor burden and pain. Our novel radiologic classification scoring system may be used to predict increased risk for neurologic morbidity.




3D Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin-Labeling MR Imaging in the Preoperative Evaluation of Gliomas [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Previous studies showed conflicting results concerning the value of CBF maps obtained from arterial spin-labeling MR imaging in grading gliomas. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of CBF maps derived from 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling in preoperatively assessing the grade, cellular proliferation, and prognosis of gliomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Fifty-eight patients with pathologically confirmed gliomas underwent preoperative 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling. The receiver operating characteristic curves for parameters to distinguish high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas were generated. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the correlation among parameters. Survival analysis was conducted with Cox regression.

RESULTS:

Both maximum CBF and maximum relative CBF were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas (P < .001). The areas under the curve for maximum CBF and maximum relative CBF in distinguishing high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas were 0.828 and 0.863, respectively. Both maximum CBF and maximum relative CBF had no correlation with the Ki-67 index in all subjects and had a moderate negative correlation with the Ki-67 index in glioblastomas (r = –0.475, –0.534, respectively). After adjustment for age, a higher maximum CBF (P = .008) and higher maximum relative CBF (P = .005) were associated with worse progression-free survival in gliomas, while a higher maximum relative CBF (P = .033) was associated with better overall survival in glioblastomas.

CONCLUSIONS:

3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling–derived CBF maps are effective in preoperative evaluation of gliomas. Although gliomas with a higher blood flow are more malignant, glioblastomas with a lower blood flow are likely to be more aggressive.




Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuroimaging to Delineate Diffuse Gliomas within the Brain: A Meta-Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND:

Brain imaging in diffuse glioma is used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up.

PURPOSE:

In this meta-analysis, we address the diagnostic accuracy of imaging to delineate diffuse glioma.

DATA SOURCES:

We systematically searched studies of adults with diffuse gliomas and correlation of imaging with histopathology.

STUDY SELECTION:

Study inclusion was based on quality criteria. Individual patient data were used, if available.

DATA ANALYSIS:

A hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic method was applied. Low- and high-grade gliomas were analyzed in subgroups.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Sixty-one studies described 3532 samples in 1309 patients. The mean Standard for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy score (13/25) indicated suboptimal reporting quality. For diffuse gliomas as a whole, the diagnostic accuracy was best with T2-weighted imaging, measured as area under the curve, false-positive rate, true-positive rate, and diagnostic odds ratio of 95.6%, 3.3%, 82%, and 152. For low-grade gliomas, the diagnostic accuracy of T2-weighted imaging as a reference was 89.0%, 0.4%, 44.7%, and 205; and for high-grade gliomas, with T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging as a reference, it was 80.7%, 16.8%, 73.3%, and 14.8. In high-grade gliomas, MR spectroscopy (85.7%, 35.0%, 85.7%, and 12.4) and 11C methionine–PET (85.1%, 38.7%, 93.7%, and 26.6) performed better than the reference imaging.

LIMITATIONS:

True-negative samples were underrepresented in these data, so false-positive rates are probably less reliable than true-positive rates. Multimodality imaging data were unavailable.

CONCLUSIONS:

The diagnostic accuracy of commonly used imaging is better for delineation of low-grade gliomas than high-grade gliomas on the basis of limited evidence. Improvement is indicated from advanced techniques, such as MR spectroscopy and PET.




Imaging Biomarkers for Adult Medulloblastomas: Genetic Entities May Be Identified by Their MR Imaging Radiophenotype [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The occurrence of medulloblastomas in adults is rare; nevertheless, these tumors can be subdivided into genetic and histologic entities each having distinct prognoses. This study aimed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to classify these entities and to uncover differences in MR imaging biomarkers identified in pediatric medulloblastomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eligible preoperative MRIs from 28 patients (11 women; 22–53 years of age) of the Multicenter Pilot-study for the Therapy of Medulloblastoma of Adults (NOA-7) cohort were assessed by 3 experienced neuroradiologists. Lesions and perifocal edema were volumetrized and multiparametrically evaluated for classic morphologic characteristics, location, hydrocephalus, and Chang criteria. To identify MR imaging biomarkers, we correlated genetic entities sonic hedgehog (SHH) TP53 wild type, wingless (WNT), and non-WNT/non-SHH medulloblastomas (in adults, Group 4), and histologic entities were correlated with the imaging criteria. These MR imaging biomarkers were compared with corresponding data from a pediatric study.

RESULTS:

There were 19 SHH TP53 wild type (69%), 4 WNT-activated (14%), and 5 Group 4 (17%) medulloblastomas. Six potential MR imaging biomarkers were identified, 3 of which, hydrocephalus (P = .03), intraventricular macrometastases (P = .02), and hemorrhage (P = .04), when combined, could identify WNT medulloblastoma with 100% sensitivity and 88.3% specificity (95% CI, 39.8%–100.0% and 62.6%–95.3%). WNT-activated nuclear β-catenin accumulating medulloblastomas were smaller than the other entities (95% CI, 5.2–22.3 cm3 versus 35.1–47.6 cm3; P = .03). Hemorrhage was exclusively present in non-WNT/non-SHH medulloblastomas (P = .04; n = 2/5). MR imaging biomarkers were all discordant from those identified in the pediatric cohort. Desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastomas were more rarely in contact with the fourth ventricle (4/15 versus 7/13; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS:

MR imaging biomarkers can help distinguish histologic and genetic medulloblastoma entities in adults and appear to be different from those identified in children.




Multinodular and Vacuolating Neuronal Tumor of the Cerebrum: A New "Leave Me Alone" Lesion with a Characteristic Imaging Pattern [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

SUMMARY:

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum is a recently reported benign, mixed glial neuronal lesion that is included in the 2016 updated World Health Organization classification of brain neoplasms as a unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We report 33 cases of presumed multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor of the cerebrum that exhibit a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings consisting of a subcortical cluster of nodular lesions located on the inner surface of an otherwise normal-appearing cortex, principally within the deep cortical ribbon and superficial subcortical white matter, which is hyperintense on FLAIR. Only 4 of our cases are biopsy-proven because most were asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. The remaining were followed for a minimum of 24 months (mean, 3 years) without interval change. We demonstrate that these are benign, nonaggressive lesions that do not require biopsy in asymptomatic patients and behave more like a malformative process than a true neoplasm.




Age, Sex, and Racial Differences in Neuroimaging Use in Acute Stroke: A Population-Based Study [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Limited information is available regarding differences in neuroimaging use for acute stroke work-up. Our objective was to assess whether race, sex, or age differences exist in neuroimaging use and whether these differences depend on the care center type in a population-based study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients with stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and transient ischemic attack were identified in a metropolitan, biracial population using the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010. Multivariable regression was used to determine the odds of advanced imaging use (CT angiography/MR imaging/MR angiography) for race, sex, and age.

RESULTS:

In 2005 and 2010, there were 3471 and 3431 stroke/TIA events, respectively. If one adjusted for covariates, the odds of advanced imaging were higher for younger (55 years or younger) compared with older patients, blacks compared with whites, and patients presenting to an academic center and those seen by a stroke team or neurologist. The observed association between race and advanced imaging depended on age; in the older age group, blacks had higher odds of advanced imaging compared with whites (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12–1.61; P < .01), and in the younger group, the association between race and advanced imaging was not statistically significant. Age by race interaction persisted in the academic center subgroup (P < .01), but not in the nonacademic center subgroup (P = .58). No significant association was found between sex and advanced imaging.

CONCLUSIONS:

Within a large, biracial stroke/TIA population, there is variation in the use of advanced neuroimaging by age and race, depending on the care center type.




Improved Detection of Anterior Circulation Occlusions: The "Delayed Vessel Sign" on Multiphase CT Angiography [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Multiphase CTA, a technique to dynamically assess the vasculature in acute ischemic stroke, was primarily developed to evaluate collateral filling. We have observed that it is also useful in identifying distal anterior circulation occlusions due to delayed anterior circulation opacification on multiphase CTA, an observation we term the "delayed vessel sign." We aimed to determine the usefulness of this sign by comparing multiphase CTA with single-phase CTA.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All 23 distal anterior circulation occlusions during a 2-year period were included. Ten M1-segment occlusions and 10 cases without a vessel occlusion were also included. All patients had follow-up imaging confirming the diagnosis. Initially, the noncontrast CT and first phase of the multiphase CTA study for each patient were blindly evaluated (2 neuroradiologists, 2 radiology trainees) for an anterior circulation occlusion. Readers' confidence, speed, and sensitivity of detection were recorded. Readers were then educated on the "delayed vessel sign," and each multiphase CTA study was re-examined for a vessel occlusion after at least 14 days.

RESULTS:

There was significant improvement in the sensitivity of detection of distal anterior circulation vessel occlusions (P < .001), overall confidence (P < .001), and time taken to interpret (P < .001) with multiphase CTA compared with single-phase CTA. Readers preferred MIP images compared with source images in >90% of cases.

CONCLUSIONS:

The delayed vessel sign is a reliable indicator of anterior circulation vessel occlusion, particularly in cases involving distal branches. Assessment of the later phases of multiphase CTA for the delayed vessel sign leads to a significant improvement in the speed and confidence of interpretation, compared with single-phase CTA.




Concordance of Time-of-Flight MRA and Digital Subtraction Angiography in Adult Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

3D-TOF-MRA and DSA are 2 available tools to demonstrate neurovascular involvement in primary central nervous system vasculitis. We aimed to compare the diagnostic concordance of vessel imaging using 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively identified all patients included in the French primary central nervous system vasculitis cohort of 85 patients who underwent, at baseline, both intracranial 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in an interval of no more than 2 weeks and before treatment initiation. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed all 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA imaging. Brain vasculature was divided into 25 arterial segments. Concordance between 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA for the identification of arterial stenosis was assessed by the Cohen Index.

RESULTS:

Thirty-one patients met the inclusion criteria, including 20 imaged with a 1.5T MR unit and 11 with a 3T MR unit. Among the 25 patients (81%) with abnormal DSA findings, 24 demonstrated abnormal 3D-TOF-MRA findings, whereas all 6 remaining patients with normal DSA findings had normal 3D-TOF-MRA findings. In the per-segment analysis, concordance between 1.5T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75–0.93), and between 3T 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA, it was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78–0.91).

CONCLUSIONS:

3D-TOF-MRA shows a high concordance with DSA in diagnostic performance when analyzing brain vasculature in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. In patients with negative 3T 3D-TOF-MRA findings, the added diagnostic value of DSA is limited.




In Vivo Imaging of Venous Side Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease in Older Adults: An MRI Method at 7T [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Traditional neuroimaging markers of small-vessel disease focus on late-stage changes. We aimed to adapt a method of venular assessment at 7T for use in older adults. We hypothesized that poorer venular morphologic characteristics would be related to other small-vessel disease neuroimaging markers and a higher prevalence of small-vessel disease–Alzheimer disease risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Venules were identified in periventricular ROIs on SWI and defined as tortuous or straight. The tortuosity ratio was defined as total tortuous venular length divided by total straight venular length. White matter hyperintensity burden (visually rated from 0 to 3) and the number of microbleeds (0, 1, >1) were determined. Differences in tortuous and straight venular lengths were evaluated. Relationships with demographic variables, allele producing the e4 type of apolipoprotein E (APOE4), growth factors, pulse pressure, physical activity, and Modified Mini-Mental State Examination were assessed via Spearman correlations.

RESULTS:

Participants had 42% more tortuous venular tissue than straight (median, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.13–1.62). APOE4 presence was associated with a greater tortuosity ratio ( = 0.454, P = .001), and these results were robust to adjustment for confounders and multiple comparisons. Associations of the tortuosity ratio with sex and vascular endothelial growth factor did not survive adjustment. Associations of the tortuosity ratio with other variables of interest were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Morphologic measures of venules at 7T could be useful biomarkers of the early stages of small-vessel disease and Alzheimer disease. Longitudinal studies should examine the impact of apolipoprotein E and vascular endothelial growth factor on the risk of venular damage.




Basal Ganglia T1 Hyperintensity in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The implications of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity remain unclear in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of this imaging finding in a large cohort of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to identify any association between this phenomenon and other disease manifestations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this retrospective study, we identified all patients at our institution diagnosed with definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia from 2001 to 2017. Patients who did not undergo brain MR imaging were excluded. Patient demographics, laboratory results, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia disease characteristics were noted. Basal ganglia hyperintensity was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively relative to the signal intensity in the ipsilateral thalami. Statistical analysis was performed with commercially available software.

RESULTS:

A total of 312 patients (41% men, 59% women; mean age, 51 ± 18 years) with definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were identified. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity was present in 23.4% of patients and demonstrated a statistically significant association with older age (P < .001), increased hepatic AVMs (P < .001), high cardiac output state (P < .001), hepatic failure (P = .01), elevated peak serum alkaline phosphatase level (P = .03), and increased total bilirubin count (P = .03). There was no significant association with sex, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia genetic mutation status, parkinsonism, or serum transaminase levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity occurs in >23% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and is associated with hepatic vascular malformations, hepatic dysfunction, and elevated cardiac output. The presence of this finding on screening MR imaging in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia should prompt further evaluation for visceral lesions causing arteriovenous shunting.




Analysis of White Matter Damage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis via a Novel In Vivo MR Method for Measuring Myelin, Axons, and G-Ratio [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Myelin and axon volume fractions can now be estimated via MR imaging in vivo, as can the g-ratio, which equals the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a nerve fiber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate WM damage in patients with MS via this novel MR imaging technique.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a combined total of 149 chronic plaques were analyzed. Myelin volume fraction was calculated based on simultaneous tissue relaxometry. Intracellular and CSF compartment volume fractions were quantified via neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. Axon volume fraction and g-ratio were calculated by combining these measurements. Myelin and axon volume fractions and g-ratio were measured in plaques, periplaque WM, and normal-appearing WM.

RESULTS:

All metrics differed significantly across the 3 groups (P < .001, except P = .027 for g-ratio between periplaque WM and normal-appearing WM). Those in plaques differed most from those in normal-appearing WM. The percentage changes in plaque and periplaque WM metrics relative to normal-appearing WM were significantly larger in absolute value for myelin volume fraction than for axon volume fraction and g-ratio (P < .001, except P = .033 in periplaque WM relative to normal-appearing WM for comparison between myelin and axon volume fraction).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this in vivo MR imaging study, the myelin of WM was more damaged than axons in plaques and periplaque WM of patients with MS. Myelin and axon volume fractions and g-ratio may potentially be useful for evaluating WM damage in patients with MS.




Pre- and Postcontrast 3D Double Inversion Recovery Sequence in Multiple Sclerosis: A Simple and Effective MR Imaging Protocol [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The double inversion recovery sequence is known to be very sensitive and specific for MS-related lesions. Our aim was to compare the sensitivity of pre- and postcontrast images of 3D double inversion recovery and conventional 3D T1-weighted images for the detection of contrast-enhancing MS-related lesions in the brain to analyze whether double inversion recovery could be as effective as T1WI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A postcontrast 3D double inversion recovery sequence was acquired in addition to the standard MR imaging protocol at 3T, including pre- and postcontrast 3D T1WI sequences as well as precontrast double inversion recovery of 45 consecutive patients with MS or clinically isolated syndrome between June and December 2013. Two neuroradiologists independently assessed precontrast, postcontrast, and subtraction images of double inversion recovery as well as T1WI to count the number of contrast-enhancing lesions. Afterward, a consensus reading was performed. Lin concordance was calculated between both radiologists, and differences in lesion detectability were assessed with the Student t test. Additionally, the contrast-to-noise ratio was calculated.

RESULTS:

Significantly more contrast-enhancing lesions could be detected with double inversion recovery compared with T1WI (16%, 214 versus 185, P = .007). The concordance between both radiologists was almost perfect (c = 0.94 for T1WI and c = 0.98 for double inversion recovery, respectively). The contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher in double inversion recovery subtraction images compared with T1-weighted subtraction images (double inversion recovery, 14.3 ± 5.5; T1WI, 6.3 ± 7.1; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Pre- and postcontrast double inversion recovery enables better detection of contrast-enhancing lesions in MS in the brain compared with T1WI and may be considered an alternative to the standard MR imaging protocol.




Dual-Energy CT in Enhancing Subdural Effusions that Masquerade as Subdural Hematomas: Diagnosis with Virtual High-Monochromatic (190-keV) Images [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Extravasation of iodinated contrast into subdural space following contrast-enhanced radiographic studies results in hyperdense subdural effusions, which can be mistaken as acute subdural hematomas on follow-up noncontrast head CTs. Our aim was to identify the factors associated with contrast-enhancing subdural effusion, characterize diffusion and washout kinetics of iodine in enhancing subdural effusion, and assess the utility of dual-energy CT in differentiating enhancing subdural effusion from subdural hematoma.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively analyzed follow-up head dual-energy CT studies in 423 patients with polytrauma who had undergone contrast-enhanced whole-body CT. Twenty-four patients with enhancing subdural effusion composed the study group, and 24 randomly selected patients with subdural hematoma were enrolled in the comparison group. Postprocessing with syngo.via was performed to determine the diffusion and washout kinetics of iodine. The sensitivity and specificity of dual-energy CT for the diagnosis of enhancing subdural effusion were determined with 120-kV, virtual monochromatic energy (190-keV) and virtual noncontrast images.

RESULTS:

Patients with enhancing subdural effusion were significantly older (mean, 69 years; 95% CI, 60–78 years; P < .001) and had a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (P = .001). Peak iodine concentration in enhancing subdural effusions was reached within the first 8 hours of contrast administration with a mean of 0.98 mg/mL (95% CI, 0.81–1.13 mg/mL), and complete washout was achieved at 38 hours. For the presence of a hyperdense subdural collection on 120-kV images with a loss of hyperattenuation on 190-keV and virtual noncontrast images, when considered as a true-positive for enhancing subdural effusion, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 85.75%–100%) and the specificity was 91.67% (95% CI, 73%–99%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Dual-energy CT has a high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating enhancing subdural effusion from subdural hematoma. Hence, dual-energy CT has a potential to obviate follow-up studies.




Assessment of Iron Deposition in the Brain in Frontotemporal Dementia and Its Correlation with Behavioral Traits [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Brain iron deposition has been implicated as a major culprit in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. However, the quantitative assessment of iron in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia brains has not been performed, to our knowledge. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristic iron levels in the frontotemporal dementia subtypes using susceptibility-weighted imaging and report its association with behavioral profiles.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This prospective study included 46 patients with frontotemporal dementia (34 with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and 12 with primary progressive aphasia) and 34 age-matched healthy controls. We performed behavioral and neuropsychological assessment in all the subjects. The quantitative iron load was determined on SWI in the superior frontal gyrus and temporal pole, precentral gyrus, basal ganglia, anterior cingulate, frontal white matter, head and body of the hippocampus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, insula, and dentate nucleus. A linear regression analysis was performed to correlate iron content and behavioral scores in patients.

RESULTS:

The iron content of the bilateral superior frontal and temporal gyri, anterior cingulate, putamen, right hemispheric precentral gyrus, insula, hippocampus, and red nucleus was higher in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia than in controls. Patients with primary progressive aphasia had increased iron levels in the left superior temporal gyrus. In addition, right superior frontal gyrus iron deposition discriminated behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia from primary progressive aphasia. A strong positive association was found between apathy and iron content in the superior frontal gyrus and disinhibition and iron content in the putamen.

CONCLUSIONS:

Quantitative assessment of iron deposition with SWI may serve as a new biomarker in the diagnostic work-up of frontotemporal dementia and help distinguish frontotemporal dementia subtypes.




Multicenter Experience with FRED Jr Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal Device for Intracranial Aneurysms in Small Arteries [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Flow diverters are emerging as an endovascular treatment alternative for proximally located intracranial aneurysms. However, treatment of aneurysms at and beyond the circle of Willis is not well-established. We assessed the clinical safety and efficacy of the Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal Device Jr (FRED Jr) dedicated to small-vessel diameters between 2.0 and 3.0 mm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This was a multicenter observational clinical study of 42 patients with 47 aneurysms treated by a flow-direction technique with the FRED Jr. The primary end point for clinical safety was the absence of death, major or minor stroke, and TIA. The primary end point for treatment efficacy was complete and near-complete occlusion according to the O'Kelly-Marotta grading scale at follow-up after 1, 6, and 12 months.

RESULTS:

The FRED Jr deployment was technically successful in all cases. In 39/42 (93%) patients, the primary safety end point was reached; in the 3 remaining patients, 1 disabling ischemic stroke, 1 minor stroke with complete recovery at discharge, and 1 TIA were observed. Two asymptomatic, completely reversible side-branch occlusions occurred. Angiographic (DSA or flat panel CT) and clinical follow-up were available after 1 month in 41/47 (87%), 6 months in 27/47 (57%), and 12 months in 11/47 (23%) aneurysms. The primary efficacy end point was reached at 1 month in 27/41 (66%), at 6 months in 21/27 (78%), and at 12 months in 11/11 (100%) aneurysms.

CONCLUSIONS:

Deployment of the FRED Jr is safe and effective in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms located in small vessels.




Clinical Impact of Flat Panel Volume CT Angiography in Evaluating the Accurate Intraoperative Deployment of Flow-Diverter Stents [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The deployment of flow-diverter stents may be difficult to analyse on regular DSA. The purpose of our study was to investigate the clinical impact of stent-dedicated flat panel volume CT angiography to evaluate intraoperatively the satisfactory deployment of flow-diverter stents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

From January 2009 to April 2015, 83 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 years; 62 women) were treated in our institution with flow-diverter stents. Eighty-seven aneurysms (82 unruptured, 5 ruptured; 77 anterior, 10 posterior circulation) were treated in these 83 patients (4 patients had 2 aneurysms, both treated by means of flow-diverter stents). One patient was treated for a traumatic carotid cavernous fistula. In 80% of the cases (68/85) a flat panel volume CT angiography was performed in the angiographic suite just after the flow-diverter stent deployment. Stent visualization was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. The clinical impact of stent malapposition was evaluated.

RESULTS:

Flow-diverter stent visualization was satisfactory in 73.5% of the cases. In 2 cases (2.9%) the flat panel volume CT angiography prompted the operator to perform an additional intrastent angioplasty for a condition that was previously underestimated. Four patients (4.7%) experienced acute thromboembolic complications; 3 others had delayed thromboembolic complications. Only 1 of these patients had thromboembolic complications (acute or delayed) related to stent misdeployment, which was easily managed intraoperatively with no clinical consequence.

CONCLUSIONS:

Flat panel volume CT angiography is an interesting tool to depict flow-diverter stent misdeployment and may encourage the operator to perform intrastent angioplasty (2.9% of the cases in our experience) to reduce the risks of thromboembolic complications.




Packing Density Necessary to Reach a High Complete Occlusion Rate in Circumferential Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Treated with Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

This study is a homogeneous series of circumferential unruptured intracranial aneurysms with large necks treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. Our purpose was to demonstrate which value of packing density is required to produce a durable occlusion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively evaluated all patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms who were treated with stent-assisted coil embolization having late angiographic control between 2004 and 2014, in a single large cerebrovascular referral center. To calculate the packing density, aneurysm volume, and coil volume, we used an on-line system.

RESULTS:

In 49 circumferential unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, 38.7% (n = 19) had complete occlusion in the immediate control. Of those with incomplete occlusion, 80% (n = 24) progressed to complete occlusion in the late angiographic follow-up. At late angiographic control, 87.7% (n = 43) of aneurysms were completely occluded. All aneurysms with a packing density of ≥19% were completely occluded. Packing density was the only statistically significant predictor of complete occlusion. None of the aneurysms with complete occlusion at immediate control or at late angiographic control had recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS:

In circumferential aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, packing density is the main predictor of complete occlusion. In this type of aneurysm, a packing density of ≥19% was enough to reach complete occlusion; knowing this is important to avoid higher packing densities that have more risk.




The Use and Utility of Aspiration Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND: Thrombectomy trials are often specifically interpreted as evidence for the effectiveness of stent retrievers. The effectiveness of other thrombectomy techniques such as aspiration thrombectomy should be validated through further investigation and review. PURPOSE: To evaluate published treatment times and clinical outcomes in patients treated with aspiration thrombectomy or ADAPT (A Direct Aspiration, First Pass Technique) for acute ischemic stroke. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane trial register were searched on November 8, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty studies (n = 1523 patients) were included in this review and meta-analysis. One of these studies was prospective, and the rest were retrospective. DATA ANALYSIS: Meta-analysis was performed by using a random effects model. Data and publication bias were visualized with forest plots and funnel plots. DATA SYNTHESIS: Five studies investigated aspiration thrombectomy only, and 16 studies investigated ADAPT. Of the 16 studies on ADAPT, the rate of successful recanalization (TICI 2b/3) was 89.3% (95% CI, 85.4%–92.3%). The proportion of patients with good clinical outcome (90-day mRS ≤2) was 52.7% (95% CI, 48.0%–57.4%). LIMITATIONS: Studies on ADAPT were retrospective, and there was heterogeneity between studies for successful recanalization (P < .001) and good clinical outcome (P < .001). There was evidence of publication bias for recanalization rates (P = .01), but not for clinical outcomes (P = .42). CONCLUSIONS: ADAPT and aspiration thrombectomy are effective approaches to thrombectomy, with high recanalization rates and excellent clinical outcomes reported in the literature. Aspiration thrombectomy is a promising neurointervention, but large prospective randomized studies are needed to validate its utility. [...]



Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas of the Transverse and Sigmoid Sinuses Using Transarterial Balloon-Assisted Embolization Combined with Transvenous Balloon Protection of the Venous Sinus [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined transarterial balloon-assisted endovascular embolization with double-lumen balloon microcatheters and concomitant transvenous balloon protection was described as a promising treatment technique for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical efficacy and safety of this combined treatment technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine consecutive patients presenting with dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses underwent combined transarterial and transvenous balloon-assisted endovascular embolization. Prospectively collected data were reviewed to assess the technical success rate, complication rate, and clinical outcome. RESULTS: Six patients presented with clinically symptomatic Borden type I, and 3 patients, with Borden type II dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses (3 men, 6 women; mean age, 50.4 years). Transarterial embolization was performed with a double-lumen balloon with Onyx and concomitant transvenous sinus protection with a dedicated venous remodeling balloon. Complete angiographic occlusion at the latest follow-up (mean, 4.8 months) was achieved in 6 patients, and near-complete occlusion, in 2 patients. Clinical cure or remission of symptoms was obtained in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. One patient with a residual fistula underwent further treatment in which the dural arteriovenous fistula was cured by sinus occlusion. Complete occlusion of the dural arteriovenous fistula was visible on the follow-up angiography after final treatment in 8 patients. One patient refused follow-up angiography but was free of symptoms. There were no immediate or delayed postinterventional complications. CONCLUSIONS: Transarterial balloon-assisted embolization of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses with combined transvenous balloon protection is safe and offers a high rate of complete dural arteriovenous fistula occlusion and remission of clinical symptoms. [...]



Anatomic Location of Tumor Predicts the Accuracy of Motor Function Localization in Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas Involving the Hand Knob Area [FUNCTIONAL]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The accuracy of preoperative blood oxygen level–dependent fMRI remains controversial. This study assessed the association between the anatomic location of a tumor and the accuracy of fMRI-based motor function mapping in diffuse lower-grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with lower-grade gliomas involving motor areas underwent preoperative blood oxygen level–dependent fMRI scans with grasping tasks and received intraoperative direct cortical stimulation. Patients were classified into an overlapping group and a nonoverlapping group, depending on the extent to which blood oxygen level–dependent fMRI and direct cortical stimulation results concurred. Tumor location was quantitatively measured, including the shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob and the deviation distance of the midpoint of the hand knob in the lesion hemisphere relative to the midline compared with the normal contralateral hemisphere. RESULTS: A 4-mm shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob value was identified as optimal for differentiating the overlapping and nonoverlapping group with the receiver operating characteristic curve (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 77.8%). The shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob of ≤4 mm were associated with inaccurate fMRI-based localizations of the hand motor cortex. The shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob were larger (P = .002), and the deviation distances for the midpoint of the hand knob in the lesion hemisphere were smaller (P = .003) in the overlapping group than in the nonoverlapping group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the shortest distance from the tumor to the hand knob and the deviation distance for the midpoint of the hand knob on the lesion hemisphere are predictive of the accuracy of blood oxygen level–dependent fMRI results. Smaller shortest distances from the tumor to the hand knob and larger deviation distances for the midpoint of hand knob on the lesion hemisphere are associated with less accuracy of motor cortex localization with blood oxygen le[...]



Flat Panel Angiography in the Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Temporal Bone: Assessment of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Compared with a 64-Section Multisection CT Scanner [HEAD & NECK]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Cross-sectional imaging of the temporal bone is challenging because of the complexity and small dimensions of the anatomic structures. We evaluated the role of flat panel angiography in the cross-sectional imaging of the temporal bone by comparing its image quality and radiation dose with a 64-section multisection CT scanner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively collected 29 multisection CT and 29 flat panel angiography images of normal whole-head temporal bones. Image quality was assessed by 2 neuroradiologists, who rated the visualization of 30 anatomic structures with a 3-point ordinal scale. The radiation dose was assessed with an anthropomorphic phantom.

RESULTS:

Flat panel angiography showed better image quality than multisection CT in depicting the anterior and posterior crura of the stapes, the footplate of the stapes, the stapedius muscle, and the anterior ligament of the malleus (P < .05). In contrast, multisection CT showed better image quality than flat panel angiography in assessing the tympanic membrane, the bone marrow of the malleus and incus, the tendon of the tensor tympani, the interscalar septum, and the modiolus of the cochlea (P < .05). Flat panel angiography had a significantly higher overall image quality rating than multisection CT (P = .035). A reduction of the effective dose of approximately 40% was demonstrated for flat panel angiography compared with multisection CT.

CONCLUSIONS:

Flat panel angiography shows strengths and weaknesses compared with multisection CT. It is more susceptible to artifacts, but due to the higher spatial resolution, it shows equal or higher image quality in assessing some bony structures of diagnostic interest. The lower radiation dose is an additional advantage of flat panel angiography.




Measurement for Detection of Incomplete Partition Type II Anomalies on MR Imaging [PEDIATRICS]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Incomplete partition type II of the cochlea, commonly coexisting with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, can be a challenging diagnosis on MR imaging due to the presence of a dysplastic spiral lamina–basilar membrane neural complex, which can resemble the normal interscalar septum. The purpose of this study was to determine a reproducible, quantitative cochlear measurement to assess incomplete partition type II anomalies in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueducts using normal-hearing ears as a control population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Retrospective analysis of 27 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (54 ears) and 28 patients (33 ears) with normal audiographic findings who underwent MR imaging was performed. Using reformatted images from a cisternographic 3D MR imaging produced in a plane parallel to the lateral semicircular canal, we measured the distance (distance X) between the osseous spiral lamina-basilar membrane complex of the upper basal turn and the first linear signal void anterior to the basilar membrane.

RESULTS:

The means of distance X in patients with normal hearing and prospectively diagnosed incomplete partition type II were, respectively, 0.93 ± 0.075 mm (range, 0.8–1.1 mm) and 1.55 ± 0.25 mm (range, 1–2.1 mm; P < .001). Using 3 SDs above the mean of patients with normal hearing (1.2 mm) as a cutoff for normal, we diagnosed 21/27 patients as having abnormal cochleas; 4/21 were diagnosed retrospectively. This finding indicated that almost 20% of patients were underdiagnosed. Interobserver agreement with 1.2 mm as a cutoff between normal and abnormal produced a score of 0.715 (good).

CONCLUSIONS:

Incomplete partition type II anomalies on MR imaging can be subtle. A reproducible distance X of ≥1.2 mm is considered abnormal and may help to prospectively diagnose incomplete partition type II anomalies.




Localizing the L5 Vertebra Using Nerve Morphology on MRI: An Accurate and Reliable Technique [SPINE]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Multiple methods have been used to determine the lumbar vertebral level on MR imaging, particularly when full spine imaging is unavailable. Because postmortem studies show 95% accuracy of numbering the lumbar vertebral bodies by counting the lumbar nerve roots, attention to lumbar nerve morphology on axial MR imaging can provide numbering clues. We sought to determine whether the L5 vertebra could be accurately localized by using nerve morphology on MR imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

One hundred eight cases with full spine MR imaging were numbered from the C2 vertebral body to the sacrum with note of thoracolumbar and lumbosacral transitional states. The origin level of the L5 nerve and iliolumbar ligament were documented in all cases. The reference standard of numbering by full spine imaging was compared with the nerve morphology numbering method. Five blinded raters evaluated all lumbar MRIs with nerve morphology technique twice. Prevalence and bias-adjusted were used to measure interrater and intrarater reliability.

RESULTS:

The L5 nerve arose from the 24th presacral vertebra (L5) in 106/108 cases. The percentage of perfect agreement with the reference standard was 98.1% (95% CI, 93.5%–99.8%), which was preserved in transitional and numeric variation states. The iliolumbar ligament localization method showed 83.3% (95% CI, 74.9%–89.8%) perfect agreement with the reference standard. Inter- and intrarater reliability when using the nerve morphology method was strong.

CONCLUSIONS:

The exiting L5 nerve can allow accurate localization of the corresponding vertebrae, which is essential for preprocedure planning in cases where full spine imaging is not available. This neuroanatomic method displays higher agreement with the reference standard compared with previously described methods, with strong inter- and intrarater reliability.




Test-Retest and Interreader Reproducibility of Semiautomated Atlas-Based Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data in Acute Cervical Spine Trauma in Adult Patients [SPINE]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is a tool for microstructural spinal cord injury evaluation. This study evaluated the reproducibility of a semiautomated segmentation algorithm of spinal cord DTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing acute trauma cervical spine MR imaging underwent 2 axial DTI scans in addition to their clinical scan. The datasets were put through a semiautomated probabilistic segmentation algorithm that selected white matter, gray matter, and 24 individual white matter tracts. Regional and white matter tract volume, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity values were calculated. Two readers performed the nonautomated steps to evaluate interreader reproducibility. The coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to assess test-retest and interreader reproducibility. RESULTS: Of 42 patients, 30 had useable data. Test-retest reproducibility of fractional anisotropy was high for white matter as a whole (coefficient of variation, 3.8%; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.93). Test-retest coefficient-of-variation ranged from 8.0%–18.2% and intraclass correlation coefficients from 0.47–0.80 across individual white matter tracts. Mean diffusivity metrics also had high test-retest reproducibility (white matter: coefficient-of-variation, 5.6%; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86) with coefficients of variation from 11.6%–18.3% and intraclass correlation coefficients from 0.57–0.74 across individual tracts, with better agreement for larger tracts. The coefficients of variation of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity both had significant negative relationships with white matter volume (26%–27% decrease for each doubling of white matter volume, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: DTI spinal cord segmentation is reproducible in the setting of acute spine trauma, specifically for larger white matter tracts and total white or gray matter. [...]



Yield of Image-Guided Needle Biopsy for Infectious Discitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [SPINE]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

BACKGROUND:

Image-guided biopsy is routinely conducted in patients with suspected discitis, though the sensitivity reported in the literature ranges widely.

PURPOSE:

We applied a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the yield of image-guided biopsy for infectious discitis.

DATA SOURCES:

We performed a literature search of 4 data bases: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, Embase.com, and Scopus from data base inception to March 2016.

STUDY SELECTION:

A screen of 1814 articles identified 88 potentially relevant articles. Data were extracted for 33 articles, which were eligible if they were peer-reviewed publications of patients with clinical suspicion of discitis who underwent image-guided biopsy.

DATA ANALYSIS:

Patients with positive cultures out of total image-guided biopsy procedures were pooled to estimate yield with 95% confidence intervals. Hypothesis testing was performed with an inverse variance method after logit transformation.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Image-guided biopsy has a yield of approximately 48% (793/1763), which is significantly lower than the open surgical biopsy yield of 76% (152/201; P < .01). Biopsy in patients with prior antibiotic exposure had a yield of 32% (106/346), which was not significantly different from the yield of 43% (336/813; P = .08) in patients without prior antibiotic exposure.

LIMITATIONS:

The conclusions of this meta-analysis are primarily limited by the heterogeneity of the included studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Image-guided biopsy has a moderate yield for the diagnosis of infectious discitis, which is significantly lower than the yield of open surgical biopsy. This yield is not significantly affected by prior antibiotic use.




[18F]-Sodium Fluoride PET MR-Based Localization and Quantification of Bone Turnover as a Biomarker for Facet Joint-Induced Disability [SPINE]

2017-10-06T08:00:40-07:00

SUMMARY:

Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between low back pain–related disability and quantitative measures from [18F]-sodium fluoride ([18F]-NaF) MR imaging. Six patients with facetogenic low back pain underwent dynamic [18F]-NaF PET/MR imaging. PET metrics were correlated with clinical measures and MR imaging grading of lumbar facet arthropathy. A significant positive correlation was observed between maximum facet joint uptake rate and clinical disability (P < .05). These data suggest that dynamic [18F]-NaF PET may serve as a useful biomarker for facetogenic disability.










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2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00




Current and Emerging Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for the Radiologist, Part 1--Mechanisms, Efficacy, and Safety [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

Imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis is a common scenario for many general radiologists and subspecialty neuroradiologists. The field of MS therapeutics has rapidly evolved with multiple new agents now being used in routine clinical practice. To provide an informed opinion in discussions concerning newer MS agents, radiologists must have a working understanding of the strengths and limitations of the various novel therapies. The role of imaging in MS has advanced beyond monitoring and surveillance of disease activity to include treatment complications. An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role that MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse events is of vital importance to the radiologist and clinical physician alike. Radiologists are in a unique position to detect many of the described complications well in advance of clinical symptoms. Part 1 of this review outlines recent developments in the treatment of MS and discusses the published clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the currently approved and emerging therapies in this condition as they apply to the radiologist. Part 2 will cover pharmacovigilance and the role the neuroradiologist plays in monitoring patients for signs of opportunistic infection and/or disease progression.




Current and Emerging Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for the Radiologist, Part 2--Surveillance for Treatment Complications and Disease Progression [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse effects is of vital importance to the neuroradiologist. Part 1 of this review outlined the current treatment options available for MS and examined the mechanisms of action of the various medications. It also covered specific complications associated with each form of therapy. Part 2, in turn deals with the subject of pharmacovigilance and the optimal frequency of MRI monitoring for each individual patient, depending on his or her unique risk profile. Special attention is given to the diagnosing of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients treated with natalizumab as this is a key area in which neuroradiologists can contribute to improved patient outcomes. This article also outlines the aims of treatment and reviews the possibility of "no evidence of disease activity" becoming a treatment goal with the availability of more effective therapies. Potential future areas and technologies including image subtraction, brain volume measurement and advanced imaging techniques such as double inversion recovery are also reviewed. It is anticipated that such advancements in this rapidly developing field will improve the accuracy of monitoring an individual patient's response to treatment.




Comparison of Gadoterate Meglumine and Gadobutrol in the MRI Diagnosis of Primary Brain Tumors: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Intraindividual Crossover Study (the REMIND Study) [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Effective management of patients with brain tumors depends on accurate detection and characterization of lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol for overall visualization and characterization of primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled intraindividual, crossover, noninferiority study included 279 patients. Both contrast agents (dose = 0.1 mmol/kg of body weight) were assessed with 2 identical MRIs at a time interval of 2–14 days. The primary end point was overall lesion visualization and characterization, scored independently by 3 off-site readers on a 4-point scale, ranging from "poor" to "excellent." Secondary end points were qualitative assessments (lesion border delineation, internal morphology, degree of contrast enhancement, diagnostic confidence), quantitative measurements (signal intensity), and safety (adverse events). All qualitative assessments were also performed on-site. RESULTS: For all 3 readers, images of most patients (>90%) were scored good or excellent for overall lesion visualization and characterization with either contrast agent; and the noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol was statistically demonstrated. No significant differences were observed between the 2 contrast agents regarding qualitative end points despite quantitative mean lesion percentage enhancement being higher with gadobutrol (P < .001). Diagnostic confidence was high/excellent for all readers in >81% of the patients with both contrast agents. Similar percentages of patients with adverse events related to the contrast agents [...]



Diagnostic Performance of a 10-Minute Gadolinium-Enhanced Brain MRI Protocol Compared with the Standard Clinical Protocol for Detection of Intracranial Enhancing Lesions [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of new MR imaging scanners with stronger gradients and improvement in coil technology, allied with emerging fast imaging techniques, has allowed a substantial reduction in MR imaging scan times. Our goal was to develop a 10-minute gadolinium-enhanced brain MR imaging protocol with accelerated sequences and to evaluate its diagnostic performance compared with the standard clinical protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients referred for brain MR imaging with contrast were scanned with a 3T scanner. Each MR image consisted of 5 basic fast precontrast sequences plus standard and accelerated versions of the same postcontrast T1WI sequences. Two neuroradiologists assessed the image quality and the final diagnosis for each set of postcontrast sequences and compared their performances. RESULTS: The acquisition time of the combined accelerated pre- and postcontrast sequences was 10 minutes and 15 seconds; and of the fast postcontrast sequences, 3 minutes and 36 seconds, 46% of the standard sequences. The 10-minute postcontrast axial T1WI had fewer image artifacts (P < .001) and better overall diagnostic quality (P < .001). Although the 10-minute MPRAGE sequence showed a tendency to have more artifacts than the standard sequence (P = .08), the overall diagnostic quality was similar (P = .66). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performance between the protocols. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values for the 10-minute protocol were 100.0%, 88.9%, and 98.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-minute brain MR imaging protocol with contrast is comparable in diagnostic performance [...]



Relationship between Glioblastoma Heterogeneity and Survival Time: An MR Imaging Texture Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The heterogeneity of glioblastoma contributes to the poor and variant prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the glioblastoma heterogeneity with MR imaging textures and to evaluate its impact on survival time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 133 patients with primary glioblastoma who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted imaging (acquired before treatment) and whose data were filed with the survival times were selected from the Cancer Genome Atlas. On the basis of overall survival, the patients were divided into 2 groups: long-term (≥12 months, n = 67) and short-term (<12 months, n = 66) survival. To measure heterogeneity, we extracted 3 types of textures, co-occurrence matrix, run-length matrix, and histogram, reflecting local, regional, and global spatial variations, respectively. Then the support vector machine classification was used to determine how different texture types perform in differentiating the 2 groups, both alone and in combination. Finally, a recursive feature-elimination method was used to find an optimal feature subset with the best differentiation performance. RESULTS: When used alone, the co-occurrence matrix performed best, while all the features combined obtained the best survival stratification. According to feature selection and ranking, 43 top-ranked features were selected as the optimal subset. Among them, the top 10 features included 7 run-length matrix and 3 co-occurrence matrix features, in which all 6 regional run-length matrix features emphasizing high gray-levels ranked in the top 7. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that local and regional heterogenei[...]



Amide Proton Transfer Imaging Allows Detection of Glioma Grades and Tumor Proliferation: Comparison with Ki-67 Expression and Proton MR Spectroscopy Imaging [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prognosis in glioma depends strongly on tumor grade and proliferation. In this prospective study of patients with untreated primary cerebral gliomas, we investigated whether amide proton transfer–weighted imaging could reveal tumor proliferation and reliably distinguish low-grade from high-grade gliomas compared with Ki-67 expression and proton MR spectroscopy imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 42 patients with low-grade (n = 28) or high-grade (n = 14) glioma, all of whom underwent conventional MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy imaging, and amide proton transfer–weighted imaging on the same 3T scanner within 2 weeks before surgery. We assessed metabolites of choline and N-acetylaspartate from proton MR spectroscopy imaging and the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm from amide proton transfer–weighted imaging and compared them with histopathologic grade and immunohistochemical expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the resected specimens. RESULTS: The asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm values measured by different readers showed good concordance and were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas (3.61% ± 0.155 versus 2.64% ± 0.185, P = .0016), with sensitivity and specificity values of 92.9% and 71.4%, respectively, at a cutoff value of 2.93%. The asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm values correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.506, P = .0006) and Ki-67 labeling index (r = 0.502, P = .002). For all patients, the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 [...]



Optimization of DSC MRI Echo Times for CBV Measurements Using Error Analysis in a Pilot Study of High-Grade Gliomas [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal TE must be calculated to minimize the variance in CBV measurements made with DSC MR imaging. Simulations can be used to determine the influence of the TE on CBV, but they may not adequately recapitulate the in vivo heterogeneity of precontrast T2*, contrast agent kinetics, and the biophysical basis of contrast agent–induced T2* changes. The purpose of this study was to combine quantitative multiecho DSC MRI T2* time curves with error analysis in order to compute the optimal TE for a traditional single-echo acquisition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven subjects with high-grade gliomas were scanned at 3T with a dual-echo DSC MR imaging sequence to quantify contrast agent–induced T2* changes in this retrospective study. Optimized TEs were calculated with propagation of error analysis for high-grade glial tumors, normal-appearing white matter, and arterial input function estimation. RESULTS: The optimal TE is a weighted average of the T2* values that occur as a contrast agent bolus transverses a voxel. The mean optimal TEs were 30.0 ± 7.4 ms for high-grade glial tumors, 36.3 ± 4.6 ms for normal-appearing white matter, and 11.8 ± 1.4 ms for arterial input function estimation (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Greater heterogeneity was observed in the optimal TE values for high-grade gliomas, and mean values of all 3 ROIs were statistically significant. The optimal TE for the arterial input function estimation is much shorter; this finding implies that quantitative DSC MR imaging acquisitions would benef[...]



Identification and Quantitative Assessment of Different Components of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque by Ex Vivo 3T High-Resolution Multicontrast MRI [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-resolution 3T MR imaging can visualize intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. However, histologic validation is still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of 3T MR imaging to identify and quantitatively assess intracranial atherosclerotic plaque components ex vivo with histologic validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three intracranial arterial specimens with atherosclerotic plaques from 20 cadavers were imaged by 3T MR imaging with T1, T2, and proton-density-weighted FSE and STIR sequences. The signal characteristics and areas of fibrous cap, lipid core, calcification, fibrous tissue, and healthy vessel wall were recorded on MR images and compared with histology. Fibrous cap thickness and maximum wall thickness were also quantified. The percentage of areas of the main plaque components, the ratio of fibrous cap thickness to maximum wall thickness, and plaque burden were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The signal intensity of the lipid core was significantly lower than that of the fibrous cap on T2-weighted, proton-density, and STIR sequences (P < .01) and was comparable on T1-weighted sequences (P = 1.00). Optimal contrast between the lipid core and fibrous cap was found on T2-weighted images. Plaque component mean percentages were comparable between MR imaging and histology: fibrous component (81.86% ± 10.59% versus 81.87% ± 11.59%, P = .999), lipid core (19.51% ± 10.76% versus 19.86% ± 11.56%, P = .863), and fibrous cap (31.10% ± 11.28% versus 30.83% ± 8.51%, P =[...]



Association between Intracranial Atherosclerotic Calcium Burden and Angiographic Luminal Stenosis Measurements [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Calcification of the intracranial vasculature is an independent risk factor for stroke. The relationship between luminal stenosis and calcium burden in the intracranial circulation is incompletely understood. We evaluated the relationship between atherosclerotic calcification and luminal stenosis in the intracranial ICAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients who had both NCCT and CTA or MRA examinations as part of a diagnostic evaluation for ischemic stroke. We used NCCTs to qualitatively (modified Woodcock Visual Score) and quantitatively (Agatston-Janowitz Calcium Score) measure ICA calcium burden and used angiography to measure arterial stenosis. We calculated correlation coefficients between the degree of narrowing and calcium burden measures. RESULTS: In 470 unique carotid arteries (235 patients), 372 (79.1%) had atherosclerotic calcification detectable on CT compared with 160 (34%) with measurable arterial stenosis on CTA or MRA (P < .001). We found a weak linear correlation between qualitative (R = 0.48) and quantitative (R = 0.42) measures of calcium burden and the degree of luminal stenosis (P < .001 for both). Of 310 ICAs with 0% luminal stenosis, 216 (69.7%) had measurable calcium scores. CONCLUSIONS: There is a weak correlation between intracranial atherosclerotic calcium scores and luminal narrowing, which may be explained by the greater sensitivity of CT than angiography in detecting the presence of measurable atherosclerotic disease. Fut[...]



Focal Low and Global High Permeability Predict the Possibility, Risk, and Location of Hemorrhagic Transformation following Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis Therapy in Acute Stroke [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The contrast volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans), which reflects blood-brain barrier permeability, is influenced by circulation and measurement conditions. We hypothesized that focal low BBB permeability values can predict the spatial distribution of hemorrhagic transformation and global high BBB permeability values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 106 patients with hemispheric stroke who received intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment. Ktrans maps were obtained with first-pass perfusion CT data. The Ktrans values at the region level, obtained with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score system, were compared to determine the differences between the hemorrhagic transformation and nonhemorrhagic transformation regions. The Ktrans values of the whole ischemic region based on baseline perfusion CT were obtained as a variable to hemorrhagic transformation possibility at the global level. RESULTS: Forty-eight (45.3%) patients had hemorrhagic transformation, and 21 (19.8%) had symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. At the region level, there were 82 ROIs with hemorrhagic transformation and parenchymal hemorrhage with a mean Ktrans, 0.5 ± 0.5/min, which was significantly lower than that in the nonhemorrhagic transformation regions (P < .01). The mean Ktrans value of 615 nonhemorrhagic transformation ROIs was 0.7 ± 0.6/min. At the global level, there was a significant difference (P = .01) betwe[...]



MRI of the Swallow Tail Sign: A Useful Marker in the Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia? [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility-weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. RESULTS: Interrater agreement was moderate ( = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%–85%; P < .001) and had a predictive value only in Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3–28; P < .001). The consensus rating for Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulnes[...]



Pericortical Enhancement on Delayed Postgadolinium Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition). We assessed the appearance of pericortical enhancement after contrast administration, MR imaging markers of cerebrovascular damage, and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Three participants who were positive for pericortical enhancement (1 with normal cognition and 2 with mild cognitive impairment) were followed up for approximately 2 years. In vitro experiments with a range of gadolinium concentrations served to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the postcontrast FLAIR signals. RESULTS: Postcontrast pericortical enhancement was observed in 21 participants (28%), including 6 individuals with Alzheimer disease (40%), 10 with mild cognitive impairment (30%), and 5 with normal cognition (19%). Pericortical enhancement was positively associated with age (P < .02) and ischemic stroke (P < .05), but not with cognitive status (P = .3). Foci with enhanced signal remained stable across time in all follow-up cases. The in vitro measurements confirmed that FLAIR imaging is highly sensitive for th[...]



How Common Is Signal-Intensity Increase in Optic Nerve Segments on 3D Double Inversion Recovery Sequences in Visually Asymptomatic Patients with Multiple Sclerosis? [HEAD & NECK]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In postmortem studies, subclinical optic nerve demyelination is very common in patients with MS but radiologic demonstration is difficult and mainly based on STIR T2WI. Our aim was to evaluate 3D double inversion recovery MR imaging for the detection of subclinical demyelinating lesions within optic nerve segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The signal intensities in 4 different optic nerve segments (ie, retrobulbar, canalicular, prechiasmatic, and chiasm) were evaluated on 3D double inversion recovery MR imaging in 95 patients with MS without visual symptoms within the past 3 years and in 50 patients without optic nerve pathology. We compared the signal intensities with those of the adjacent lateral rectus muscle. The evaluation was performed by a student group and an expert neuroradiologist. Statistical evaluation (the Cohen test) was performed. RESULTS: On the 3D double inversion recovery sequence, optic nerve segments in the comparison group were all hypointense, and an isointense nerve sheath surrounded the retrobulbar nerve segment. At least 1 optic nerve segment was isointense or hyperintense in 68 patients (72%) in the group with MS on the basis of the results of the expert neuroradiologist. Student raters were able to correctly identify optic nerve hypersignal in 97%. CONCLUSIONS: A hypersignal in at least 1 optic nerve segment on the 3D double inversion recovery sequence compared with hypo[...]



Intracranial Perishunt Catheter Fluid Collections with Edema, a Sign of Shunt Malfunction: Correlation of CT/MRI and Nuclear Medicine Findings [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

Fluid collections with edema along the intracranial tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in adults are rare and are more frequently seen in children. The imaging appearance of these fluid collections is frequently confusing and presents a diagnostic dilemma. We present 6 cases of adult patients noted to have collections with edema along the tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies correlating the CT/MR imaging findings with nuclear medicine scans in this entity. We hypothesized that when seen in adults, the imaging findings of a CSF-like fluid collection around the intracranial ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter on CT/MR imaging may suggest areas of CSF accumulation with interstitial edema. It is important to recognize this rare ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication in adults to prevent misdiagnosis of an abscess or cystic tumor.




Value of Thrombus CT Characteristics in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombus CT characteristics might be useful for patient selection for intra-arterial treatment. Our objective was to study the association of thrombus CT characteristics with outcome and treatment effect in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 199 patients for whom thin-section NCCT and CTA within 30 minutes from each other were available in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) study. We assessed the following thrombus characteristics: location, distance from ICA terminus to thrombus, length, volume, absolute and relative density on NCCT, and perviousness. Associations of thrombus characteristics with outcome were estimated with univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regression as an OR for a shift toward better outcome on the mRS. Interaction terms were used to investigate treatment-effect modification by thrombus characteristics. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, only the distance from the ICA terminus to the thrombus, length of >8 mm, and perviousness were associated with functional outcome. Relative thrombus density on CTA was independently associated with functional outcome with an adjusted common OR of 1.21 per 10% (95% CI, 1.02–1.43; P = .029). There was no treatment-effect modification by any of the [...]