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Preview: American Journal of Neuroradiology recent issues

American Journal of Neuroradiology recent issues



American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) RSS feed -- recent issue. AJNR (hwmaint.ajnr.org ) is the premier journal for diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology, publishing more than 200 fully reviewed scientific papers, case reports, and technical



 









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2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00




Current and Emerging Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for the Radiologist, Part 1--Mechanisms, Efficacy, and Safety [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

Imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis is a common scenario for many general radiologists and subspecialty neuroradiologists. The field of MS therapeutics has rapidly evolved with multiple new agents now being used in routine clinical practice. To provide an informed opinion in discussions concerning newer MS agents, radiologists must have a working understanding of the strengths and limitations of the various novel therapies. The role of imaging in MS has advanced beyond monitoring and surveillance of disease activity to include treatment complications. An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role that MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse events is of vital importance to the radiologist and clinical physician alike. Radiologists are in a unique position to detect many of the described complications well in advance of clinical symptoms. Part 1 of this review outlines recent developments in the treatment of MS and discusses the published clinical data on the efficacy and safety of the currently approved and emerging therapies in this condition as they apply to the radiologist. Part 2 will cover pharmacovigilance and the role the neuroradiologist plays in monitoring patients for signs of opportunistic infection and/or disease progression.




Current and Emerging Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for the Radiologist, Part 2--Surveillance for Treatment Complications and Disease Progression [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

An understanding of the new generation of MS drugs in conjunction with the key role MR imaging plays in the detection of disease progression, opportunistic infections, and drug-related adverse effects is of vital importance to the neuroradiologist. Part 1 of this review outlined the current treatment options available for MS and examined the mechanisms of action of the various medications. It also covered specific complications associated with each form of therapy. Part 2, in turn deals with the subject of pharmacovigilance and the optimal frequency of MRI monitoring for each individual patient, depending on his or her unique risk profile. Special attention is given to the diagnosing of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients treated with natalizumab as this is a key area in which neuroradiologists can contribute to improved patient outcomes. This article also outlines the aims of treatment and reviews the possibility of "no evidence of disease activity" becoming a treatment goal with the availability of more effective therapies. Potential future areas and technologies including image subtraction, brain volume measurement and advanced imaging techniques such as double inversion recovery are also reviewed. It is anticipated that such advancements in this rapidly developing field will improve the accuracy of monitoring an individual patient's response to treatment.




Comparison of Gadoterate Meglumine and Gadobutrol in the MRI Diagnosis of Primary Brain Tumors: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Intraindividual Crossover Study (the REMIND Study) [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Effective management of patients with brain tumors depends on accurate detection and characterization of lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol for overall visualization and characterization of primary brain tumors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled intraindividual, crossover, noninferiority study included 279 patients. Both contrast agents (dose = 0.1 mmol/kg of body weight) were assessed with 2 identical MRIs at a time interval of 2–14 days. The primary end point was overall lesion visualization and characterization, scored independently by 3 off-site readers on a 4-point scale, ranging from "poor" to "excellent." Secondary end points were qualitative assessments (lesion border delineation, internal morphology, degree of contrast enhancement, diagnostic confidence), quantitative measurements (signal intensity), and safety (adverse events). All qualitative assessments were also performed on-site.

RESULTS:

For all 3 readers, images of most patients (>90%) were scored good or excellent for overall lesion visualization and characterization with either contrast agent; and the noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol was statistically demonstrated. No significant differences were observed between the 2 contrast agents regarding qualitative end points despite quantitative mean lesion percentage enhancement being higher with gadobutrol (P < .001). Diagnostic confidence was high/excellent for all readers in >81% of the patients with both contrast agents. Similar percentages of patients with adverse events related to the contrast agents were observed with gadoterate meglumine (7.8%) and gadobutrol (7.3%), mainly injection site pain.

CONCLUSIONS:

The noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol for overall visualization and characterization of primary brain tumors was demonstrated.




Diagnostic Performance of a 10-Minute Gadolinium-Enhanced Brain MRI Protocol Compared with the Standard Clinical Protocol for Detection of Intracranial Enhancing Lesions [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The development of new MR imaging scanners with stronger gradients and improvement in coil technology, allied with emerging fast imaging techniques, has allowed a substantial reduction in MR imaging scan times. Our goal was to develop a 10-minute gadolinium-enhanced brain MR imaging protocol with accelerated sequences and to evaluate its diagnostic performance compared with the standard clinical protocol.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Fifty-three patients referred for brain MR imaging with contrast were scanned with a 3T scanner. Each MR image consisted of 5 basic fast precontrast sequences plus standard and accelerated versions of the same postcontrast T1WI sequences. Two neuroradiologists assessed the image quality and the final diagnosis for each set of postcontrast sequences and compared their performances.

RESULTS:

The acquisition time of the combined accelerated pre- and postcontrast sequences was 10 minutes and 15 seconds; and of the fast postcontrast sequences, 3 minutes and 36 seconds, 46% of the standard sequences. The 10-minute postcontrast axial T1WI had fewer image artifacts (P < .001) and better overall diagnostic quality (P < .001). Although the 10-minute MPRAGE sequence showed a tendency to have more artifacts than the standard sequence (P = .08), the overall diagnostic quality was similar (P = .66). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performance between the protocols. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values for the 10-minute protocol were 100.0%, 88.9%, and 98.1%.

CONCLUSIONS:

The 10-minute brain MR imaging protocol with contrast is comparable in diagnostic performance with the standard protocol in an inpatient motion-prone population, with the additional benefits of reducing acquisition times and image artifacts.




Relationship between Glioblastoma Heterogeneity and Survival Time: An MR Imaging Texture Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The heterogeneity of glioblastoma contributes to the poor and variant prognosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the glioblastoma heterogeneity with MR imaging textures and to evaluate its impact on survival time.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 133 patients with primary glioblastoma who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted imaging (acquired before treatment) and whose data were filed with the survival times were selected from the Cancer Genome Atlas. On the basis of overall survival, the patients were divided into 2 groups: long-term (≥12 months, n = 67) and short-term (<12 months, n = 66) survival. To measure heterogeneity, we extracted 3 types of textures, co-occurrence matrix, run-length matrix, and histogram, reflecting local, regional, and global spatial variations, respectively. Then the support vector machine classification was used to determine how different texture types perform in differentiating the 2 groups, both alone and in combination. Finally, a recursive feature-elimination method was used to find an optimal feature subset with the best differentiation performance.

RESULTS:

When used alone, the co-occurrence matrix performed best, while all the features combined obtained the best survival stratification. According to feature selection and ranking, 43 top-ranked features were selected as the optimal subset. Among them, the top 10 features included 7 run-length matrix and 3 co-occurrence matrix features, in which all 6 regional run-length matrix features emphasizing high gray-levels ranked in the top 7.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results suggest that local and regional heterogeneity may play an important role in the survival stratification of patients with glioblastoma.




Amide Proton Transfer Imaging Allows Detection of Glioma Grades and Tumor Proliferation: Comparison with Ki-67 Expression and Proton MR Spectroscopy Imaging [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Prognosis in glioma depends strongly on tumor grade and proliferation. In this prospective study of patients with untreated primary cerebral gliomas, we investigated whether amide proton transfer–weighted imaging could reveal tumor proliferation and reliably distinguish low-grade from high-grade gliomas compared with Ki-67 expression and proton MR spectroscopy imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This study included 42 patients with low-grade (n = 28) or high-grade (n = 14) glioma, all of whom underwent conventional MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy imaging, and amide proton transfer–weighted imaging on the same 3T scanner within 2 weeks before surgery. We assessed metabolites of choline and N-acetylaspartate from proton MR spectroscopy imaging and the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm from amide proton transfer–weighted imaging and compared them with histopathologic grade and immunohistochemical expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the resected specimens.

RESULTS:

The asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm values measured by different readers showed good concordance and were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas (3.61% ± 0.155 versus 2.64% ± 0.185, P = .0016), with sensitivity and specificity values of 92.9% and 71.4%, respectively, at a cutoff value of 2.93%. The asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm values correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.506, P = .0006) and Ki-67 labeling index (r = 0.502, P = .002). For all patients, the asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm correlated positively with choline (r = 0.43, P = .009) and choline/N-acetylaspartate ratio (r = 0.42, P = .01) and negatively with N-acetylaspartate (r = –0.455, P = .005). These correlations held for patients with low-grade gliomas versus those with high-grade gliomas, but the correlation coefficients were higher in high-grade gliomas (choline: r = 0.547, P = .053; N-acetylaspartate: r = –0.644, P = .017; choline/N-acetylaspartate: r = 0.583, P = .036).

CONCLUSIONS:

The asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio at 3.5 ppm may serve as a potential biomarker not only for assessing proliferation, but also for predicting histopathologic grades in gliomas.




Optimization of DSC MRI Echo Times for CBV Measurements Using Error Analysis in a Pilot Study of High-Grade Gliomas [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The optimal TE must be calculated to minimize the variance in CBV measurements made with DSC MR imaging. Simulations can be used to determine the influence of the TE on CBV, but they may not adequately recapitulate the in vivo heterogeneity of precontrast T2*, contrast agent kinetics, and the biophysical basis of contrast agent–induced T2* changes. The purpose of this study was to combine quantitative multiecho DSC MRI T2* time curves with error analysis in order to compute the optimal TE for a traditional single-echo acquisition.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eleven subjects with high-grade gliomas were scanned at 3T with a dual-echo DSC MR imaging sequence to quantify contrast agent–induced T2* changes in this retrospective study. Optimized TEs were calculated with propagation of error analysis for high-grade glial tumors, normal-appearing white matter, and arterial input function estimation.

RESULTS:

The optimal TE is a weighted average of the T2* values that occur as a contrast agent bolus transverses a voxel. The mean optimal TEs were 30.0 ± 7.4 ms for high-grade glial tumors, 36.3 ± 4.6 ms for normal-appearing white matter, and 11.8 ± 1.4 ms for arterial input function estimation (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Greater heterogeneity was observed in the optimal TE values for high-grade gliomas, and mean values of all 3 ROIs were statistically significant. The optimal TE for the arterial input function estimation is much shorter; this finding implies that quantitative DSC MR imaging acquisitions would benefit from multiecho acquisitions. In the case of a single-echo acquisition, the optimal TE prescribed should be 30–35 ms (without a preload) and 20–30 ms (with a standard full-dose preload).




Identification and Quantitative Assessment of Different Components of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque by Ex Vivo 3T High-Resolution Multicontrast MRI [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

High-resolution 3T MR imaging can visualize intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. However, histologic validation is still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of 3T MR imaging to identify and quantitatively assess intracranial atherosclerotic plaque components ex vivo with histologic validation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Fifty-three intracranial arterial specimens with atherosclerotic plaques from 20 cadavers were imaged by 3T MR imaging with T1, T2, and proton-density-weighted FSE and STIR sequences. The signal characteristics and areas of fibrous cap, lipid core, calcification, fibrous tissue, and healthy vessel wall were recorded on MR images and compared with histology. Fibrous cap thickness and maximum wall thickness were also quantified. The percentage of areas of the main plaque components, the ratio of fibrous cap thickness to maximum wall thickness, and plaque burden were calculated and compared.

RESULTS:

The signal intensity of the lipid core was significantly lower than that of the fibrous cap on T2-weighted, proton-density, and STIR sequences (P < .01) and was comparable on T1-weighted sequences (P = 1.00). Optimal contrast between the lipid core and fibrous cap was found on T2-weighted images. Plaque component mean percentages were comparable between MR imaging and histology: fibrous component (81.86% ± 10.59% versus 81.87% ± 11.59%, P = .999), lipid core (19.51% ± 10.76% versus 19.86% ± 11.56%, P = .863), and fibrous cap (31.10% ± 11.28% versus 30.83% ± 8.51%, P = .463). However, MR imaging overestimated mean calcification (9.68% ± 5.21% versus 8.83% ± 5.67%, P = .030) and plaque burden (65.18% ± 9.01% versus 52.71% ± 14.58%, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Ex vivo 3T MR imaging can accurately identify and quantitatively assess intracranial atherosclerotic plaque components, providing a direct reference for in vivo intracranial plaque imaging.




Association between Intracranial Atherosclerotic Calcium Burden and Angiographic Luminal Stenosis Measurements [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Calcification of the intracranial vasculature is an independent risk factor for stroke. The relationship between luminal stenosis and calcium burden in the intracranial circulation is incompletely understood. We evaluated the relationship between atherosclerotic calcification and luminal stenosis in the intracranial ICAs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Using a prospective stroke registry, we identified patients who had both NCCT and CTA or MRA examinations as part of a diagnostic evaluation for ischemic stroke. We used NCCTs to qualitatively (modified Woodcock Visual Score) and quantitatively (Agatston-Janowitz Calcium Score) measure ICA calcium burden and used angiography to measure arterial stenosis. We calculated correlation coefficients between the degree of narrowing and calcium burden measures.

RESULTS:

In 470 unique carotid arteries (235 patients), 372 (79.1%) had atherosclerotic calcification detectable on CT compared with 160 (34%) with measurable arterial stenosis on CTA or MRA (P < .001). We found a weak linear correlation between qualitative (R = 0.48) and quantitative (R = 0.42) measures of calcium burden and the degree of luminal stenosis (P < .001 for both). Of 310 ICAs with 0% luminal stenosis, 216 (69.7%) had measurable calcium scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a weak correlation between intracranial atherosclerotic calcium scores and luminal narrowing, which may be explained by the greater sensitivity of CT than angiography in detecting the presence of measurable atherosclerotic disease. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the relationship between stenosis and calcium burden in predicting stroke risk.




Focal Low and Global High Permeability Predict the Possibility, Risk, and Location of Hemorrhagic Transformation following Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis Therapy in Acute Stroke [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The contrast volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans), which reflects blood-brain barrier permeability, is influenced by circulation and measurement conditions. We hypothesized that focal low BBB permeability values can predict the spatial distribution of hemorrhagic transformation and global high BBB permeability values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively enrolled 106 patients with hemispheric stroke who received intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment. Ktrans maps were obtained with first-pass perfusion CT data. The Ktrans values at the region level, obtained with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score system, were compared to determine the differences between the hemorrhagic transformation and nonhemorrhagic transformation regions. The Ktrans values of the whole ischemic region based on baseline perfusion CT were obtained as a variable to hemorrhagic transformation possibility at the global level.

RESULTS:

Forty-eight (45.3%) patients had hemorrhagic transformation, and 21 (19.8%) had symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. At the region level, there were 82 ROIs with hemorrhagic transformation and parenchymal hemorrhage with a mean Ktrans, 0.5 ± 0.5/min, which was significantly lower than that in the nonhemorrhagic transformation regions (P < .01). The mean Ktrans value of 615 nonhemorrhagic transformation ROIs was 0.7 ± 0.6/min. At the global level, there was a significant difference (P = .01) between the mean Ktrans values of patients with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (1.3 ± 0.9) and those without symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0.8 ± 0.4). Only a high Ktrans value at the global level could predict the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (P < .01; OR = 5.04; 95% CI, 2.01–12.65).

CONCLUSIONS:

Global high Ktrans values can predict the likelihood of hemorrhagic transformation or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at the patient level, whereas focal low Ktrans values can predict the spatial distributions of hemorrhagic transformation at the region level.




MRI of the Swallow Tail Sign: A Useful Marker in the Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia? [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility-weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists.

RESULTS:

Interrater agreement was moderate ( = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%–85%; P < .001) and had a predictive value only in Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3–28; P < .001). The consensus rating for Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulness of the swallow tail sign was rater-dependent with the highest sensitivity equaling 100%.

CONCLUSIONS:

The swallow tail sign has diagnostic potential in Lewy body dementia and may be a complement in the diagnostic work-up of this condition.




Pericortical Enhancement on Delayed Postgadolinium Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition). We assessed the appearance of pericortical enhancement after contrast administration, MR imaging markers of cerebrovascular damage, and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Three participants who were positive for pericortical enhancement (1 with normal cognition and 2 with mild cognitive impairment) were followed up for approximately 2 years. In vitro experiments with a range of gadolinium concentrations served to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the postcontrast FLAIR signals.

RESULTS:

Postcontrast pericortical enhancement was observed in 21 participants (28%), including 6 individuals with Alzheimer disease (40%), 10 with mild cognitive impairment (30%), and 5 with normal cognition (19%). Pericortical enhancement was positively associated with age (P < .02) and ischemic stroke (P < .05), but not with cognitive status (P = .3). Foci with enhanced signal remained stable across time in all follow-up cases. The in vitro measurements confirmed that FLAIR imaging is highly sensitive for the detection of low gadolinium concentrations in CSF, but not in cerebral tissue.

CONCLUSIONS:

Postcontrast pericortical enhancement on FLAIR images occurs in older individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. It may represent chronic focal superficial BBB leakage. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine its clinical significance.




How Common Is Signal-Intensity Increase in Optic Nerve Segments on 3D Double Inversion Recovery Sequences in Visually Asymptomatic Patients with Multiple Sclerosis? [HEAD & NECK]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

In postmortem studies, subclinical optic nerve demyelination is very common in patients with MS but radiologic demonstration is difficult and mainly based on STIR T2WI. Our aim was to evaluate 3D double inversion recovery MR imaging for the detection of subclinical demyelinating lesions within optic nerve segments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The signal intensities in 4 different optic nerve segments (ie, retrobulbar, canalicular, prechiasmatic, and chiasm) were evaluated on 3D double inversion recovery MR imaging in 95 patients with MS without visual symptoms within the past 3 years and in 50 patients without optic nerve pathology. We compared the signal intensities with those of the adjacent lateral rectus muscle. The evaluation was performed by a student group and an expert neuroradiologist. Statistical evaluation (the Cohen test) was performed.

RESULTS:

On the 3D double inversion recovery sequence, optic nerve segments in the comparison group were all hypointense, and an isointense nerve sheath surrounded the retrobulbar nerve segment. At least 1 optic nerve segment was isointense or hyperintense in 68 patients (72%) in the group with MS on the basis of the results of the expert neuroradiologist. Student raters were able to correctly identify optic nerve hypersignal in 97%.

CONCLUSIONS:

A hypersignal in at least 1 optic nerve segment on the 3D double inversion recovery sequence compared with hyposignal in optic nerve segments in the comparison group was very common in visually asymptomatic patients with MS. The signal-intensity rating of optic nerve segments could also be performed by inexperienced student readers.




Intracranial Perishunt Catheter Fluid Collections with Edema, a Sign of Shunt Malfunction: Correlation of CT/MRI and Nuclear Medicine Findings [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

Fluid collections with edema along the intracranial tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in adults are rare and are more frequently seen in children. The imaging appearance of these fluid collections is frequently confusing and presents a diagnostic dilemma. We present 6 cases of adult patients noted to have collections with edema along the tract of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies correlating the CT/MR imaging findings with nuclear medicine scans in this entity. We hypothesized that when seen in adults, the imaging findings of a CSF-like fluid collection around the intracranial ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter on CT/MR imaging may suggest areas of CSF accumulation with interstitial edema. It is important to recognize this rare ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication in adults to prevent misdiagnosis of an abscess or cystic tumor.




Value of Thrombus CT Characteristics in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Thrombus CT characteristics might be useful for patient selection for intra-arterial treatment. Our objective was to study the association of thrombus CT characteristics with outcome and treatment effect in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We included 199 patients for whom thin-section NCCT and CTA within 30 minutes from each other were available in the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) study. We assessed the following thrombus characteristics: location, distance from ICA terminus to thrombus, length, volume, absolute and relative density on NCCT, and perviousness. Associations of thrombus characteristics with outcome were estimated with univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regression as an OR for a shift toward better outcome on the mRS. Interaction terms were used to investigate treatment-effect modification by thrombus characteristics.

RESULTS:

In univariate analysis, only the distance from the ICA terminus to the thrombus, length of >8 mm, and perviousness were associated with functional outcome. Relative thrombus density on CTA was independently associated with functional outcome with an adjusted common OR of 1.21 per 10% (95% CI, 1.02–1.43; P = .029). There was no treatment-effect modification by any of the thrombus CT characteristics.

CONCLUSIONS:

In our study on patients with large-vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation, CT thrombus characteristics appear useful for predicting functional outcome. However, in our study cohort, the effect of intra-arterial treatment was independent of the thrombus CT characteristics. Therefore, no arguments were provided to select patients for intra-arterial treatment using thrombus CT characteristics.




Risk Factor Analysis of Recanalization Timing in Coiled Aneurysms: Early versus Late Recanalization [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Long-term documentation of anatomic and angiographic characteristics pertaining to the timing of recanalization in coiled aneurysms has been insufficient. Our intent was to analyze and compare early and late-phase recanalization after coiling, identifying respective risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A total of 870 coiled saccular aneurysms were monitored for extended periods (mean, 30.8 ± 8.3 months). Medical records and radiologic data were also reviewed, stratifying patients as either early (n = 128) or late (n = 52) recanalization or as complete occlusion (n = 690). Early recanalization was equated with confirmed recanalization within 6 months after the procedure, whereas late recanalization was defined as verifiable recanalization after imaging confirmation of complete occlusion at 6 months. A multinomial regression model served to assess potential risk factors, the reference point being early recanalization.

RESULTS:

Posterior circulation (P = .009), subarachnoid hemorrhage at presentation (P = .011), second attempt for recanalized aneurysm (P < .001), and aneurysm size >7 mm (P < .001) emerged as variables significantly linked with early recanalization (versus complete occlusion). Late (versus early) recanalization corresponded with aneurysms ≤7 mm (P = .013), and in a separate subanalysis of lesions ≤7 mm, aneurysms 4–7 mm showed a significant predilection for late recanalization (P = .008). However, the propensity for complete occlusion in smaller lesions (≤7 mm) increased as the size diminished.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although long-term complete occlusion after coiling was more likely in aneurysms ≤7 mm, such lesions were more prone to late (versus early) recanalization, particularly those of 4–7 mm in size. Long-term follow-up imaging is thus appropriate in aneurysms >4 mm to detect late recanalization of those formerly demonstrating complete occlusion.




Influence of Carotid Siphon Anatomy on Brain Aneurysm Presentation [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Intracranial aneurysm is a devastating disease of complex etiology that is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the implications of carotid siphon anatomy for the formation and development of intracranial aneurysms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Between January 2007 and May 2015, lateral view digital subtraction angiographic images of 692 consecutive patients with intracranial aneurysms treated in our department of interventional neuroradiology were reviewed and had their angles measured. Data on the location, presentation, and size of the lesions were collected and evaluated by multivariate analysis in relation to the measured angles.

RESULTS:

Of 692 aneurysms, 225 (32.51%) ruptured and 467 (67.49%) unruptured, 218 (31.50%) were in the carotid siphon and 474 (68.50%) were distal to the siphon, and the mean aneurysm size was 7.99 ± 6.95 mm. Multivariate analysis showed an association between angles of >15.40° and rupture (P = .005), postsiphon location (P = .034), and aneurysm size of >1.001 mm (P = .015). Multivariate analysis also showed that every 1-year increase in patient age produced an increase of 1.002 mm in aneurysm size (P = .015).

CONCLUSIONS:

There was a significant independent direct relation of greater anterior knee angle with intracranial aneurysms located distal to the carotid siphon, larger aneurysms, and greater risk of rupture. These findings may be associated with the hemodynamic interactions of blood flow and the curvature of the carotid siphon.




Carotid Plaque Morphology and Ischemic Vascular Brain Disease on MRI [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Vulnerable carotid plaque components are reported to increase the risk of cerebrovascular events. Yet, the relation between plaque composition and subclinical ischemic brain disease is not known. We studied, in the general population, the association between carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and ischemic brain disease on MR imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

From the population-based Rotterdam Study, 951 participants underwent both carotid MR imaging and brain MR imaging. The presence of intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid core, and calcification and measures of plaque size was assessed in both carotid arteries. The presence of plaque characteristics in relation to lacunar and cortical infarcts and white matter lesion volume was investigated and adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Stratified analyses were conducted to explore effect modification by sex. Additional analyses were conducted per carotid artery in relation to vascular brain disease in the ipsilateral hemisphere.

RESULTS:

Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage was significantly associated with the presence of cortical infarcts (OR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–3.3). None of the plaque characteristics were related to the presence of lacunar infarcts. Calcification was the only characteristic that was associated with higher white matter lesion volume. There was no significant interaction by sex.

CONCLUSIONS:

The presence of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage on MR imaging is independently associated with MR imaging–defined cortical infarcts, but not with lacunar infarcts. Plaque calcification, but not vulnerable plaque components, is related to white matter lesion volume.




Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum, Dehiscence, and Venous Sinus Stenosis: Potential Causes of Pulsatile Tinnitus in Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension? [HEAD & NECK]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Pulsatile tinnitus is experienced by most patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The pathophysiology remains uncertain; however, transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence have been proposed as potential etiologies. We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence was increased in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and pulsatile tinnitus relative to those without pulsatile tinnitus and a control group.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

CT vascular studies of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus (n = 42), without pulsatile tinnitus (n = 37), and controls (n = 75) were independently reviewed for the presence of severe transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence according to published criteria. The prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis and sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus was compared with that in the nonpulsatile tinnitus idiopathic intracranial hypertension group and the control group. Further comparisons included differing degrees of transverse sinus stenosis (50% and 75%), laterality of transverse sinus stenosis/sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence, and ipsilateral transverse sinus stenosis combined with sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence.

RESULTS:

Severe bilateral transverse sinus stenoses were more frequent in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension than in controls (P < .001), but there was no significant association between transverse sinus stenosis and pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group. Sigmoid sinus dehiscence (right- or left-sided) was also more common in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension compared with controls (P = .01), but there was no significant association with pulsatile tinnitus within the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group.

CONCLUSIONS:

While our data corroborate previous studies demonstrating increased prevalence of sigmoid sinus diverticulum/dehiscence and transverse sinus stenosis in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, we did not establish an increased prevalence in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension with pulsatile tinnitus compared with those without. It is therefore unlikely that these entities represent a direct structural correlate of pulsatile tinnitus in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.




Increased Curvature of the Tentorium Cerebelli in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension [HEAD & NECK]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Transverse sinus effacement is detectable on MRV examinations in almost all patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This effacement of the transverse sinus is presumed to be mediated by elevation of intracranial pressure, resulting in compression and inward collapse of the dural margins of the sinus. We sought to establish whether supratentorial broad-based downward deformity of the tentorium might explain transverse sinus effacement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

MRV examinations of 53 adult patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed retrospectively and compared with 58 contemporaneously acquired controls. The curvature of the tentorium with reference to a line connecting the transverse sinus laterally with the confluence of the tentorial leaves medially was calculated as a segment of a circle. The height and area of the segment and the angle subtended by the midpoint of the tentorium from the falx were calculated.

RESULTS:

The height and area of the segment described by the chord connecting the transverse sinus with the apex of the tentorial confluence and subtended midtentorial angle were greater in the idiopathic intracranial hypertension group; this finding supports the hypothesis that increased tentorial bowing is present in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increased bowing of the tentorium in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension compared with controls is a new observation, lending itself to new hypotheses on the nature and localization of elevated intracranial pressure in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Bowing of the tentorium may play a part in distorting the contour of the transverse sinuses, resulting, at least in part, in the effacement of the transverse sinuses in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.




Ethanol Ablation of Ranulas: Short-Term Follow-Up Results and Clinicoradiologic Factors for Successful Outcome [HEAD & NECK]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Surgical excision of an affected sublingual gland for treatment of a ranula can carry a potential of a nerve damage or postoperative complications. However, there have been little studies about effective minimally invasive therapeutic method, yet. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation of ranulas and the clinicoradiologic factors that can predict outcome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This retrospective study evaluated 23 patients with ranulas treated by percutaneous ethanol ablation. Treatment outcome was assessed in 20 patients followed for at least 6 months. The duration of symptoms before ethanol ablation, pretreatment volume, and parapharyngeal extension on sonography and/or CT were correlated with the outcome. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were used for comparison of the factors according to the outcome.

RESULTS:

The study evaluated 14 males and 9 females with a median age of 26 years (range, 3–41 years). Among 20 patients who were followed for at least 6 months (median, 20 months; range, 6–73 months), 9 patients (45%) demonstrated complete disappearance of the ranulas and 11 (55%) showed an incomplete response. When the patients were divided according to the duration of symptoms before ethanol ablation, the complete response rate was significantly higher in patients with ≤12 months of symptoms (73%, 8/11) than that in others (11%, 1/9) (P = .010). Pretreatment volume and parapharyngeal extension were not significantly different between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Ethanol ablation is a safe and noninvasive treatment technique for ranulas with a significantly better outcome in patients with ≤12 months of symptoms. Therefore, it could be considered an alternative nonsurgical approach for ranulas with recent onset of symptoms.




T1 Signal Measurements in Pediatric Brain: Findings after Multiple Exposures to Gadobenate Dimeglumine for Imaging of Nonneurologic Disease [PEDIATRICS]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Signal intensity increases possibly suggestive of gadolinium retention have recently been reported on unenhanced T1-weighted images of the pediatric brain following multiple exposures to gadolinium-based MR contrast agents. Our aim was to determine whether T1 signal changes suggestive of gadolinium deposition occur in the brains of pediatric nonneurologic patients after multiple exposures to gadobenate dimeglumine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-four nonneurologic patients (group 1; 17 males/17 females; mean age, 7.18 years) who received between 5 and 15 injections (mean, 7.8 injections) of 0.05 mmol/kg of gadobenate during a mean of 2.24 years were compared with 24 control patients (group 2; 16 males/8 females; mean age, 8.78 years) who had never received gadolinium-based contrast agents. Exposure to gadobenate was for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Five blinded readers independently determined the signal intensity at ROIs in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, pons, and thalamus on unenhanced T1-weighted spin-echo images from both groups. Unpaired t tests were used to compare signal-intensity values and dentate nucleus–pons and globus pallidus–thalamus signal-intensity ratios between groups 1 and 2.

RESULTS:

Mean signal-intensity values in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, pons, and thalamus of gadobenate-exposed patients ranged from 366.4 to 389.2, 360.5 to 392.9, 370.5 to 374.9, and 356.9 to 371.0, respectively. Corresponding values in gadolinium-based contrast agent–naïve subjects were not significantly different (P > .05). Similarly, no significant differences were noted by any reader for comparisons of the dentate nucleus–pons signal-intensity ratios. One reader noted a difference in the mean globus pallidus–thalamus signal-intensity ratios (1.06 ± 0.006 versus 1.02 ± 0.009, P = .002), but this reflected nonsignificantly higher T1 signal in the thalamus of control subjects. The number of exposures and the interval between the first and last exposures did not influence signal-intensity values.

CONCLUSIONS:

Signal-intensity increases potentially indicative of gadolinium deposition are not seen in pediatric nonneurologic patients after multiple exposures to low-dose gadobenate.




New Ultrasound Measurements to Bridge the Gap between Prenatal and Neonatal Brain Growth Assessment [PEDIATRICS]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Most ultrasound markers for monitoring brain growth can only be used in either the prenatal or the postnatal period. We investigated whether corpus callosum length and corpus callosum–fastigium length could be used as markers for both prenatal and postnatal brain growth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A 3D ultrasound study embedded in the prospective Rotterdam Periconception Cohort was performed at 22, 26 and 32 weeks' gestational age in fetuses with fetal growth restriction, congenital heart defects, and controls. Postnatally, cranial ultrasound was performed at 42 weeks' postmenstrual age. First, reliability was evaluated. Second, associations between prenatal and postnatal corpus callosum and corpus callosum–fastigium length were investigated. Third, we created reference curves and compared corpus callosum and corpus callosum–fastigium length growth trajectories of controls with growth trajectories of fetuses with fetal growth retardation and congenital heart defects.

RESULTS:

We included 199 fetuses; 22 with fetal growth retardation, 20 with congenital heart defects, and 157 controls. Reliability of both measurements was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.97). Corpus callosum growth trajectories were significantly decreased in fetuses with fetal growth restriction and congenital heart defects (β = –2.295; 95% CI, –3.320–1.270; P < .01; β = –1.267; 95% CI, –0.972–0.562; P < .01, respectively) compared with growth trajectories of controls. Corpus callosum–fastigium growth trajectories were decreased in fetuses with fetal growth restriction (β = –1.295; 95% CI, –2.595–0.003; P = .05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Corpus callosum and corpus callosum–fastigium length may serve as reliable markers for monitoring brain growth from the prenatal into the postnatal period. The clinical applicability of these markers was established by the significantly different corpus callosum and corpus callosum–fastigium growth trajectories in fetuses at risk for abnormal brain growth compared with those of controls.




Analysis of 30 Spinal Angiograms Falsely Reported as Normal in 18 Patients with Subsequently Documented Spinal Vascular Malformations [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The early diagnosis of spinal vascular malformations suffers from the nonspecificity of their clinical and radiologic presentations. Spinal angiography requires a methodical approach to offer a high diagnostic yield. The prospect of false-negative studies is particularly distressing when addressing conditions with a narrow therapeutic window. The purpose of this study was to identify factors leading to missed findings or inadequate studies in patients with spinal vascular malformations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The clinical records, laboratory findings, and imaging features of 18 patients with spinal arteriovenous fistulas and at least 1 prior angiogram read as normal were reviewed. The clinical status was evaluated before and after treatment by using the Aminoff-Logue Disability Scale.

RESULTS:

Eighteen patients with 19 lesions underwent a total of 30 negative spinal angiograms. The lesions included 9 epidural arteriovenous fistulas, 8 dural arteriovenous fistulas, and 2 perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas. Seventeen patients underwent endovascular (11) or surgical (6) treatment, with a delay ranging between 1 week and 32 months; the Aminoff-Logue score improved in 13 (76.5%). The following factors were identified as the causes of the inadequate results: 1) lesion angiographically documented but not identified (55.6%); 2) region of interest not documented (29.6%); or 3) level investigated but injection technically inadequate (14.8%).

CONCLUSIONS:

All the angiograms falsely reported as normal were caused by correctible, operator-dependent factors. The nonrecognition of documented lesions was the most common cause of error. The potential for false-negative studies should be reduced by the adoption of rigorous technical and training standards and by second opinion reviews.




Diagnostic Utility of Increased STIR Signal in the Posterior Atlanto-Occipital and Atlantoaxial Membrane Complex on MRI in Acute C1-C2 Fracture [SPINE]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Acute C1–C2 fractures are difficult to detect on MR imaging due to a paucity of associated bone marrow edema. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic utility of increased STIR signal in the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial membrane complex (PAOAAM) in the detection of acute C1–C2 fractures on MR imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eighty-seven patients with C1–C2 fractures, 87 with no fractures, and 87 with other cervical fractures with acute injury who had both CT and MR imaging within 24 hours were included. All MR images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists for the presence of increased STIR signal in the PAOAAM and interspinous ligaments at other cervical levels. Sensitivity and specificity of increased signal within the PAOAAM for the presence of a C1–C2 fracture were assessed.

RESULTS:

Increased PAOAAM STIR signal was seen in 81/87 patients with C1–C2 fractures, 6/87 patients with no fractures, and 51/87 patients with other cervical fractures with 93.1% sensitivity versus those with no fractures, other cervical fractures, and all controls. Specificity was 93.1% versus those with no fractures, 41.4% versus those with other cervical fractures, and 67.2% versus all controls for the detection of acute C1–C2 fractures. Isolated increased PAOAAM STIR signal without increased signal in other cervical interspinous ligaments showed 89.7% sensitivity versus all controls. Specificity was 95.3% versus those with no fractures, 83.7% versus those with other cervical fractures, and 91.4% versus all controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increased PAOAAM signal on STIR is a highly sensitive indicator of an acute C1–C2 fracture on MR imaging. Furthermore, increased PAOAAM STIR signal as an isolated finding is highly specific for the presence of a C1–C2 fracture, making it a useful sign on MR imaging when CT is either unavailable or the findings are equivocal.




Prospective Comparison of Changes in Lumbar Spine MRI Findings over Time between Individuals with Acute Low Back Pain and Controls: An Exploratory Study [SPINE]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The clinical importance of lumbar MR imaging findings is unclear. This study was an exploratory investigation of whether lumbar spine MR imaging findings change more commonly during a 12-week period in individuals with acute low back pain compared with pain-free controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty individuals with recent-onset low back pain and 10 pain-free controls were recruited into an exploratory prospective cohort study. All participants had a lumbar spine MR imaging at baseline and repeat MR imaging scans at 1, 2, 6, and 12 weeks. The proportion of individuals who had MR imaging findings that changed during the 12-week period was compared with the same proportion in the controls.

RESULTS:

In 85% of subjects, we identified a change in at least 1 MR imaging finding during the 12 weeks; however, the proportion was similar in the controls (80%). A change in disc herniation, annular fissure, and nerve root compromise was reported more than twice as commonly in the subjects as in controls (65% versus 30%, 25% versus 10%, and 15% versus 0%, respectively). Caution is required in interpreting these findings due to wide confidence intervals, including no statistical difference. For all other MR imaging findings, the proportions of subjects and controls in whom MR imaging findings were reported to change during 12 weeks were similar.

CONCLUSIONS:

Changes in MR imaging findings were observed in a similar proportion of the low back pain and control groups, except for herniations, annular fissures, and nerve root compromise, which were twice as common in subjects with low back pain.




Syringohydromyelia in Patients with Chiari I Malformation: A Retrospective Analysis [SPINE]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The association of syringohydromyelia with Chiari I malformation has a wide range, between 23% and 80% of cases in the current literature. In our experience, this range might be overestimated compared with our observations in clinical practice. Because there is an impact of Chiari I malformation–associated syringohydromyelia on morbidity and surgical intervention, its diagnosis is critical in this patient population. Identifying related variables on the basis of imaging would also help identify those patients at risk of syrinx formation during their course of disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective analysis of the MR imaging studies of 108 consecutive cases of Chiari I malformation. A multitude of factors associated with syrinx formation were investigated, including demographic, morphometric, osseous, and dynamic CSF flow evaluation.

RESULTS:

Thirty-nine of 108 (36.1%) patients with Chiari I malformation had syringohydromyelia. On the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a skull base angle (nasion-sella-basion) of 135° was found to be a statistically significant classifier of patients with Chiari I malformation with or without syringohydromyelia. Craniocervical junction osseous anomalies (OR = 4.3, P = .001) and a skull base angle of >135° (OR = 4.8, P = .0006) were most predictive of syrinx formation. Pediatric patients (younger than 18 years of age) who developed syringohydromyelia were more likely to have associated skull base osseous anomalies than older individuals (P = .01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings support evidence of the role of foramen magnum blockage from osseous factors in the development of syringohydromyelia in patients with Chiari I malformation.




Characteristics of CSF Velocity-Time Profile in Posttraumatic Syringomyelia [SPINE]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The development of syringomyelia has been associated with changes in CSF flow dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space. However, differences in CSF flow velocity between patients with posttraumatic syringomyelia and healthy participants remains unclear. The aim of this work was to define differences in CSF flow above and below a syrinx in participants with posttraumatic syringomyelia and compare the CSF flow with that in healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Six participants with posttraumatic syringomyelia were recruited for this study. Phase-contrast MR imaging was used to measure CSF flow velocity at the base of the skull and above and below the syrinx. Velocity magnitudes and temporal features of the CSF velocity profile were compared with those in healthy controls.

RESULTS:

CSF flow velocity in the spinal subarachnoid space of participants with syringomyelia was similar at different locations despite differences in syrinx size and locations. Peak cranial and caudal velocities above and below the syrinx were not significantly different (peak cranial velocity, P = .9; peak caudal velocity, P = 1.0), but the peak velocities were significantly lower (P < .001, P = .007) in the participants with syringomyelia compared with matched controls. Most notably, the duration of caudal flow was significantly shorter (P = .003) in the participants with syringomyelia.

CONCLUSIONS:

CSF flow within the posttraumatic syringomyelia group was relatively uniform along the spinal canal, but there are differences in the timing of CSF flow compared with that in matched healthy controls. This finding supports the hypothesis that syrinx development may be associated with temporal changes in spinal CSF flow.




Syringomyelia Fluid Dynamics and Cord Motion Revealed by Serendipitous Null Point Artifacts during Cine MRI [SPINE]

2017-09-08T08:04:34-07:00

SUMMARY:

Dynamic MR imaging was used to evaluate a cervical syrinx in an adolescent boy with an associated hindbrain herniation. Null artifacts were present on one of the sequences that allowed simultaneous high-resolution visualization of syrinx fluid motion and the anatomy of the syrinx walls. A brief review of the theories of syrinx formation and propagation is provided with a comment on why the Williams "slosh" theory of syrinx progression is supported by our unique imaging.










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2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00










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Dentate Update: Imaging Features of Entities That Affect the Dentate Nucleus [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

SUMMARY:

The dentate nucleus is a cerebellar structure involved in voluntary motor function and cognition. There are relatively few entities that affect the dentate, and the clinical features of these conditions are often complex and nonspecific. Because these entities are rarely encountered, the formulation of a differential diagnosis can be difficult. Many of the conditions are reversible or treatable with early intervention. Therefore, it is important to recognize classic clinical presentations and their associated characteristic imaging findings. We provide a summary of entities that affect the dentate nucleus and a diagnostic workflow for approaching dentate nucleus imaging abnormalities.




MR Imaging in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Time to Talk [HEAD & NECK]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

SUMMARY:

Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as acute hearing loss of the sensorineural type of at least 30 dB over 3 contiguous frequencies that occurs within a 72-hour period. Although many different causative factors have been proposed, sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still considered "idiopathic" in 71%–85% of cases, and treatments are empiric, not based on etiology. MR imaging implemented with a 3D FLAIR sequence has provided new insights into the etiology of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Herein, we review the current management trends for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, from the initial clinical diagnosis to therapeutic strategies and diagnostic work-up. We focused primarily on MR imaging assessment and discuss the relevance that MR imaging findings might have for patient management, pointing out different perspectives for future clinical research.




Introduction of a Dedicated Emergency Department MR Imaging Scanner at the Barrow Neurological Institute [research-article]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

SUMMARY:

Use of advanced imaging in the emergency department has been increasing in the United States during the past 2 decades. This trend has been most notable in CT, which has increased concern over the effects of increasing levels of medical ionizing radiation. MR imaging offers a safe, nonionizing alternative to CT and is diagnostically superior in many neurologic conditions encountered in the emergency department. Herein, we describe the process of developing and installing a dedicated MR imaging scanner in the Neuroscience Emergency Department at the Barrow Neurological Institute and its effects on neuroradiology and the emergency department in general.




Cumulative Dose of Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent Improves Detection of Enhancing Lesions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is currently the reference standard for detecting active inflammatory lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis. The sensitivity of MR imaging for this purpose may vary according to the physicochemical characteristics of the contrast agent used and the acquisition strategy. The purpose of this study was to compare detection of gadolinium-enhancing lesions or active disease following a single or cumulative dose of a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent with different image acquisition delays in patients with clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing multiple sclerosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All patients received a first dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadobutrol and, 20 minutes later, a second dose (0.1 mmol/kg), with a cumulative dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. Two contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were performed at 5 and 15 minutes after the first contrast administration, and 2 additional T1-weighted sequences at 5 and 15 minutes after the second contrast administration with a 3T magnet.

RESULTS:

One hundred fifteen patients were considered evaluable. A significantly larger number of lesions were detected in scans obtained at 5 and 15 minutes after the second contrast injection compared with scans obtained at 5 and 15 minutes after the first injection (P < .001). The number of patients with active lesions on MR imaging was significantly higher after the second dose administration (52.0%, first dose versus 59.2%, second dose; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Cumulative dosing of a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent increases detection of enhancing lesions and patients with active lesions. These data could be considered in the design of MR imaging protocols aimed at detecting active multiple sclerosis lesions.




Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging of the Corticospinal Tract in Multiple Sclerosis: Association with Neurologic Disability [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder resulting in progressive neurologic disability. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between diffusional kurtosis imaging–derived metrics for the corticospinal tract and disability in multiple sclerosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Forty patients with MS underwent brain MR imaging including diffusional kurtosis imaging. After we masked out T2 hyperintense lesions, the fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, axial diffusivity, mean kurtosis, radial kurtosis, and axial kurtosis were estimated for the corticospinal tract. Disability was quantified by using the Expanded Disability Status Scale at the time of MR imaging and 12 months post-MR imaging. The Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between diffusion metrics and disability.

RESULTS:

Significant correlations were found between the Expanded Disability Status Scale scores during the baseline visit and age (r = 0.47), T2 lesion volume (r = 0.38), corticospinal tract mean diffusivity (r = 0.41), radial diffusivity (r = 0.41), axial diffusivity (r = 0.34), fractional anisotropy (r = –0.36), and radial kurtosis (r = –0.42). Significant correlations were also found between the Expanded Disability Status Scale scores at 12-month follow-up and age (r = 0.38), mean diffusivity (r = 0.45), radial diffusivity (r = 0.41), axial diffusivity (r = 0.45), mean kurtosis (r = –0.42), radial kurtosis (r = –0.56), and axial kurtosis (r = –0.36). Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations among radial kurtosis, age, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score during the baseline visit, while radial kurtosis was the only variable associated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score for the 12-month follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Radial kurtosis of the corticospinal tract may have an association with neurologic disability in MS.




Volumetric Analysis from a Harmonized Multisite Brain MRI Study of a Single Subject with Multiple Sclerosis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All imaging was acquired on Siemens scanners (4 Skyra, 2 Tim Trio, and 1 Verio). Expert segmentations were manually obtained for T1-hypointense and T2 (FLAIR) hyperintense lesions. Several automated lesion-detection and whole-brain, cortical, and deep gray matter volumetric pipelines were applied. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess variability across sites, as well as systematic biases in the volumetric measurements that were site-related.

RESULTS:

Systematic biases due to site differences in expert-traced lesion measurements were significant (P < .01 for both T1 and T2 lesion volumes), with site explaining >90% of the variation (range, 13.0–16.4 mL in T1 and 15.9–20.1 mL in T2) in lesion volumes. Site also explained >80% of the variation in most automated volumetric measurements. Output measures clustered according to scanner models, with similar results from the Skyra versus the other 2 units.

CONCLUSIONS:

Even in multicenter studies with consistent scanner field strength and manufacturer after protocol harmonization, systematic differences can lead to severe biases in volumetric analyses.




Reliability of White Matter Microstructural Changes in HIV Infection: Meta-Analysis and Confirmation [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND:

Diffusion tensor imaging has been widely used to measure HIV effects on white matter microarchitecture. While many authors have reported reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity in HIV, quantitative inconsistencies across studies are numerous.

PURPOSE:

Our aim was to evaluate the consistency across studies of HIV effects on DTI measures and then examine the DTI reliability in a longitudinal seropositive cohort.

DATA SOURCES:

Published studies and investigators.

STUDY SELECTION:

The meta-analysis included 16 cross-sectional studies reporting fractional anisotropy and 12 studies reporting mean diffusivity in the corpus callosum.

DATA ANALYSIS:

Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate study standardized mean differences and heterogeneity. DTI longitudinal reliability was estimated in seropositive participants studied before and 3 and 6 months after beginning treatment.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Meta-analysis revealed lower fractional anisotropy (standardized mean difference, –0.43; P < .001) and higher mean diffusivity (standardized mean difference, 0.44; P < .003) in seropositive participants. Nevertheless, between-study heterogeneity accounted for 58% and 66% of the observed variance (P < .01). In contrast, the longitudinal cohort fractional anisotropy was higher and mean diffusivity was lower in seropositive participants (both, P < .001), and fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity measures were very stable during 6 months, with intraclass correlation coefficients all >0.96.

LIMITATIONS:

Many studies pooled participants with varying treatments, ages, and disease durations.

CONCLUSIONS:

HIV effects on WM microstructure had substantial variations that could result from acquisition, processing, or cohort-selection differences. When acquisition parameters and processing were carefully controlled, the resulting DTI measures did not show high temporal variation. HIV effects on WM microstructure may be age-dependent. The high longitudinal reliability of DTI WM microstructure measures makes them promising disease-activity markers.




Differentiation between Treatment-Induced Necrosis and Recurrent Tumors in Patients with Metastatic Brain Tumors: Comparison among 11C-Methionine-PET, FDG-PET, MR Permeability Imaging, and MRI-ADC--Preliminary Results [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In patients with metastatic brain tumors after gamma knife radiosurgery, the superiority of PET using 11C-methionine for differentiating radiation necrosis and recurrent tumors has been accepted. To evaluate the feasibility of MR permeability imaging, it was compared with PET using 11C-methionine, FDG-PET, and DWI for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study analyzed 18 lesions from 15 patients with metastatic brain tumors who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery. Ten lesions were identified as recurrent tumors by an operation. In MR permeability imaging, the transfer constant between intra- and extravascular extracellular spaces (/minute), extravascular extracellular space, the transfer constant from the extravascular extracellular space to plasma (/minute), the initial area under the signal intensity–time curve, contrast-enhancement ratio, bolus arrival time (seconds), maximum slope of increase (millimole/second), and fractional plasma volume were calculated. ADC was also acquired. On both PET using 11C-methionine and FDG-PET, the ratio of the maximum standard uptake value of the lesion divided by the maximum standard uptake value of the symmetric site in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere was measured (11C-methionine ratio and FDG ratio, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve was used for analysis. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors was the best for the 11C-methionine ratio (0.90) followed by the contrast-enhancement ratio (0.81), maximum slope of increase (millimole/second) (0.80), the initial area under the signal intensity–time curve (0.78), fractional plasma volume (0.76), bolus arrival time (seconds) (0.76), the transfer constant between intra- and extravascular extracellular spaces (/minute) (0.74), extravascular extracellular space (0.68), minimum ADC (0.60), the transfer constant from the extravascular extracellular space to plasma (/minute) (0.55), and the FDG-ratio (0.53). A significant difference in the 11C-methionine ratio (P < .01), contrast-enhancement ratio (P < .01), maximum slope of increase (millimole/second) (P < .05), and the initial area under the signal intensity–time curve (P < .05) was evident between radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that PET using 11C-methionine may be superior to MR permeability imaging, ADC, and FDG-PET for differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent tumors after gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors. [...]



The Initial Area Under the Curve Derived from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Improves Prognosis Prediction in Glioblastoma with Unmethylated MGMT Promoter [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Although perfusion and permeability MR parameters have known to have prognostic value, they have reproducibility issues. Our aim was to evaluate whether the initial area under the time-to-signal intensity curve (IAUC) derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can improve prognosis prediction in patients with glioblastoma with known MGMT status.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We retrospectively examined 88 patients with glioblastoma who underwent preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. The means of IAUC values at 30 and 60 seconds (IAUC30mean and IAUC60mean) were extracted from enhancing tumors. The prognostic values of IAUC parameters for overall survival and progression-free survival were assessed with log-rank tests, according to the MGMT status. Multivariate overall survival and progression-free survival models before and after adding the IAUC parameters as covariates were explored by net reclassification improvement after receiver operating characteristic analysis for 1.5-year overall survival and 1-year progression-free survival and by random survival forest.

RESULTS:

High IAUC parameters were associated with worse overall survival and progression-free survival in the unmethylated MGMT group, but not in the methylated group. In the unmethylated MGMT group, 1.5-year overall survival and 1-year progression-free survival prediction improved significantly after adding IAUC parameters (overall survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.86; progression-free survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.74–0.76) to the model with other prognostic factors (overall survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81; progression-free survival area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.69; P < .05 for all) except in the case of IAUC60mean for 1-year progression-free survival prediction (P = .059). Random survival forest models indicated that the IAUC parameters were the second or most important predictors in the unmethylated MGMT group, except in the case of the IAUC60mean for progression-free survival.

CONCLUSIONS:

IAUC can be a useful prognostic imaging biomarker in patients with glioblastoma with known MGMT status, improving prediction of glioblastoma prognosis with the unmethylated MGMT promoter status.




Retrospective Validation of a Computer-Assisted Quantification Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume on Accuracy, Precision, and Acquisition Time, Compared with Standard ABC/2 Manual Volume Calculation [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 6.5%–19.6% of all acute strokes. Initial intracerebral hemorrhage volume and expansion are both independent predictors of clinical outcomes and mortality. Therefore, a rapid, unbiased, and precise measurement of intracerebral hemorrhage volume is a key component of clinical management. The most commonly used method, ABC/2, results in overestimation. We developed an interactive segmentation program, SegTool, using a novel graphic processing unit, level set algorithm. Until now, the speed, bias, and precision of SegTool had not been validated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In a single stroke academic center, 2 vascular neurologists and 2 neuroradiologists independently performed a test-retest experiment that involved repeat measurements of static, unchanging intracerebral hemorrhage volumes on CT from 76 intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Measurements were made with SegTool and ABC/2. True intracerebral hemorrhage volumes were estimated from a consensus of repeat manual tracings by 2 operators. These data allowed us to estimate measurement bias, precision, and speed.

RESULTS:

The measurements with SegTool were not significantly different from the true intracerebral hemorrhage volumes, while ABC/2 overestimated volume by 45%. The interrater measurement variability with SegTool was 50% less than that with ABC/2. The average measurement times for ABC/2 and SegTool were 35.7 and 44.6 seconds, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

SegTool appears to have attributes superior to ABC/2 in terms of accuracy and interrater reliability with a 9-second delay in measurement time (on average); hence, it could be useful in clinical trials and practice.




Transcranial Duplex Sonography Predicts Outcome following an Intracerebral Hemorrhage [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Several radiologic features such as hematoma volume are related to poor outcome following an intracerebral hemorrhage and can be measured with transcranial duplex sonography. We sought to determine the prognostic value of transcranial duplex sonography in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We conducted a prospective study of patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Transcranial duplex sonography examinations were performed within 2 hours of baseline CT, and we recorded the following variables: hematoma volume, midline shift, third ventricle and lateral ventricle diameters, and the pulsatility index in both MCAs. We correlated these data with the CT scans and assessed the prognostic value of the transcranial duplex sonography measurements. We assessed early neurologic deterioration during hospitalization and mortality at 1-month follow-up.

RESULTS:

We included 35 patients with a mean age of 72.2 ± 12.8 years. Median baseline hematoma volume was 9.85 mL (interquartile range, 2.74–68.29 mL). We found good agreement and excellent correlation between transcranial duplex sonography and CT when measuring hematoma volume (r = 0.791; P < .001) and midline shift (r = 0.827; P < .001). The logistic regression analysis with transcranial duplex sonography measurements showed that hematoma volume was an independent predictor of early neurologic deterioration (OR, 1.078; 95% CI, 1.023–1.135) and mortality (OR, 1.089; 95% CI, 1.020–1.160). A second regression analysis with CT variables also demonstrated that hematoma volume was associated with early neurologic deterioration and mortality. When we compared the rating operation curves of both models, their predictive power was similar.

CONCLUSIONS:

Transcranial duplex sonography showed an excellent correlation with CT in assessing hematoma volume and midline shift in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Hematoma volume measured with transcranial duplex sonography was an independent predictor of poor outcome.




Perfusion MR Imaging Using a 3D Pulsed Continuous Arterial Spin-Labeling Method for Acute Cerebral Infarction Classified as Branch Atheromatous Disease Involving the Lenticulostriate Artery Territory [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Branch atheromatous disease is a stroke subtype considered a risk factor for early neurologic deterioration. Meanwhile, crossed cerebellar diaschisis is thought to be influenced by the degree and location of supratentorial perfusion abnormalities and is associated with the clinical outcome in the case of an ischemic stroke. In this article, our aim was to clarify the utility of using a whole-brain 3D pulsed continuous arterial spin-labeling method as an imaging biomarker for predicting neurologic severity in branch atheromatous disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty-three patients with branch atheromatous disease in the lenticulostriate artery territory were enrolled. All patients underwent MR imaging, including DWI, 3D-TOF-MRA, and 3D-arterial spin-labeling. We measured the asymmetry index of CBF in the affected area (branch atheromatous disease), the asymmetry index of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere (crossed cerebellar diaschisis), and the DWI infarct volume in the lenticulostriate artery territory. We also compared each parameter with the initial NIHSS score with the Pearson correlation coefficient.

RESULTS:

Among the 23 patients, we found no correlation between NIHSS score and the asymmetry index of CBF in the affected area (branch atheromatous disease) (r = –0.027, P = .724), whereas the asymmetry index of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere (crossed cerebellar diaschisis) and DWI infarct volumes were significantly correlated with NIHSS score (r = 0.515, P = .012; r = 0.664, P = .001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with branch atheromatous disease, 3D-arterial spin-labeling can detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis, which is correlated with the degree of neurologic severity.




Temporal and Spatial Variances in Arterial Spin-Labeling Are Inversely Related to Large-Artery Blood Velocity [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The relationship between extracranial large-artery characteristics and arterial spin-labeling MR imaging may influence the quality of arterial spin-labeling–CBF images for older adults with and without vascular pathology. We hypothesized that extracranial arterial blood velocity can explain between-person differences in arterial spin-labeling data systematically across clinical populations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed consecutive pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling and phase-contrast MR imaging on 82 individuals (20–88 years of age, 50% women), including healthy young adults, healthy older adults, and older adults with cerebral small vessel disease or chronic stroke infarcts. We examined associations between extracranial phase-contrast hemodynamics and intracranial arterial spin-labeling characteristics, which were defined by labeling efficiency, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and spatial coefficient of variation.

RESULTS:

Large-artery blood velocity was inversely associated with labeling efficiency (P = .007), temporal SNR (P < .001), and spatial coefficient of variation (P = .05) of arterial spin-labeling, after accounting for age, sex, and group. Correction for labeling efficiency on an individual basis led to additional group differences in GM-CBF compared to correction using a constant labeling efficiency.

CONCLUSIONS:

Between-subject arterial spin-labeling variance was partially explained by extracranial velocity but not cross-sectional area. Choosing arterial spin-labeling timing parameters with on-line knowledge of blood velocity may improve CBF quantification.




Head-to-Head Visual Comparison between Brain Perfusion SPECT and Arterial Spin-Labeling MRI with Different Postlabeling Delays in Alzheimer Disease [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging has been recently developed as a noninvasive technique with magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous contrast medium for the evaluation of CBF. Our aim was to compare arterial spin-labeling MR imaging and SPECT in the visual assessment of CBF in patients with Alzheimer disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In 33 patients with Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease, CBF images were obtained by using both arterial spin-labeling–MR imaging with a postlabeling delay of 1.5 seconds and 2.5 seconds (PLD1.5 and PLD2.5, respectively) and brain perfusion SPECT. Twenty-two brain regions were visually assessed, and the diagnostic confidence of Alzheimer disease was recorded.

RESULTS:

Among all arterial spin-labeling images, 84.9% of PLD1.5 and 9% of PLD2.5 images showed the typical pattern of advanced Alzheimer disease (ie, decreased CBF in the bilateral parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes). PLD1.5, PLD2.5, and SPECT imaging resulted in obviously different visual assessments. PLD1.5 showed a broad decrease in CBF, which could have been due to an early perfusion. In contrast, PLD2.5 did not appear to be influenced by an early perfusion but showed fewer pathologic findings than SPECT.

CONCLUSIONS:

The distinctions observed by us should be carefully considered in the visual assessments of Alzheimer disease. Further studies are required to define the patterns of change in arterial spin-labeling–MR imaging associated with Alzheimer disease.




CT Angiography ASPECTS Predicts Outcome Much Better Than Noncontrast CT in Patients with Stroke Treated Endovascularly [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Noncontrast CT ASPECTS has been investigated as a predictor of outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Our purpose was to investigate whether CTA source images are a better predictor of clinical and radiologic outcomes than NCCT ASPECTS in candidates for endovascular stroke therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

CT scans of patients (n = 124) were independently evaluated by 2 readers for baseline NCCT and CTA source image ASPECTS and for follow-up ASPECTS. An mRS of ≤2 at 3 months was considered a favorable outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the ability of NCCT and CTA source image ASPECTS to identify patients with favorable outcomes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to find independent predictors of outcome.

RESULTS:

Baseline CTA source image ASPECTS correlated better than NCCT ASPECTS with follow-up ASPECTS (r = 0.76 versus r = 0.51; P for comparison of the 2 coefficients < .001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that baseline CTA source image ASPECTS compared with NCCT ASPECTS can better identify patients with favorable outcome (CTA source image area under the curve = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76–0.91; NCCT area under the curve = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58–0.77; P < .001). Finally, the stepwise regression analysis showed that lower age, good recanalization, lower time to recanalization, and good baseline CTA source image ASPECTS, not NCCT ASPECTS, were independent predictors of favorable outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

CTA source image ASPECTS predicts outcome better than NCCT ASPECTS; this finding suggests CTA rather than NCCT as a main step in the decision-making process for patients with acute ischemic stroke.




State of Practice: Endovascular Treatment of Acute Aneurysmal SAH in Germany [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Acute aneurysmal SAH is a severe disease that requires prompt treatment. Endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping are established treatment options. Our intention was to determine the state of current practice in acute aneurysmal SAH treatment in Germany, with emphasis on logistic and temporal aspects.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We interviewed 74 German university and nonuniversity hospitals with an anonymous questionnaire comprising 15 questions concerning the practice of treatment and diagnostics of acute aneurysmal SAH at their respective institutions. The response rate was 74% among all institutions (55/74); among university hospitals, 77%; and among nonuniversity hospitals, 72%.

RESULTS:

The majority of all aneurysms were treated endovascularly (66% of acute aneurysmal SAH, 66% of unruptured aneurysms). Treatment on weekends was provided by 100% of endovascular and 96% of neurosurgical facilities. Average patients with acute aneurysmal SAH were not treated during the night (98%). Seventy percent of endovascular and 78% of neurosurgical treatments were not started later than 8:00 pm. Fifty-three percent of hospitals would not start a same-day diagnostic angiography in acute aneurysmal SAH if treatment was scheduled for the following day. Eighty-two percent of all centers performed DSA after clipping to evaluate the treatment results.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our survey gives a detailed summary of the current practice of endovascular treatment and related topics in acute aneurysmal SAH in Germany and also reveals considerable changes in practice in comparison with older data.




The Impact of Conscious Sedation versus General Anesthesia for Stroke Thrombectomy on the Predictive Value of Collateral Status: A Post Hoc Analysis of the SIESTA Trial [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Radiologic selection criteria to identify patients likely to benefit from endovascular stroke treatment are still controversial. In this post hoc analysis of the recent randomized Sedation versus Intubation for Endovascular Stroke TreAtment (SIESTA) trial, we aimed to investigate the impact of sedation mode (conscious sedation versus general anesthesia) on the predictive value of collateral status.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Using imaging data from SIESTA, we assessed collateral status with the collateral score of Tan et al and graded it from absent to good collaterals (0–3). We examined the association of collateral status with 24-hour improvement of the NIHSS score, infarct volume, and mRS at 3 months according to the sedation regimen.

RESULTS:

In a cohort of 104 patients, the NIHSS score improved significantly in patients with moderate or good collaterals (2–3) compared with patients with no or poor collaterals (0–1) (P = .011; mean, –5.8 ± 7.6 versus –1.1 ± 10.7). Tan 2–3 was also associated with significantly higher ASPECTS before endovascular stroke treatment (median, 9 versus 7; P < .001) and smaller mean infarct size after endovascular stroke treatment (median, 35.0 versus 107.4; P < .001). When we differentiated the population according to collateral status (0.1 versus 2.3), the sedation modes conscious sedation and general anesthesia were not associated with significant differences in the predictive value of collateral status regarding infarction size or functional outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

The sedation mode, conscious sedation or general anesthesia, did not influence the predictive value of collaterals in patients with large-vessel occlusion anterior circulation stroke undergoing thrombectomy in the SIESTA trial.




Effect of Retrievable Stent Size on Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multicenter Study [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

In clinical practice, stent diameter is one of the variable properties important for endovascular treatment. A consensus guideline for stent retriever size selection has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different diameters of Solitaire retrievers on outcomes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Of 628 patients enrolled from the Endovascular Treatment for Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke Registry, 256 were treated with the Solitaire 4-mm device and 372, with the 6-mm device. We matched patients treated with the 2 stent sizes using propensity score analysis. The successful outcome was reperfusion as measured by the modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score immediately postprocedure and the dichotomized modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and in-hospital mortality were also recorded.

RESULTS:

After propensity score analysis, group outcomes did not differ. In addition, in patients with atherosclerosis-related occlusion, a higher reperfusion rate (P = .021) was observed in the Solitaire 4 group, as well as a shorter time interval (P = .002) and fewer passes (P = .025). Independent predictors of successful reperfusion in patients with atherosclerotic disease on logistic analysis were the small stent (OR, 3.217; 95% CI, 1.129–9.162; P = .029) and the propensity score acting as a covariate (OR, 52.84; 95% CI, 3.468–805.018; P = .004).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found no evidence of a differential effect of intra-arterial therapy based on the size of Solitaire retrievers. In patients with atherosclerotic disease, favorable reperfusion was associated with deployment of a small stent.




e-ASPECTS Correlates with and Is Predictive of Outcome after Mechanical Thrombectomy [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The e-ASPECTS software is a tool for the automated use of ASPECTS. Our aim was to analyze whether baseline e-ASPECT scores correlate with outcome after mechanical thrombectomy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients with ischemic strokes in the anterior circulation who were admitted between 2010 and 2015, diagnosed by CT, and received mechanical thrombectomy were included. The ASPECTS on baseline CT was scored by e-ASPECTS and 3 expert raters, and interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The e-ASPECTS was correlated with functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale) at 3 months by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS 4–6 at 3 months, and a poor scan was defined as e-ASPECTS 0–5.

RESULTS:

Two hundred twenty patients were included, and 147 (67%) were treated with bridging protocols. The median e-ASPECTS was 9 (interquartile range, 8–10). Intraclass correlation coefficients between e-ASPECTS and raters were 0.72, 0.74, and 0.76 (all, P < .001). e-ASPECTS (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = –0.15, P = .027) correlated with mRS at 3 months. Patients with unfavorable outcome had lower e-ASPECTS (median, 8; interquartile range, 7–10 versus median, 9; interquartile range, 8–10; P = .014). Sixteen patients (7.4%) had a poor scan, which was associated with unfavorable outcome (OR, 13.6; 95% CI, 1.8–104). Independent predictors of unfavorable outcome were e-ASPECTS (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63–0.99), blood sugar (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.004–1.02), atrial fibrillation (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.22–5.69), premorbid mRS (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21–2.58), NIHSS (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04–1.19), general anesthesia (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07–0.84), failed recanalization (OR, 8.47; 95% CI, 3.5–20.2), and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 25.8; 95% CI, 2.5–268).

CONCLUSIONS:

The e-ASPECTS correlated with mRS at 3 months and was predictive of unfavorable outcome after mechanical thrombectomy, but further studies in patients with poor scan are needed.




Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Differences in Characteristics and Outcomes after Endovascular Therapy between Patients with and without Underlying Severe Atherosclerotic Stenosis [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Prediction of underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis before endovascular therapy might be helpful for appropriate therapeutic planning in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to compare the characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion relative to the existence or nonexistence of underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Sixty-two patients with acute basilar artery occlusion underwent multimodal endovascular therapy. All patients underwent stent-retriever thrombectomy as a first-line endovascular therapy. Patients with underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis underwent additional intracranial angioplasty and stent placement. The clinical and imaging characteristics and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed and compared between patients with and without intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

RESULTS:

Underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was identified at the occlusion site in 15 patients (24.1%). Occlusion in the proximal segment of the basilar artery was more common in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (60% versus 6.4%, P < .001), whereas occlusion in the distal segment was more common in those without it (91.5% versus 26.7%, P < .001). Bilateral thalamic infarction on a pretreatment DWI was less common in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (0% versus 27.7%, P = .027) compared with those without it. There were no significant differences in the rates of successful revascularization, favorable outcome, symptomatic hemorrhage, and mortality between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis was not uncommon in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. The occlusion segment of the basilar artery and the presence or absence of bilateral thalamic infarction on a pretreatment DWI might be helpful for predicting underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Patients with and without underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis who underwent endovascular therapy had similar outcomes.




Treatment of Tandem Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms Using a Single Pipeline Embolization Device: Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Tandem aneurysms are defined as multiple aneurysms located in close proximity on the same parent vessel. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single Pipeline Embolization Device for the treatment of tandem aneurysms of the internal carotid artery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective analysis of consecutive aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device between 2009 and 2016 at 3 institutions in the United States was performed. Cases included aneurysms of the ICA treated with a single Pipeline Embolization Device, and they were divided into tandem versus solitary. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were compared.

RESULTS:

The solitary group (median age, 58 years) underwent 184 Pipeline Embolization Device procedures for 184 aneurysms. The tandem group (median age, 50.5 years) underwent 34 procedures for 78 aneurysms. Aneurysms were primarily located along the paraophthalmic segment of the ICA in both the single and tandem groups (72.3% versus 78.2%, respectively, P = .53). The median maximal diameters in the solitary and tandem groups were 6.2 and 6.7 mm, respectively. Complete occlusion on the last angiographic follow-up was achieved in 75.1% of aneurysms in the single compared with 88.6%% in the tandem group (P = .06). Symptomatic thromboembolic complications were encountered in 2.7% and 8.8% of procedures in the single and tandem groups, respectively (P = .08).

CONCLUSIONS:

Tandem aneurysms of the ICA can be treated with a single Pipeline Embolization Device with high rates of complete occlusion. While there appeared to be a trend toward higher thromboembolic complication rates, this did not reach statistical significance.




Non-Contrast-Enhanced Silent Scan MR Angiography of Intracranial Anterior Circulation Aneurysms Treated with a Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

The Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device comprises a small-cell nitinol structure and a single-wire braided stent that provides greater metal coverage than previously reported intracranial stents, as well as assumed strong susceptibility artifacts. This study aimed to assess the benefits of non-contrast-enhanced MRA by using a Silent Scan (Silent MRA) for intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty-one aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents were assessed by using Silent MRA, 3D TOF-MRA, and x-ray DSA. The quality of MRA visualization of the reconstructed artery was graded on a 4-point scale from 1 (not visible) to 4 (excellent). Aneurysm occlusion status was evaluated by using a 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]). Weighted statistics were used to evaluate interobserver and intermodality agreement.

RESULTS:

The mean scores ± SDs for Silent MRA and 3D TOF-MRA were 3.16 ± 0.79 and 1.48 ± 0.67 (P < .05), respectively, with substantial interobserver agreement ( = 0.66). The aneurysm occlusion rates of the 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]) were 69%/31% for DSA, 65%/35% for Silent MRA, and 92%/8% for 3D TOF-MRA, respectively. The intermodality agreements were 0.88 and 0.30 for DSA/Silent MRA and DSA/3D TOF-MRA, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Silent MRA seems to be useful for visualizing intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents.




Jugular Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis Are Associated with Increased Collateral Venous Flow [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

To date, research on extracranial venous collaterals has been focused on structure, with relatively little attention paid to hemodynamics. We addressed this limitation by quantitatively comparing collateral flow in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls by using phase-contrast MR imaging. We hypothesize that patients with MS with structurally anomalous internal jugular veins will have elevated collateral venous flow compared with healthy controls.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The sample consisted of 276 patients with MS and 106 healthy controls. We used MRV to classify internal jugular veins as stenotic and nonstenotic based on an absolute cross-sectional area threshold in 276 patients with MS and 60 healthy controls; 46 healthy controls lacked this imaging. Individual and total vessel flows were quantified by using phase-contrast MR imaging on all patients. Veins were classified by extracranial drainage type: internal jugular veins (I), paraspinal (II), and superficial (III). Differences among healthy controls, patients with MS, nonstenotic patients, and stenotic subgroups in total venous flow by vessel type were evaluated in a general linear model for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:

In the MS group, 153 patients (55%) evidenced stenosis, whereas 12 (20%) healthy controls were classified as stenotic (P < .001). Compared with healthy controls, the MS group showed lower type I flow and increased type II flow. Stenosis was associated with reduced flow in the type I vessels [F(1272) = 68; P < .001]. The stenotic MS group had increased flow in the type II vessels compared with the nonstenotic MS group [F(1272) = 67; P < .001].

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with healthy controls, patients with MS exhibit reduced venous flow in the main extracerebral drainage vein (internal jugular vein). In contrast, flow in the paraspinal venous collaterals is elevated in patients with MS and exacerbated by venous stenosis. Collateral drainage may be a compensatory response to internal jugular vein flow reduction.




Functional Connectivity in Virally Suppressed Patients with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: A Resting-State Analysis [FUNCTIONAL]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder still occurs despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. In the pre-combination antiretroviral era and in patients without HIV suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder was caused by synaptodendritic injury resulting in impairment of neural networks, characterized by decreased attention, psychomotor slowing, and working memory deficits. Whether similar pathogenesis is true for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of viral suppression is not clear. Resting-state fMRI has been shown to be efficient in detecting impaired neural networks in various neurologic illnesses. This pilot study aimed to assess resting-state functional connectivity of the brain in patients with active HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of HIV viral suppression in both blood and CSF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Eighteen patients with active HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (recent diagnosis with progressing symptoms) on combination antiretroviral therapy with viral suppression in both blood and CSF and 9 demographically matched control subjects underwent resting-state functional MR imaging. The connectivity in the 6 known neural networks was assessed. To localize significant ROIs within the HIV and control group, we performed a seed-based correlation for each known resting-state network.

RESULTS:

There were significant group differences between the control and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder groups in the salience (0.26 versus 0.14, t = 2.6978, df = 25, P = .0123) and executive networks (0.52 versus 0.32, t = 2.2372, df = 25, P = .034). The covariate analysis with neuropsychological scores yielded statistically significant correlations in all 6 studied functional networks, with the most conspicuous correlation in salience networks.

CONCLUSIONS:

Active HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in virally suppressed patients is associated with significantly decreased connectivity in the salience and executive networks, thereby making it potentially useful as a biomarker.




Influence of Ultra-Low-Dose and Iterative Reconstructions on the Visualization of Orbital Soft Tissues on Maxillofacial CT [HEAD & NECK]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Dose reduction on CT scans for surgical planning and postoperative evaluation of midface and orbital fractures is an important concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of various low-dose and iterative reconstruction techniques on the visualization of orbital soft tissues.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Contrast-to-noise ratios of the optic nerve and inferior rectus muscle and subjective scores of a human cadaver were calculated from CT with a reference dose protocol (CT dose index volume = 36.69 mGy) and a subsequent series of low-dose protocols (LDPs I–4: CT dose index volume = 4.18, 2.64, 0.99, and 0.53 mGy) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-50, ASIR-100, and model-based iterative reconstruction. The Dunn Multiple Comparison Test was used to compare each combination of protocols (α = .05).

RESULTS:

Compared with the reference dose protocol with FBP, the following statistically significant differences in contrast-to-noise ratios were shown (all, P ≤ .012) for the following: 1) optic nerve: LDP-I with FBP; LDP-II with FBP and ASIR-50; LDP-III with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and 2) inferior rectus muscle: LDP-II with FBP, LDP-III with FBP and ASIR-50, and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100. Model-based iterative reconstruction showed the best contrast-to-noise ratio in all images and provided similar subjective scores for LDP-II. ASIR-50 had no remarkable effect, and ASIR-100, a small effect on subjective scores.

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with a reference dose protocol with FBP, model-based iterative reconstruction may show similar diagnostic visibility of orbital soft tissues at a CT dose index volume of 2.64 mGy. Low-dose technology and iterative reconstruction technology may redefine current reference dose levels in maxillofacial CT.




Does 3T Fetal MRI Improve Image Resolution of Normal Brain Structures between 20 and 24 Weeks' Gestational Age? [PEDIATRICS]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Stronger magnetic fields have the potential to improve fetal image resolution. Our objective was to detect whether there was better anatomic resolution of brain structures in fetuses imaged with a 3T magnet compared with a 1.5T magnet.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Multiple cerebral and facial anatomic structures were retrospectively assessed in 28 fetal MR imaging scans with normal findings (12 at 3T and 16 at 1.5T) with a 0–3 grading score. Fetuses were assessed during the second trimesters (gestational age, 20–24 weeks). The association between the quality ratings and magnetic field strengths (1.5T versus 3T) was evaluated by a linear mixed-effects model. A quantitative assessment of the signal intensity was also performed in the different layers of the developing brain. Comparative log-ratios were calculated across the different layers of the fetal brain.

RESULTS:

There was a statistically significant interaction between location and magnetic field strength (P < .001). The cerebral structures of the cerebellum, pons, venous system, semicircular canal, and cochlea showed statistically significant higher values on the 3T magnet. Similarly, statistical significance was also obtained on the quantitative assessment of the multilayer appearance of the brain; the 3T magnet had a median factor of 8.38 higher than the 1.5T magnet (95% CI, 4.73–14.82). Other anatomic structures assessed in the supratentorial compartment of the brain showed higher values on the 3T magnet with no statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both magnets depict cerebral and facial normal anatomic structures; however, our data indicates better anatomic detail on the 3T than on the 1.5T magnet.




MR Imaging Diagnosis of Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia in Fetuses with Developmental Ventriculomegaly [PEDIATRICS]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

SUMMARY:

Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia is a rare malformation characterized by a poorly defined junction between the diencephalon and the mesencephalon, associated with a characteristic butterfly-like contour of the midbrain (butterfly sign). This condition may be variably associated with other brain malformations, including callosal abnormalities and supratentorial ventricular dilation, and is a potential cause of developmental hydrocephalus. Here, we have reported 13 fetuses with second-trimester obstructive ventriculomegaly and MR features of diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia, correlating the fetal imaging with available pathology and/or postnatal data. The butterfly sign can be clearly detected on axial images on fetal MR imaging, thus allowing for the prenatal diagnosis of diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia, with possible implications for the surgical management of hydrocephalus and parental counseling.




Temporal Evolution of Disc in Young Patients with Low Back Pain and Stress Reaction in Lumbar Vertebrae [SPINE]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Although stress-induced bony changes often resolve with conservative treatment, the long-term effects of such mechanical stresses on intervertebral discs have not been studied. We aimed to assess the differences in the temporal evolution of disc in segments of the lumbar spine with and without signs of increased mechanical stresses.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Using MR imaging performed >6 months apart, 2 radiologists evaluated lumbar intervertebral discs for degenerative changes affecting the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus, and the endplates in 42 patients (22 male, 20 female; mean age, 16.0 ± 3.7 years [range, 7–25 years]) with low back pain and imaging evidence of stress reaction/fracture in the lumbar spine. Data were analyzed for differences in the presence and progression of disc degeneration in stressed versus nonstressed segments.

RESULTS:

At baseline, stressed discs had a higher burden of annular fissures, radial fissures, herniation, and nuclear degeneration. Endplate defect burden was comparable in stressed and control discs. At follow-up, the burden of new annular fissures and endplate defects was comparable for stressed and control discs. However, a higher proportion of stressed discs showed worsening nuclear signal intensity grade (14.3% versus 0% control discs; P = .008) and worsening nuclear degeneration grade (11.9% versus 0% control discs; P = .02). An increased risk of progressive nuclear degeneration of stressed discs was observed irrespective of the outcome of bony changes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Stressed discs exhibit a higher burden of nuclear and annular degeneration at baseline. These discs have a higher risk of progressive nuclear degeneration irrespective of improvement or worsening of stress-related bony changes.




Percutaneous Spinal Ablation in a Sheep Model: Protective Capacity of an Intact Cortex, Correlation of Ablation Parameters with Ablation Zone Size, and Correlation of Postablation MRI and Pathologic Findings [SPINE]

2017-08-14T08:04:19-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Despite the growing use of percutaneous ablation therapy for the treatment of metastatic spine disease, several issues have yet to be fully addressed. Our aims were to determine whether the vertebral body cortex protects against ablation-induced spinal cord injury; correlate radiofrequency, cryo-, and microwave ablation parameters with resulting spinal ablation zone dimensions and describe normal spinal marrow postablation changes on MR imaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Ten thoracolumbar vertebrae in 3 sheep were treated with radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, or microwave ablation under fluoroscopic guidance. Technique parameters were chosen to produce ablation zones that exceeded the volume of the vertebral bodies in sheep 1 and were confined to the vertebrae in sheep 2 and 3. Expected ablation zone dimensions were based on data provided by the device manufacturers. Postablation MR imaging was performed at 48 hours (sheep 1) or 7 days (sheep 2 and 3).

RESULTS:

In sheep 1, cryoablation and microwave ablations extended into the spinal canal and caused histologically confirmed neurologic injury, but radiofrequency ablation did not. The mean difference between the lengths of the radiofrequency ablation zone dimensions measured on gross pathology compared with those expected was 9.6 ± 4.1 mm. The gross pathologic cryo- and microwave ablation zone dimensions were within 1 mm of those expected. All modalities produced a nonenhancing ablation zone with a rim of enhancement, corresponding histologically to marrow necrosis and hemorrhagic congestion.

CONCLUSIONS:

An intact cortex appears to protect against radiofrequency ablation-induced spinal cord injury, but not against non-impedance-based modalities. Ablation dimensions produced by microwave and cryoablation are similar to those expected, while radiofrequency ablation dimensions are smaller. Ablation of normal marrow produces a rim of enhancement at the margin of the ablation zone on MR imaging.













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2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00




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2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00




Difficult Lumbar Puncture: Pitfalls and Tips from the Trenches [SPINE]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

SUMMARY:

Lumbar puncture has, for many years, been the responsibility of the internal medicine physician or the neurologist. As more patients have undergone spine surgery and with the current increase in body mass index of the general population, the radiologist has been consulted with increasing frequency to perform lumbar puncture with fluoroscopic guidance. Radiology, in fact, is now the dominant overall provider of lumbar puncture procedures. The procedure is more difficult when the needle length increases, and if fluoroscopy is used, landmarks are more difficult to visualize with increasing subcutaneous fat. Our goal with this review was to describe our techniques for lumbar puncture in the difficult patient, with emphasis on using fluoroscopy in the obese patient and to suggest maneuvers that might make the procedure easier. Combining our experience from performing these procedures on an obese population, we would like to share our tips, especially with trainees early in their career.




Baseline Survey of the Neuroradiology Work Environment in the United States with Reported Trends in Clinical Work, Nonclinical Work, Perceptions of Trainees, and Burnout Metrics [research-article]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroradiologists have faced continuously increasing clinical workloads. Our aim was to establish and report a baseline survey of the current neuroradiology work environment in the United States and of experiential changes in recent years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary survey was sent to practicing and out-of-training members of the American Society of Neuroradiology in the United States. Selected measures included workday volume and length, burnout symptoms, participation in academic and practice-building duties; effects on perceived interpretation quality, communication of abnormal results, and consideration of early retirement or career changes, among others. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-two respondents across a broad range of experience reported the following: 52.8% (224/424) with teaching responsibilities; 93% (399/430) with workdays extending at least 1 hour past expected, in 45% (193/430) frequently or always; 71.9% (309/430) reading more cases per hour compared to previous years; 79.5% (341/429) sometimes-to-always interpreting cases faster than comfortable for optimal interpretation; and 67.8% (292/431) sometimes or more often with inadequate time to discuss abnormal results. Burnout symptoms ranged between 49% and 75% (211/428 to 322/428) across 4 indices. For academic activities of teaching, mentoring, and research/publications, a mean of 94.3% reported cut-backs during the past few years. For practice-building activities, 92% reported cut-backs, 51.6% (222/429) considered early retirement, and 38.8% (167/429) considered changing careers. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing clinical demands have coincided with destructive effects in the work environment and the ability and desire of neuroradiologists in the United States to perform academic or practice-building duties with a substantial incidence of burnout symptoms. While this survey does not prove causation, the trends an[...]






What Does the Boxed Warning Tell Us? Safe Practice of Using Ferumoxytol as an MRI Contrast Agent [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the label change and the FDA's boxed warning added to the Feraheme (ferumoxytol) label in March 2015, radiologists have shown increasing interest in using ferumoxytol as an MR imaging contrast agent as a supplement or alternative to gadolinium. The goals of this study were to provide information regarding ferumoxytol safety as an imaging agent in a single center and to assess how the Feraheme label change may affect this potential, currently off-label indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the overall frequency of ferumoxytol-related adverse events when used for CNS MR imaging. Patients with various CNS pathologies were enrolled in institutional review board–approved imaging studies. Ferumoxytol was administered as multiple rapid bolus injections. The risk of adverse events was correlated with demographic data/medical history. RESULTS: The safety of 671 ferumoxytol-enhanced MR studies in 331 patients was analyzed. No anaphylactic, life-threatening, or fatal (grade 4 or 5) adverse events were recorded. The overall proportion of ferumoxytol-related grade 1–3 adverse events was 10.6% (8.6% occurring within 48 hours), including hypertension (2.38%), nausea (1.64%), diarrhea (1.04%), and headache (1.04%). History of 1 or 2 allergies was associated with an increased risk of adverse events (14.61% versus 7.51% [no history]; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of mild ferumoxytol-related adverse events was comparable with literature results, and no serious adverse event was recorded. Although the recommendations in the boxed warning should be followed, serious adverse events appear to be rare, and with proper precautions, ferumoxytol may be a valuable MR imaging agent. [...]



Prevalence of Traumatic Findings on Routine MRI in a Large Cohort of Professional Fighters [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies investigating MR imaging abnormalities among fighters have had small sample sizes. This investigation assessed a large number of fighters using the same conventional sequences on the same scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional 3T MR imaging was used to assess 499 fighters (boxers, mixed martial artists, and martial artists) and 62 controls for nonspecific WM changes, cerebral microhemorrhage, cavum septum pellucidum, and cavum vergae. The lengths of the cavum septum pellucidum and cavum vergae and the ratio of cavum septum pellucidum to the septum pellucidum lengths were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of nonspecific WM changes was similar between groups. Fighters had a prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhage (4.2% versus 0% for controls, P = .152). Fighters had a higher prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum versus controls (53.1% versus 17.7%, P < .001) and cavum vergae versus controls (14.4% versus 0%, P < .001). The lengths of the cavum septum pellucidum plus the cavum vergae (P < .001), cavum septum pellucidum (P = .025), and cavum septum pellucidum to the septum pellucidum length ratio (P = .009) were higher in fighters than in controls. The number of fights slightly correlated with cavum septum pellucidum plus cavum vergae length (R = 0.306, P < .001) and cavum septum pellucidum length (R = 0.278, P < .001). When fighters were subdivided into boxers, mixed martial artists, and martial artists, results were similar to those in the whole-group analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study assessed MR imaging findings in a large cohort demonstrating a significantly increased prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum among fighters. Although cerebral microhemorrhages were higher in fighters than in controls, this finding was not statistically significant, possibly partiall[...]



Retention of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in Multiple Sclerosis: Retrospective Analysis of an 18-Year Longitudinal Study [PATIENT SAFETY]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with lasting high T1-weighted signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, with histopathologically confirmed gadolinium retention. We aimed to longitudinally investigate the relationship of multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations to the Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus and any associations with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was retrospectively evaluated on T1-weighted MR imaging in an 18-year longitudinal cohort study of 23 patients with MS receiving multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Participants also underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. RESULTS: Patients with MS had a higher Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus (P < .001), but not in the globus pallidus (P = .19), compared with non-gadolinium-based contrast agent–exposed healthy controls by an unpaired t test. Increasing numbers of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations were associated with an increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus (β = 0.45, P < .001) and globus pallidus (β = 0.60, P < .001). This association remained stable with corrections for the age, disease duration, and physical disability for both the dentate nucleus (β = 0.43, P = .001) and globus pallidus (β = 0.58, P < .001). An increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus among patients with MS was associated with lower verbal fluency scores, which remained significant after correction for several aspects of disease severity (β = –0.40 P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: O[...]



The Use of Noncontrast Quantitative MRI to Detect Gadolinium-Enhancing Multiple Sclerosis Brain Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND: Concerns have arisen about the long-term health effects of repeat gadolinium injections in patients with multiple sclerosis and the incomplete characterization of MS lesion pathophysiology that results from relying on enhancement characteristics alone. PURPOSE: Our aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis analyzing whether noncontrast MR imaging biomarkers can distinguish enhancing and nonenhancing brain MS lesions. DATA SOURCES: Our sources were Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and the Cochrane data base from inception to August 2016. STUDY SELECTION: We included 37 journal articles on 985 patients with MS who had MR imaging in which T1-weighted postcontrast sequences were compared with noncontrast sequences obtained during the same MR imaging examination by using ROI analysis of individual MS lesions. DATA ANALYSIS: We performed random-effects meta-analyses comparing the standard mean difference of each MR imaging metric taken from enhancing-versus-nonenhancing lesions. DATA SYNTHESIS: DTI-based fractional anisotropy values are significantly different between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions (P = .02), with enhancing lesions showing decreased fractional anisotropy compared with nonenhancing lesions. Of the other most frequently studied MR imaging biomarkers (mean diffusivity, magnetization transfer ratio, or ADC), none were significantly different (P values of 0.30, 0.47, and 0.19. respectively) between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions. Of the limited studies providing diagnostic accuracy measures, gradient-echo-based quantitative susceptibility mapping had the best performance in discriminating enhancing and nonenhancing MS lesions. LIMITATIONS: MR imaging techniques and patient characteristics were variable across studies. Most studies[...]



Neuroradiologists Compared with Non-Neuroradiologists in the Detection of New Multiple Sclerosis Plaques [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis monitoring is based on the detection of new lesions on brain MR imaging. Outside of study populations, MS imaging studies are reported by radiologists with varying expertise. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of MS reporting performed by neuroradiologists (someone who had spent at least 1 year in neuroradiology subspecialty training) versus non-neuroradiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ≥2 MS studies with 3T MR imaging that included a volumetric T2 FLAIR sequence performed between 2009 and 2011 inclusive were recruited into this study. The reports for these studies were analyzed for lesions detected, which were categorized as either progressed or stable. The results from a previous study using a semiautomated assistive software for lesion detection were used as the reference standard. RESULTS: There were 5 neuroradiologists and 5 non-neuroradiologists who reported all studies. In total, 159 comparison pairs (ie, 318 studies) met the selection criteria. Of these, 96 (60.4%) were reported by a neuroradiologist. Neuroradiologists had higher sensitivity (82% versus 42%), higher negative predictive value (89% versus 64%), and lower false-negative rate (18% versus 58%) compared with non-neuroradiologists. Both groups had a 100% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroradiologists detect more new lesions than non-neuroradiologists in reading MR imaging for follow-up of MS. Assistive software that aids in the identification of new lesions has a beneficial effect for both neuroradiologists and non-neuroradiologists, though the effect is more profound in the non-neuroradiologist group. [...]



Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging and Motor Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motor impairment is the most common deficit after stroke. Our aim was to evaluate whether diffusional kurtosis imaging can detect corticospinal tract microstructural changes in the acute phase for patients with first-ever ischemic stroke and motor impairment and to assess the correlations between diffusional kurtosis imaging–derived diffusion metrics for the corticospinal tract and motor impairment 3 months poststroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 17 patients with stroke who underwent brain MR imaging including diffusional kurtosis imaging within 4 days after the onset of symptoms. Neurologic evaluation included the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale in the acute phase and 3 months poststroke. For the corticospinal tract in the lesioned and contralateral hemispheres, we estimated with diffusional kurtosis imaging both pure diffusion metrics, such as the mean diffusivity and mean kurtosis, and model-dependent quantities, such as the axonal water fraction. We evaluated the correlations between corticospinal tract diffusion metrics and the Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale at 3 months. RESULTS: Among all the diffusion metrics, the largest percentage signal changes of the lesioned hemisphere corticospinal tract were observed with axial kurtosis, with an average 12% increase compared with the contralateral corticospinal tract. The strongest associations between the 3-month Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor scale score and diffusion metrics were found for the lesioned/contralateral hemisphere corticospinal tract mean kurtosis ( = –0.85) and axial kurtosis ( = –0.78) ratios. CONCLUSIONS: This study was designed to be one of hypothesis generation. Diffusion metrics [...]



APOE*E4 Is Associated with Gray Matter Loss in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Healthy Elderly Controls Subsequently Developing Subtle Cognitive Decline [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE*E4) is the strongest currently known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and is associated with brain gray matter loss, notably in areas involved in Alzheimer disease pathology. Our objective was to assess the effect of APOE*E4 on brain structures in healthy elderly controls who subsequently developed subtle cognitive decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 382 community-dwelling elderly controls. At baseline, participants underwent MR imaging at 3T, extensive neuropsychological testing, and genotyping. After neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, participants were classified into cognitively stable controls and cognitively deteriorating controls. Data analysis included whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and ROI analysis of GM. RESULTS: APOE*E4-related GM loss at baseline was found only in the cognitively deteriorating controls in the posterior cingulate cortex. There was no APOE*E4-related effect in the hippocampus, mesial temporal lobe, or brain areas not involved in Alzheimer disease pathology. Controls in the cognitively deteriorating group had slightly lower GM concentration in the hippocampus at baseline. Higher GM densities in the hippocampus, middle temporal lobe, and amygdala were associated with a decreased risk for cognitively deteriorating group status at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: APOE*E4-related GM loss in the posterior cingulate cortex (an area involved in Alzheimer disease pathology) was found only in those elderly controls who subsequently developed subtle cognitive decline but not in cognitively stable controls. This finding might explain the partially conflicting results of [...]



Pontomesencephalic Atrophy and Postural Instability in Wilson Disease [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The MR Parkinsonism index helps in differentiating progressive supranuclear palsy from Parkinson disease and multisystem atrophy. Pontomesencephalic involvement is common in neurologic Wilson disease, but there is no prior study evaluating the MR Parkinsonism index and its indices in Wilson disease. We report the MR Parkinsonism index and its indices in Wilson disease and correlate these changes with clinical severity and postural reflex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen individuals with neurologic Wilson disease were included, and their clinical details, including neurologic severity, postural reflex abnormality, and location of signal changes on MR imaging, were noted. The 3D BRAVO T1 sequence was used for measurement of the MR Parkinsonism index and its indices. The MR Parkinsonism index and its indices were also obtained in 6 age- and sex-matched controls. The morphometric parameters in Wilson disease were compared with those in with healthy controls and among the patients with and without abnormal postural reflex. RESULTS: The midbrain area was reduced in patients with Wilson disease compared with controls (112.08 ± 27.94 versus 171.95 ± 23.66 mm2, P = .002). The patients with an abnormal postural reflex had an increased MR Parkinsonism index and pons-to-midbrain ratio compared with controls, whereas these parameters were equivalent in patients with normal postural reflex and controls. The patients with abnormal postural reflex had more severe illness, evidenced by higher Burke-Fahn-Marsden scores (51.0 ± 32.27 versus 13.75 ± 12.37, P = .04) and neurologic severity grades (2.57 ± 0.53 versus 1.67 &pl[...]



Discrimination between Glioma Grades II and III Using Dynamic Susceptibility Perfusion MRI: A Meta-Analysis [ADULT BRAIN]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND: DSC perfusion has been evaluated in the discrimination between low-grade and high-grade glioma but the diagnostic potential to discriminate beween glioma grades II and III remains unclear. PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of relative maximal CBV from DSC perfusion MR imaging to discriminate glioma grades II and III. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies reported on patients evaluated with relative maximal CBV derived from DSC with a confirmed neuropathologic diagnosis of glioma World Health Organization grades II and III. Studies reporting on mean or individual patient data were considered for inclusion. DATA ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed by using inverse variance with the random-effects model and receiver operating characteristic curves describing optimal cutoffs and areas under the curve. Bivariate diagnostic random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate diagnostic accuracy. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-eight studies evaluating 727 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Individual data were available from 10 studies comprising 190 individuals. The mean difference of relative maximal CBV between glioma grades II and III (n = 727) was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.27–2.24; P < .001). Individual patient data (n = 190) had an area under the curve of 0.77 for discriminating glioma grades II and III at an optimal cutoff of 2.02. When we analyzed astrocytomas separately, the area under the curve increased to 0.86 but decreased to 0.61 when we analyzed oligodendrogliomas. LIMITAT[...]



Mechanical Thrombectomy with the Embolus Retriever with Interlinked Cages in Acute Ischemic Stroke: ERIC, the New Boy in the Class [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Embolus Retriever with Interlinked Cages (ERIC) device is a novel stent retriever for mechanical thrombectomy. It consists of interlinked cages and could improve procedural benchmarks and clinical outcome compared with classic stent retrievers. This study compares the rates of recanalization, favorable clinical outcome, procedural adverse events, and benchmarks between the ERIC device and classic stent retrievers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 545 patients treated with thrombectomy between 2012 and 2015, 316 patients were included. The mean age was 69 ±13 years, the mean baseline NIHSS score was 17 ± 5, and 174 (55%) were men. The ERIC was used as the primary thrombectomy device in 59 (19%) patients. In a propensity score matched analysis including the NIHSS score, clot location, delay to groin puncture, neurointerventionalist, and anesthetic management, 57 matched pairs were identified. RESULTS: Patients treated with the ERIC device compared with classic stent retrievers showed equal rates of recanalization (86% versus 81%, P = .61), equal favorable 3-month clinical outcome (mRS 0–2: 46% versus 40%, P = .71), and procedural adverse events (28% versus 30%, P = 1.00). However, in patients treated with the ERIC device, thrombectomy procedures were less time-consuming (67 versus 98 minutes, P = .009) and a rescue device was needed less often (18% versus 39%, P = .02) compared with classic stent retrievers. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical thrombectomy with the ERIC device is effective and safe. Rates of favorable procedural and clinical outcomes are at least as good as thos[...]



Impact of Anesthesia on the Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke after Endovascular Treatment with the Solitaire Stent Retriever [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: General anesthesia during endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke may have an adverse effect on outcome compared with conscious sedation. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the type of anesthesia on the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with the Solitaire stent retriever, accounting for confounding factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-hundred one patients with consecutive acute anterior circulation stroke treated with a Solitaire stent retriever were included in this prospective analysis. Outcome was assessed after 3 months by the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: One-hundred thirty-five patients (31%) underwent endovascular treatment with conscious sedation, and 266 patients (69%), with general anesthesia. Patients under general anesthesia had higher NIHSS scores on admission (17 versus 13, P < .001) and more internal carotid artery occlusions (44.6% versus 14.8%, P < .001) than patients under conscious sedation. Other baseline characteristics such as time from symptom onset to the start of endovascular treatment did not differ. Favorable outcome (mRS 0–2) was more frequent with conscious sedation (47.4% versus 32%; OR, 0.773; 95% CI, 0.646–0.925; P = .002) in univariable but not multivariable logistic regression analysis (P = .629). Mortality did not differ (P = .077). Independent predictors of outcome were age (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.933–0.969; P < .001), NIHSS score (OR, 0.894; 95% CI, 0.855–0.933; P < .001), time from symptom onset to the start of endovascular treatment (OR, 0.9[...]



Correlation of Thrombectomy Maneuver Count with Recanalization Success and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Ischemic Stroke [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In the treatment of acute thromboembolic stroke, the effectiveness and success of thrombus removal when using stent retrievers is variable. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of thrombectomy maneuver count with a good clinical outcome and recanalization success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or the terminal internal carotid artery who were treated with thrombectomy were included in this retrospective study. A good clinical outcome was defined as a 90-day mRS of ≤2, and successful recanalization was defined as TICI 2b–3. RESULTS: The maneuver count ranged between 1–10, with a median of 2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified an increasing number of thrombectomy maneuvers as an independent predictor of poor outcome (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38–0.87; P = .011) and unsuccessful recanalization (adjusted OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32–0.66; P < .001). A good outcome was significantly more likely if finished within 2 maneuvers compared with 3 or 4 maneuvers, or even more than 4 maneuvers (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: An increasing maneuver count correlates strongly with a decreasing probability of both good outcome and recanalization. The probability of successful recanalization decreases below 50% if not achieved within 5 thrombectomy maneuvers. Patients who are recanalized within 2 maneuvers have the best chance of achieving a good clinical outcome. [...]



Temporary Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization as a Treatment Option for Wide-Neck Aneurysms [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Simple coil embolization is often not a feasible treatment option in wide-neck aneurysms. Stent-assisted coil embolization helps stabilize the coils within the aneurysm. Permanent placement of a stent in an intracranial vessel, however, requires long-term platelet inhibition. Temporary stent-assisted coiling is an alternative technique for the treatment of wide-neck aneurysms. To date, only case reports and small case series have been published. Our purpose was to retrospectively analyze the effectiveness and safety of temporary stent-assisted coiling in a larger cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research was performed for all patients who had undergone endovascular aneurysm treatment in our institution (University Hospital Aachen) between January 2010 and December 2015. During this period, 355 consecutive patients had undergone endovascular aneurysm treatment. We intended to treat 33 (9.2%) of them with temporary stent-assisted coiling, and they were included in this study. Incidental and acutely ruptured aneurysms were included. RESULTS: Sufficient occlusion was achieved in 97.1% of the cases. In 94%, the stent could be fully recovered. Complications occurred in 5 patients (14.7%), whereas in only 1 case was the complication seen as specific to stent-assisted coiling. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary stent-assisted coiling is an effective technique for the treatment of wide-neck aneurysms. Safety is comparable with that of stent-assisted coiling and coiling with balloon remodeling. [...]



Liquid Embolic Agents for Endovascular Embolization: Evaluation of an Established (Onyx) and a Novel (PHIL) Embolic Agent in an In Vitro AVM Model [INTERVENTIONAL]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Embolization plays a key role in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations. The aim of this study was to evaluate an established (Onyx) and a novel (precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid [PHIL]) liquid embolic agent in an in vitro AVM model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An AVM model was integrated into a circuit system. The artificial nidus (subdivided into 28 honeycomb-like sections) was embolized with Onyx 18 (group Onyx; n = 8) or PHIL 25 (group PHIL; n = 8) with different pause times between the injections (30 and 60 seconds, n = 4 per study group) by using a 1.3F microcatheter. Procedure times, number of injections, embolization success (defined as the number of filled sections of the artificial nidus), volume of embolic agent, and frequency and extent of reflux and draining vein embolization were assessed. RESULTS: Embolization success was comparable between Onyx and PHIL. Shorter pause times resulted in a significantly higher embolization success for PHIL (median embolization score, 28 versus 18; P = .011). Compared with Onyx, lower volumes of PHIL were required for the same extent of embolization (median volume per section of the artificial nidus, 15.5 versus 3.6 μL; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: While the embolization success was comparable for Onyx and PHIL, pause time had a considerable effect on the embolization success in an in vitro AVM model. Compared with Onyx, lower volumes of PHIL were required for the same extent of embolization. [...]



Appropriate Minimal Dose of Gadobutrol for 3D Time-Resolved MRA of the Supra-Aortic Arteries: Comparison with Conventional Single-Phase High-Resolution 3D Contrast-Enhanced MRA [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and neural tissue deposition is gadolinium dose–dependent. The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriate minimal dose of gadobutrol with time-resolved MRA to assess supra-aortic arterial stenosis with contrast-enhanced MRA as a reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients underwent both standard-dose contrast-enhanced MRA and low-dose time-resolved MRA and were classified into 3 groups; group A (a constant dose of 1 mL for time-resolved MRA), group B (2 mL), or group C (3 mL). All studies were independently evaluated by 2 radiologists for image quality by using a 5-point scale (from 0 = failure to 4 = excellent), grading of arterial stenosis (0 = normal, 1 = mild [<30%], 2 = moderate [30%–69%], 3 = severe to occlusion [≥70%]), and signal-to-noise ratio. RESULTS: The image quality of time-resolved MRA was similar to that of contrast-enhanced MRA in groups B and C, but it was inferior to contrast-enhanced MRA in group A. For the grading of arterial stenosis, there was an excellent correlation between contrast-enhanced MRA and time-resolved MRA (R = 0.957 for group A, R = 0.988 for group B, R = 0.991 for group C). The SNR of time-resolved MRA tended to be lower than that of contrast-enhanced MRA in groups A and B. However, SNR was higher for time-resolved MRA compared with contrast-enhanced MRA in group C. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose time[...]



TIPIC Syndrome: Beyond the Myth of Carotidynia, a New Distinct Unclassified Entity [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The differential diagnosis of acute cervical pain includes nonvascular and vascular causes such as carotid dissection, carotid occlusion, or vasculitis. However, some patients present with unclassified vascular and perivascular changes on imaging previously reported as carotidynia. The aim of our study was to improve the description of this as yet unclassified clinico-radiologic entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2009 through April 2016, 47 patients from 10 centers presenting with acute neck pain or tenderness and at least 1 cervical image showing unclassified carotid abnormalities were included. We conducted a systematic, retrospective study of their medical charts and diagnostic and follow-up imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently analyzed the blinded image datasets. RESULTS: The median patient age was 48 years. All patients presented with acute neck pain, and 8 presented with transient neurologic symptoms. Imaging showed an eccentric pericarotidian infiltration in all patients. An intimal soft plaque was noted in 16 patients, and a mild luminal narrowing was noted in 16 patients. Interreader reproducibility was excellent. All patients had complete pain resolution within a median of 13 days. At 3-month follow-up, imaging showed complete disappearance of vascular abnormalities in 8 patients, and a marked decrease in all others. CONCLUSIONS: Our study improved the description of an unclassified, clinico-radi[...]



Carotid Bulb Webs as a Cause of "Cryptogenic" Ischemic Stroke [EXTRACRANIAL VASCULAR]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid webs are intraluminal shelf-like filling defects at the carotid bulb with recently recognized implications in patients with recurrent ischemic stroke. We sought to determine whether carotid webs are an under-recognized cause of "cryptogenic" ischemic stroke and to estimate their prevalence in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of neck CTA studies in young patients with cryptogenic stroke over the past 6 years (n = 33) was performed to determine the prevalence of carotid webs compared with a control group of patients who received neck CTA studies for reasons other than ischemic stroke (n = 63). RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid webs in the cryptogenic stroke population was 21.2% (95% CI, 8.9%–38.9%). Patients with symptomatic carotid webs had a mean age of 38.9 years (range, 30–48 years) and were mostly African American (86%) and women (86%). In contrast, only 1.6% (95% CI, 0%–8.5%) of patients in the control group demonstrated a web. Our findings demonstrate a statistically significant association between carotid webs and ischemic stroke (OR = 16.7; 95% CI, 2.78–320.3; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Carotid webs exhibit a strong association with ischemic stroke, and their presence should be suspected in patients lacking other risk factors, particularly African American women. [...]



Solid Lymph Nodes as an Imaging Biomarker for Risk Stratification in Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma [HEAD & NECK]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus–related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with cystic lymph nodes on CT and has a favorable prognosis. A subset of patients with aggressive disease experience treatment failure. Our aim was to determine whether the extent of cystic lymph node burden on staging CT can serve as an imaging biomarker to predict treatment failure in human papillomavirus–related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with human papilloma virus–related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and staging neck CTs. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. We retrospectively classified the metastatic lymph node burden on CT as cystic or solid and assessed radiologic extracapsular spread. Biopsy, subsequent imaging, or clinical follow-up was the reference standard for treatment failure. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of clinical, demographic, and anatomic variables for treatment failure were performed. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-three patients were included with a mean follow-up of 38 months. In univariate analysis, the following variables had a statistically significant association with treatment failure: solid-versus-cystic lymph nodes, clinical T-stage, clinical N-stage, and radiologic evidence of extracapsular spread. The m[...]



The Central Bright Spot Sign: A Potential New MR Imaging Sign for the Early Diagnosis of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy due to Giant Cell Arteritis [HEAD & NECK]

2017-07-12T08:03:30-07:00

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A rapid identification of the etiology of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is crucial because it determines therapeutic management. Our aim was to assess MR imaging to study the optic nerve head in patients referred with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, due to either giant cell arteritis or the nonarteritic form of the disease, compared with healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with giant cell arteritis–related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from 2 medical centers were prospectively included in our study between August 2015 and May 2016. Fifteen healthy subjects and patients had undergone contrast-enhanced, flow-compensated, 3D T1-weighted MR imaging. The bright spot sign was defined as optic nerve head enhancement with a 3-grade ranking system. Two radiologists and 1 ophthalmologist independently performed blinded evaluations of MR imaging sequences with this scale. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement. RESULTS: MR imaging scores were significantly higher in patients with giant cell arteritis–related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy than in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (P ≤ .05). All patients with giant cell arteritis–related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (15/15) and 7[...]