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Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

Wiley Online Library : Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations

Published: 2017-09-01T00:00:00-05:00


The Hunter-Saxton Equation: A Numerical Approach Using Collocation Method


In this study, we are going to present an overview on the Hunter-Saxton equation which is a famous equation modelling waves in a massive director field of a nematic liquid crystal. The collocation finite element method is based on quintic B-spline basis for obtaining numerical solutions of the equation. Using this method, after discretization, solution of the equation expressed as linear combination of shape functions and B-spline basis. So, Hunter-Saxton equation converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equation system. With the aid of the error norms L 2 and L ∞ , some comparisons are presented between numeric and exact solutions for different step sizes. As a result, the authors observed that the method is a powerful, suitable and reliable numerical method for solving various kind of partial differential equations.

Local error estimates of the finite element method for an elliptic problem with a Dirac source term


The solutions of elliptic problems with a Dirac measure right-hand side are not H 1 in dimension d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and therefore the convergence of the finite element solutions is suboptimal in the L 2-norm. In this article, we address the numerical analysis of the finite element method for the Laplace equation with Dirac source term: we consider, in dimension 3, the Dirac measure along a curve and, in dimension 2, the punctual Dirac measure. The study of this problem is motivated by the use of the Dirac measure as a reduced model in physical problems, for which high accuracy of the finite element method at the singularity is not required. We show a quasioptimal convergence in the H s-norm, for s ≥ 1 on subdomains which exclude the singularity; in the particular case of Lagrange finite elements, an optimal convergence in H 1-norm is shown on a family of quasiuniform meshes. Our results are obtained using local Nitsche and Schatz-type error estimates, a weak version of Aubin-Nitsche duality lemma and a discrete inf-sup condition. These theoretical results are confirmed by numerical illustrations.

A posteriori error analysis for solving the Navier-Stokes problem and convection-diffusion equation


In this article, we consider the finite element discretization of the Navier-Stokes problem coupled with convection-diffusion equations where both the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients depend on the temperature. Existence and uniqueness of a solution are established. We prove a posteriori error estimates.

Superconvergent estimates of conforming finite element method for nonlinear time-dependent Joule heating equations


In this article, we study the superconvergence analysis of conforming bilinear finite element method (FEM) for nonlinear Joule heating equations. Based on the rigorous estimates together with high accuracy analysis of this element, mean value technique and interpolation postprocessing approach, the superclose and superconvergent estimates about the related variables in H1-norm are derived for semidiscrete and a linearized backward Euler fully discrete schemes, which extends the results of optimal estimates obtained for conforming FEMs in the previous literature. At last, a numerical experiment is performed to verify the theoretical analysis.

Long-time stability and asymptotic analysis of the IFE method for the multilayer porous wall model


In this article, we study the long-time stability and asymptotic behavior of the immersed finite element (IFE) method for the multilayer porous wall model for the drug-eluting stents. First, with the IFE method for the spatial descretization, and the implicit Euler scheme for the temporal discretization, respectively, we deduce the global stability of fully discrete solution. Then, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the discrete scheme which reveals that the multilayer porous wall model converges to the corresponding elliptic equation if f ( x , t ) approaches to a steady-state f ¯ ( x ) in both L 1 ( 0 , t ; L 2 ( Ω ) ) and L ∞ ( 0 , t ; L 2 ( Ω ) ) norms as t + ∞ . Finally, some numerical experiments are given to verify the theoretical predictions.

A scattering-based algorithm for wave propagation in one dimension


We present an explicit numerical scheme to solve the variable coefficient wave equation in one space dimension with minimal restrictions on the coefficient and initial data.

Supercloseness analysis and polynomial preserving Recovery for a class of weak Galerkin Methods


In this article, we analyze convergence and supercloseness properties of a class of weak Galerkin (WG) finite element methods for solving second-order elliptic problems. It is shown that the WG solution is superclose to the Lagrange interpolant using Lobatto points. This supercloseness behavior is obtained through some newly designed stabilization terms. A postprocessing technique using polynomial preserving recovery (PPR) is introduced for the WG approximation. Superconvergence analysis is performed for the PPR recovered gradient. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate our theoretical results.

Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of chaotic noninteger order differential systems with Riemann-Liouville derivative


This article deals with the design, analysis, and implementation of a robust numerical scheme when applied to time-fractional reaction-diffusion system. Stability analysis and numerical treatment of chaotic fractional differential system in Riemann-Liouville sense are considered in this article. Simulation results show that chaotic phenomena can only occur if the reaction or local dynamics of such system is coupled or nonlinear in nature. Illustrative examples that are still of current and recurring interest to economists, engineers, mathematicians and physicists are chosen, to describe the points and queries that may arise. Numerical results presented agree with the theoretical findings.

Numerical simulation and solutions of the two-component second order KdV evolutionarysystem


In this study, with the aid of Wolfram Mathematica 11, the modified exp ( − Ω ( η ) ) -expansion function method is used in constructing some new analytical solutions with novel structure such as the trigonometric and hyperbolic function solutions to the well-known nonlinear evolutionary equation, namely; the two-component second order KdV evolutionary system. Second, the finite forward difference method is used in analyzing the numerical behavior of this equation. We consider equation (6.5) and (6.6) for the numerical analysis. We examine the stability of the two-component second order KdV evolutionary system with the finite forward difference method by using the Fourier-Von Neumann analysis. We check the accuracy of the finite forward difference method with the help of L 2 and L ∞ norm error. We present the comparison between the exact and numerical solutions of the two-component second order KdV evolutionary system obtained in this article which and support with graphics plot. We observed that the modified exp ( − Ω ( η ) ) -expansion function method is a powerful approach for finding abundant solutions to various nonlinear models and also finite forward difference method is efficient for examining numerical behavior of different nonlinear models.

A stabilized finite element method for a fictitious domain problem allowing small inclusions


The purpose of this work is to approximate numerically an elliptic partial differential equation posed on domains with small perforations (or inclusions). The approach is based on the fictitious domain method, and as the method's interest lies in the case in which the geometrical features are not resolved by the mesh, we propose a stabilized finite element method. The stabilization term is a simple, non-consistent penalization that can be linked to the Barbosa-Hughes approach. Stability and convergence are proved, and numerical results confirm the theory.

A block-centered finite difference method for fractional Cattaneo equation


In this article, a block-centered finite difference method for fractional Cattaneo equation is introduced and analyzed. The unconditional stability and the global convergence of the scheme are proved rigorously. Some a priori estimates of discrete L 2 norm with optimal order of convergence O ( Δ t 3 − α + h 2 + k 2 ) both for pressure and velocity are established on nonuniform rectangular grids. Moreover, the applicability and accuracy of the scheme are demonstrated by numerical experiments to support our theoretical analysis.

Numerical analysis for generalized Forchheimer flows of slightly compressible fluids


In this article, we will consider the generalized Forchheimer flows for slightly compressible fluids. Using Muskat's and Ward's general form of Forchheimer equations, we describe the fluid dynamics by a nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation for density. The long-time numerical approximation of the nonlinear degenerate parabolic equation with time dependent boundary conditions is studied. The stability for all time is established in a continuous time scheme and a discrete backward Euler scheme. A Gronwall's inequality-type is used to study the asymptotic behavior of the solution. Error estimates for the solution are derived for both continuous and discrete time procedures. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical analysis regarding convergence rates.

Multiscale discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin method for the multiscale elliptic problems


In this article, we present a new multiscale discontinuous Petrov–Galerkin method (MsDPGM) for multiscale elliptic problems. This method utilizes the classical oversampling multiscale basis in the framework of a Petrov–Galerkin version of the discontinuous Galerkin method, allowing us to better cope with multiscale features in the solution. MsDPGM takes advantage of the multiscale Petrov–Galerkin method (MsPGM) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM). It can eliminate the resonance error completely and decrease the computational costs of assembling the stiffness matrix, thus, allowing for more efficient solution algorithms. On the basis of a new H2 norm error estimate between the multiscale solution and the homogenized solution with the first-order corrector, we give a detailed convergence analysis of the MsDPGM under the assumption of periodic oscillating coefficients. We also investigate a multiscale discontinuous Galerkin method (MsDGM) whose bilinear form is the same as that of the DGM but the approximation space is constructed from the classical oversampling multiscale basis functions. This method has not been analyzed theoretically or numerically in the literature yet. Numerical experiments are carried out on the multiscale elliptic problems with periodic and randomly generated log-normal coefficients. Their results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Numerical approximation of Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative: From Riemann-Liouville to Atangana-Baleanu


In the last decade, theoretical and applied studies were done in order to provide a suitable definition of fractional derivative, which meets all the requirement of a derivative in its primary sense. It was concluded by some eminent researchers that the Riemann-Liouville version was the most suitable. However, many numerical approximation of fractional derivative were done with Caputo version. This paper addresses the numerical approximation of fractional differentiation based on the Riemann-Liouville definition, from power-law kernel to generalized Mittag-Leffler-law via exponential-decay-law.

Unconditional superconvergence analysis of an H1-galerkin mixed finite element method for nonlinear Sobolev equations


An efficient H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method (MFEM) is presented with E Q 1 rot and zero order Raviart-Thomas elements for the nonlinear Sobolev equations. On one hand, the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the semidiscrete approximation scheme are proved and the super close results of order O ( h 2 ) for the original variable u in a broken H1 norm and the auxiliary variable q = a ( u ) ∇ u t + b ( u ) ∇ u in H ( div ; Ω ) norm are deduced without the boundedness of the numerical solution in L ∞ -norm. Conversely, a linearized Crank-Nicolson fully discrete scheme with the unconditional super close property O ( h 2 + τ 2 ) is also developed through a new approach, while previous literature always require certain time step conditions (see the references below). Finally, a numerical experiment is included to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Here h is the subdivision parameter and τ is the time step.

A robust finite difference scheme for strongly coupled systems of singularly perturbed convection-diffusion equations


This paper is devoted to developing an Il'in-Allen-Southwell (IAS) parameter-uniform difference scheme on uniform meshes for solving strongly coupled systems of singularly perturbed convection-diffusion equations whose solutions may display boundary and/or interior layers, where strong coupling means that the solution components in the system are coupled together mainly through their first derivatives. By decomposing the coefficient matrix of convection term into the Jordan canonical form, we first construct an IAS scheme for 1D systems and then extend the scheme to 2D systems by employing an alternating direction technique. The robustness of the developed IAS scheme is illustrated through a series of numerical examples, including the magnetohydrodynamic duct flow problem with a high Hartmann number. Numerical evidence indicates that the IAS scheme appears to be formally second-order accurate in the sense that it is second-order convergent when the perturbation parameter ϵ is not too small and when ϵ is sufficiently small, the scheme is first-order convergent in the discrete maximum norm uniformly in ϵ.

A discontinuous interpolated finite volume approximation of semilinear elliptic optimal control problems


In this article, we describe a discontinuous finite volume method with interpolated coefficients for the numerical approximation of the distributed optimal control problem governed by a class of semilinear elliptic equations with control constraints. The proposed distributed control problem involves three unknown variable: control, state and costate. For the approximation of control, we have adopted three different methodologies: variational discretization, piecewise constant and piecewise linear discretization, while the approximation of state and costate variables is based on discontinuous piecewise linear polynomials. As the resulted scheme is non-symmetric, optimize-then-discretize approach is used to approximate the control problem. Optimal a priori error estimates in suitable natural norms for state, costate and control variables are derived. Moreover, numerical experiments are presented to support the derived theoretical results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Dissipativity of the linearly implicit Euler scheme for Navier-Stokes equations with delay


In this article, we study the dissipativity of the linearly implicit Euler scheme for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with time delay volume forces (NSD). This scheme can be viewed as an application of the implicit Euler scheme to linearized NSD. Therefore, only a linear system is needed to solve at each time step. The main results we obtain are that this scheme is L2 dissipative for any time step size and H1 dissipative under a time-step constraint. As a consequence, the existence of a numerical attractor of the discrete dynamical system is established. A by-product of the dissipativity analysis of the linearly implicit Euler scheme for NSD is that the dissipativity of an implicit-explicit scheme for the celebrated Navier-Stokes equations that treats the volume forces term explicitly is obtained.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Nonelement boundary representation with Bézier surface patches for 3D linear elasticity problems in parametric integral equation system (PIES) and its solving using Lagrange polynomials


In this article, we present a strategy of using rectangular and triangular Bézier surface patches for nonelement representation of 3D boundary geometries for problems of linear elasticity. The boundary generated in this way is directly incorporated in the parametric integral equation system (PIES), which has been developed by the authors. The boundary values on each surface patch are approximated by Lagrange polynomials. Three illustrative examples are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed boundary representation in connection with PIES and to show good accuracy of numerical results.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A fast discontinuous finite element discretization for the space-time fractional diffusion-wave equation


In this article, we study fast discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to solve a space-time fractional diffusion-wave equation. We introduce a piecewise-constant discontinuous finite element method for solving this problem and derive optimal error estimates. Importantly, a fast solution technique to accelerate Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplications which arise from discontinuous Galerkin finite element discretization is developed. This fast solution technique is based on fast Fourier transform and it depends on the special structure of coefficient matrices. In each temporal step, it helps to reduce the computational work from O ( N 3 ) required by the traditional methods to O ( N log 2 N ) , where N is the size of the coefficient matrices (number of spatial grid points). Moreover, the applicability and accuracy of the method are verified by numerical experiments including both continuous and discontinuous examples to support our theoretical analysis.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Approximation of the unsteady Brinkman-Forchheimer equations by the pressure stabilization method


In this work, we propose and analyze the pressure stabilization method for the unsteady incompressible Brinkman-Forchheimer equations. We present a time discretization scheme which can be used with any consistent finite element space approximation. Second-order error estimate is proven. Some numerical results are also given.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A parallel finite volume scheme preserving positivity for diffusion equation on distorted meshes


Parallel domain decomposition methods are natural and efficient for solving the implicity schemes of diffusion equations on massive parallel computer systems. A finite volume scheme preserving positivity is essential for getting accurate numerical solutions of diffusion equations and ensuring the numerical solutions with physical meaning. We call their combination as a parallel finite volume scheme preserving positivity, and construct such a scheme for diffusion equation on distorted meshes. The basic procedure of constructing the parallel finite volume scheme is based on the domain decomposition method with the prediction-correction technique at the interface of subdomains: First, we predict the values on each inner interface of subdomains partitioned by the domain decomposition. Second, we compute the values in each subdomain using a finite volume scheme preserving positivity. Third, we correct the values on each inner interface using the finite volume scheme preserving positivity. The resulting scheme has intrinsic parallelism, and needs only local communication among neighboring processors. Numerical results are presented to show the performance of our schemes, such as accuracy, stability, positivity, and parallel speedup.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Existence of solution of a finite volume scheme preserving maximum principle for diffusion equations


In this article, a cell-centered finite volume scheme preserving maximum principle for diffusion equations with scalar coefficients is developed. The construction of the scheme consists of three steps: at first the discrete normal flux is obtained by a linear combination of two single-sided fluxes, then the tangential term of the normal flux is modified by using a nonlinear combination of two single-sided tangential fluxes, finally the auxiliary unknowns in the tangential fluxes are calculated by the convex combinations of the cell-centered unknowns. It is proved that this nonlinear scheme satisfies the discrete maximum principle (DMP). Moreover, the existence of a solution of the nonlinear scheme is proved by using the Brouwer's fixed point theorem and the bounded estimates. Numerical experiments are presented to show that the scheme not only satisfies DMP, but also obtains the second-order accuracy and conservation.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

High-order compact schemes for fractional differential equations with mixed derivatives


In this article, we consider two-dimensional fractional subdiffusion equations with mixed derivatives. A high-order compact scheme is proposed to solve the problem. We establish a sufficient condition and show that the scheme converges with fourth order in space and second order in time under this condition.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A differential quadrature based numerical method for highly accurate solutions of Burgers' equation


In this article, we introduce a new, simple, and accurate computational technique for one-dimensional Burgers' equation. The idea behind this method is the use of polynomial based differential quadrature (PDQ) for the discretization of both time and space derivatives. The quasilinearization process is used for the elimination of nonlinearity. The resultant scheme has simulated for five classic examples of Burgers' equation. The simulation outcomes are validated through comparison with exact and secondary data in the literature for small and large values of kinematic viscosity. The article has deduced that the proposed scheme gives very accurate results even with less number of grid points. The scheme is found to be very simple to implement. Hence, it applies to any domain requires quick implementation and computation.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A partitioned second-order method for magnetohydrodynamic flows at small magnetic reynolds numbers


This article aims to study the partitioned method for magnetohydrodynamic flows at small magnetic Reynolds numbers. We design a partitioned second-order method and show that this method is stable under a time step ( Δ t ) restrict condition. Our method can decouple the magnetohydrodynamic equations so that we can solve two relatively simple subproblems separately at each time step, which is computationally economic. A complete theoretical analysis of error estimates is also given. Finally, we present numerical experiments to support our theory.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Adaptive pseudo-transient-continuation-Galerkin methods for semilinear elliptic partial differential equations


In this article, we investigate the application of pseudo-transient-continuation (PTC) schemes for the numerical solution of semilinear elliptic partial differential equations, with possible singular perturbations. We will outline a residual reduction analysis within the framework of general Hilbert spaces, and, subsequently, use the PTC-methodology in the context of finite element discretizations of semilinear boundary value problems. Our approach combines both a prediction-type PTC-method (for infinite dimensional problems) and an adaptive finite element discretization (based on a robust a posteriori residual analysis), thereby leading to a fully adaptive PTC -Galerkin scheme. Numerical experiments underline the robustness and reliability of the proposed approach for different examples.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

An adaptive wavelet space-time SUPG method for hyperbolic conservation laws


This article concerns with incorporating wavelet bases into existing streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws which are known to develop shock solutions. Here, we utilize an SUPG formulation using continuous Galerkin in space and discontinuous Galerkin in time. The main motivation for such a combination is that these methods have good stability properties thanks to adding diffusion in the direction of streamlines. But they are more expensive than explicit semidiscrete methods as they have to use space-time formulations. Using wavelet bases we maintain the stability properties of SUPG methods while we reduce the cost of these methods significantly through natural adaptivity of wavelet expansions. In addition, wavelet bases have a hierarchical structure. We use this property to numerically investigate the hierarchical addition of an artificial diffusion for further stabilization in spirit of spectral diffusion. Furthermore, we add the hierarchical diffusion only in the vicinity of discontinuities using the feature of wavelet bases in detection of location of discontinuities. Also, we again use the last feature of the wavelet bases to perform a postprocessing using a denosing technique based on a minimization formulation to reduce Gibbs oscillations near discontinuities while keeping other regions intact. Finally, we show the performance of the proposed combination through some numerical examples including Burgers’, transport, and wave equations as well as systems of shallow water equations.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Error bounds of singular boundary method for potential problems


The singular boundary method (SBM) is a recent strong-form boundary collocation method free of integration, mesh, and fictitious boundary. Although an extensive study has been reported in the literature on improving its accuracy and stability as well as its applications to diverse problems, little, however, has been done to analyze its convergence mathematically. The main purpose of this paper is to derive the explicit error bounds of the SBM for potential problems as well as to explain the essential difference between the origin intensity factor (OIF) in the SBM and the singular integration in the boundary element method (BEM). In the process of derivation, we also illustrate the physical meaning of OIF and explain the reason why the OIF has the function to correct the discretization error on the boundary. Finally, several benchmark examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the conclusions obtained from this article, as well as to investigate the different convergence behaviors between the SBM and BEM. It can be found that the SBM has the explicit error bound and is mathematically a stable technique.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Error analysis of mixed finite element method for Poisson-Nernst-Planck system


To improve the convergence rate in L2 norm from suboptimal to optimal for both electrostatic potential and ionic concentrations in Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system, we propose the mixed finite element method in this article to discretize the electrostatic potential equation, and still use the standard finite element method to discretize the time-dependent ionic concentrations equations. Optimal error estimates in L∞ ([0,T];L2 ) norm for the electrostatic potential, and in L∞ ([0,T];L2 ) and L∞ ([0,T];H1 ) norms for the ionic concentrations are attained. As a by-product, the electric field can also achieve a higher approximation order in contrast with the standard finite element method for PNP system. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Stability analysis for fractional-order partial differential equations by means of space spectral time Adams-Bashforth Moulton method


In this article, a new numerical scheme space Spectral time Fractional Adam Bashforth Moulton method for the solution of fractional partial differential equations is offered. The proposed method is obtained by modifying, in a suitable way; the spectral technique and the method of lines. The attention is focused on the stability properties and hence an elegant stability analysis for the current approach is also provided. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the reported method. Obtained results confirm the convergence and spectral accuracy of the proposed method in both space and time. In addition, a comparison with the existing studies is also made as a limiting case of the considered problem at the end and found in good agreement.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Approximate solutions of partial differential equations by some Meshfree Greedy Algorithms


In this article, we use some greedy algorithms to avoid the ill-conditioning of the final linear system in unsymmetric Kansa collocation method. The greedy schemes have the same background, but we use them in different settings. In the first algorithm, the optimal trial points for interpolation obtained among a huge set of initial points are used for numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). In the second algorithm, based on the Kansa's method, the PDE is discretized to a finite number of test functional equations, and a greedy sparse discretization is applied for approximating the linear functionals. Each functional is stably approximated by some few trial points with an acceptable accuracy. The third greedy algorithm is used to generate the test points. This paper shows that the greedily selection of nodes yields a better conditioning in contrast with usual full meshless methods. Some well-known PDE examples are solved and compared with the full unsymmetric Kansa's technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

An inverse backward problem for degenerate parabolic equations


This work studies the inverse problem of reconstructing an initial value function in the degenerate parabolic equation using the final measurement data. Problems of this type have important applications in the field of financial engineering. Being different from other inverse backward parabolic problems, the mathematical model in our article may be allowed to degenerate at some part of boundaries, which may lead to the corresponding boundary conditions missing. The conditional stability of the solution is obtained using the logarithmic convexity method. A finite difference scheme is constructed to solve the direct problem and the corresponding stability and convergence are proved. The Landweber iteration algorithm is applied to the inverse problem and some typical numerical experiments are also performed in the paper. The numerical results show that the proposed method is stable and the unknown initial value is recovered very well.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Numerical approximation using evolution PDE variational splines


This article deals with a numerical approximation method using an evolutionary partial differential equation (PDE) by discrete variational splines in a finite element space. To formulate the problem, we need an evolutionary PDE equation with respect to the time and the position, certain boundary conditions and a set of approximating points. We show the existence and uniqueness of the solution and we study a computational method to compute such a solution. Moreover, we established a convergence result with respect to the time and the position. We provided several numerical and graphic examples of approximation in order to show the validity and effectiveness of the presented method.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A postprocessed flux conserving finite element solution


We propose a local postprocessing method to get a new finite element solution whose flux is conservative element-wise. First, we use the so-called polynomial preserving recovery (postprocessing) technique to obtain a higher order flux which is continuous across the element boundary. Then, we use special bubble functions, which have a nonzero flux only on one face-edge or face-triangle of each element, to correct the finite element solution element by element, guided by the above super-convergent flux and the element mass. The new finite element solution preserves mass element-wise and retains the quasioptimality in approximation. The method produces a conservative flux, of high-order accuracy, satisfying the constitutive law. Numerical tests in 2D and 3D are presented.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

Stable numerical solution of the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation in irregular annular regions


This article is mainly concerned with the numerical study of the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation in a bounded annular region. To solve this ill-posed problem, we follow a variational approach based on its reformulation as a boundary control problem, for which the cost function incorporates a penalized term with the input data. The cost function is minimized by a conjugate gradient method in combination with a finite element discretization. In the case where the input data is noisy, some preliminary error estimates, show that the penalization parameter may be chosen like the inverse of the level of noise. Numerical solutions in simple and complex domains show that this methodology produces stable and accurate solutions.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A modified method of approximate particular solutions for solving linear and nonlinear PDEs


The method of approximate particular solutions (MAPS) was first proposed by Chen et al. in Chen, Fan, and Wen, Numer Methods Partial Differential Equations, 28 (2012), 506–522. using multiquadric (MQ) and inverse multiquadric radial basis functions (RBFs). Since then, the closed form particular solutions for many commonly used RBFs and differential operators have been derived. As a result, MAPS was extended to Matérn and Gaussian RBFs. Polyharmonic splines (PS) has rarely been used in MAPS due to its conditional positive definiteness and low accuracy. One advantage of PS is that there is no shape parameter to be taken care of. In this article, MAPS is modified so PS can be used more effectively. In the original MAPS, integrated RBFs, so called particular solutions, are used. An additional integrated polynomial basis is added when PS is used. In the modified MAPS, an additional polynomial basis is directly added to the integrated RBFs without integration. The results from the modified MAPS with PS can be improved by increasing the order of PS to a certain degree or by increasing the number of collocation points. A polynomial of degree 15 or less appeared to be working well in most of our examples. Other RBFs such as MQ can be utilized in the modified MAPS as well. The performance of the proposed method is tested on a number of examples including linear and nonlinear problems in 2D and 3D. We demonstrate that the modified MAPS with PS is, in general, more accurate than other RBFs for solving general elliptic equations.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

A fast numerical method for solving coupled Burgers' equations


A new fast numerical scheme is proposed for solving time-dependent coupled Burgers' equations. The idea of operator splitting is used to decompose the original problem into nonlinear pure convection subproblems and diffusion subproblems at each time step. Using Taylor's expansion, the nonlinearity in convection subproblems is explicitly treated by resolving a linear convection system with artificial inflow boundary conditions that can be independently solved. A multistep technique is proposed to rescue the possible instability caused by the explicit treatment of the convection system. Meanwhile, the diffusion subproblems are always self-adjoint and coercive at each time step, and they can be efficiently solved by some existing preconditioned iterative solvers like the preconditioned conjugate galerkin method, and so forth. With the help of finite element discretization, all the major stiffness matrices remain invariant during the time marching process, which makes the present approach extremely fast for the time-dependent nonlinear problems. Finally, several numerical examples are performed to verify the stability, convergence and performance of the new method.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq, 2017

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Numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations using nonstandard discretizations


In this article, numerical study for both nonlinear space-fractional Schrödinger equation and the coupled nonlinear space-fractional Schrödinger system is presented. We offer here the weighted average nonstandard finite difference method (WANSFDM) as a novel numerical technique to study such kinds of partial differential equations. The space fractional derivative is described in the sense of the quantum Riesz-Feller definition. Stability analysis of the proposed method is studied. To show that this method is reliable and computationally efficient different numerical examples are provided. We expect that the proposed schemes can be applicable to different systems of fractional partial differential equations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1399–1419, 2017

A high resolution finite difference method for a model of structured susceptible-infected populations coupled with the environment


We develop a general model describing a structured susceptible-infected (SI) population coupled with the environment. This model applies to problems arising in ecology, epidemiology, and cell biology. The model consists of a system of quasilinear hyperbolic partial differential equations coupled with a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that represents the environment. We develop a second-order high resolution finite difference scheme to numerically solve the model. Convergence of this scheme to a weak solution with bounded total variation is proved. Numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the high-resolution property of the scheme and an application to a multi-host wildlife disease model is explored.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1420–1458, 2017

Convergence analysis of a modified weak Galerkin finite element method for Signorini and obstacle problems


In this article, we apply a modified weak Galerkin method to solve variational inequality of the first kind which includes Signorini and obstacle problems. Optimal order a priori error estimates in the energy norm are derived. We also provide some numerical experiments to validate the theoretical results.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1459–1474, 2017

Finite analytic numerical method for three-dimensional quasi-laplace equation with conductivity in tensor form


The finite analytic numerical method for 3D quasi-Laplace equation with conductivity in full tensor form is constructed in this article. For cubic grid system, the gradient of the potential variable will diverge when tending to the common edge joining the four grids with different conductivities. However, the potential gradient along the tangential direction is of limited value. As a consequence, the 3D quasi-Laplace equations will behave as a quasi-2D one. An approximate analytical solution of the 3D quasi-Laplace equation can be found around the common edge, which is expressed as a combination of a power-law function and a linear function. With the help of this approximate analytical solution, a 3D finite analytical numerical scheme is then constructed. Numerical examples show that the proposed numerical scheme can provide rather accurate solutions only with 3 × 3 × 3 or 4 × 4 × 4 subdivisions. More important, the convergent speed of the numerical scheme is independent of the conductivity heterogeneity. In contrast, when using the traditional numerical schemes, typically such as the MPFA method, the refinement ratio for the grid cell needs to increase dramatically to get an accurate result for the strong heterogeneous case.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1475–1492, 2017

Error analysis of discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for optimal control problem governed by the transport equation


This article discusses a priori and a posteriori error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for optimal control problem governed by the transport equation. We use variational discretization concept to discretize the control variable and discontinuous piecewise linear finite elements to approximate the state and costate variable. Based on the error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the transport equation, we get a priori and a posteriori error estimates for the transport equation optimal control problem. Finally, two numerical experiments are carried out to confirm the theoretical analysis.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1493–1512, 2017

Local and parallel finite element algorithm for stationary incompressible magnetohydrodynamics


This article presents a local and parallel finite element method for the stationary incompressible magnetohydrodynamics problem. The key idea of this algorithm comes from the two-grid discretization technique. Specifically, we solve the nonlinear system on a global coarse mesh, and then solve a series of linear problems on several subdomains in parallel. Furthermore, local a priori estimates are obtained on a general shape regular grid. The efficiency of the algorithm is also illustrated by some numerical experiments.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1513–1539, 2017

Analysis of DG approximations for Stokes problem based on velocity-pseudostress formulation


In this article, we first discuss the well posedness of a modified LDG scheme of Stokes problem, considering a velocity-pseudostress formulation. The difficulty here relies on the fact that the application of classical Babuška-Brezzi theory is not easy, so we proceed in a nonstandard way. For uniqueness, we apply a discrete version of Fredholm's alternative theorem, while the a priori error analysis is done introducing suitable projections of exact solution. As a result, we prove that the method is convergent, and under suitable regularity assumptions on the exact solution, the optimal rate of convergence is guaranteed. Next, we explore two stabilizations to the previous scheme, by adding least squares type terms. For these cases, well posedness and the a priori error estimates are proved by the application of standard theory. We end this work with some numerical experiments considering our third scheme, whose results are in agreement with the theoretical properties we deduce.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1540–1564, 2017

B-spline solution of fractional integro partial differential equation with a weakly singular kernel


The main objective of the paper is to find the approximate solution of fractional integro partial differential equation with a weakly singular kernel. Integro partial differential equation (IPDE) appears in the study of viscoelastic phenomena. Cubic B-spline collocation method is employed for fractional IPDE. The developed scheme for finding the solution of the considered problem is based on finite difference method and collocation method. Caputo fractional derivative is used for time fractional derivative of order α, 0 < α < 1 . The given problem is discretized in both time and space directions. Backward Euler formula is used for temporal discretization. Collocation method is used for spatial discretization. The developed scheme is proved to be stable and convergent with respect to time. Approximate solutions are examined to check the precision and effectiveness of the presented method.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1565–1581, 2017

Time-splitting methods with charge conservation for the nonlinear Dirac equation


In this work, four numerical time-splitting methods are proposed for the (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Dirac equation. All of these methods (or schemes) are proved to satisfy the charge conservation in the discrete level. To enhance the computation efficiency, the block Thomas algorithm is adopted. Numerical experiments are given to test the accuracy order for these schemes, to simulate numerically the binary collision including two standing waves and two moving solitons, meanwhile, the dynamic properties for the nonlinear Dirac equation are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1582–1602, 2017

New unconditionally stable scheme for telegraph equation based on weighted Laguerre polynomials


This article proposes a new unconditionally stable scheme to solve one-dimensional telegraph equation using weighted Laguerre polynomials. Unlike other numerical schemes, the time derivatives in the equation can be expanded analytically based on the Laguerre polynomials and basis functions. By applying a Galerkin temporal testing procedure and using the orthogonal property of weighted Laguerre polynomials, the time variable can be eliminated from computations, which results in an implicit equation. After solving the equation recursively one can obtain the numerical results of telegraph equation by using the expanded coefficients. Some numerical examples are considered to validate the accuracy and stability of this proposed scheme, and the results are compared with some existing numerical schemes.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1603–1615, 2017

More generalized groundwater model with space-time caputo Fabrizio fractional differentiation


We prove existence and uniqueness of the flow of water within a confined aquifer with fractional diffusion in space and fractional time derivative in the sense of Caputo-Fabrizio using the classical contraction Banach theorem. We also propose the numerical approximation of the model using the Crank–Nicolson numerical scheme. To check the effectiveness of the model, stability analysis of the numerical scheme for the new model is presented.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1616–1627, 2017

Spectral discretization of Darcy equations coupled with Stokes equations by vorticity–velocity–pressure formulations


We propose to make the numerical analysis of a model coupling the Darcy equations in a porous medium with the Stokes equations in the cracks. The coupling is provided by a pressure continuity on the interface. We describe a discretization by spectral element methods. We derive a priori optimal error estimates and we present some numerical experiments which confirm the results of the analysis.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1628–1651, 2017

Finite element analysis and approximation of Burgers’-Fisher equation


In this article, the authors present finite element analysis and approximation of Burgers’-Fisher equation. Existence and uniqueness of weak solution is proved by Galerkin's finite element method for non-smooth initial data. Next, a priori error estimates of semi-discrete solution in L ∞ ( 0 , T ; L 2 ( Ω ) ) norm, are derived and the convergence of semi-discrete solution is established. Then, fully discretization of the problem is done with the help of Euler's backward method. The nonlinearity is removed by lagging it to previous known level. The scheme is found to be convergent. Positivity of fully discrete solution is discussed, and bounds on time step are discovered for which the solution preserves its positivity. Finally, numerical experiments are performed on some examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme. The proposed scheme found to be fast, easy and accurate.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1652–1677, 2017

Efficient local structure-preserving schemes for the RLW-type equation


The multisymplectic schemes have been used in numerical simulations for the RLW-type equation successfully. They well preserve the local geometric property, but not other local conservation laws. In this article, we propose three novel efficient local structure-preserving schemes for the RLW-type equation, which preserve the local energy exactly on any time-space region and can produce richer information of the original problem. The schemes will be mass- and energy-preserving as the equation is imposed on appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the efficiency and invariant-preserving property of the schemes. Comparisons with the existing nonconservative schemes are made to show the behavior of the energy affects the behavior of the solution.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1678–1691, 2017

An augmented stress-based mixed finite element method for the steady state Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear viscosity


A new stress-based mixed variational formulation for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations with constant density and variable viscosity depending on the magnitude of the strain tensor, is proposed and analyzed in this work. Our approach is a natural extension of a technique applied in a recent paper by some of the authors to the same boundary value problem but with a viscosity that depends nonlinearly on the gradient of velocity instead of the strain tensor. In this case, and besides remarking that the strain-dependence for the viscosity yields a more physically relevant model, we notice that to handle this nonlinearity we now need to incorporate not only the strain itself but also the vorticity as auxiliary unknowns. Furthermore, similarly as in that previous work, and aiming to deal with a suitable space for the velocity, the variational formulation is augmented with Galerkin-type terms arising from the constitutive and equilibrium equations, the relations defining the two additional unknowns, and the Dirichlet boundary condition. In this way, and as the resulting augmented scheme can be rewritten as a fixed-point operator equation, the classical Schauder and Banach theorems together with monotone operators theory are applied to derive the well-posedness of the continuous and associated discrete schemes. In particular, we show that arbitrary finite element subspaces can be utilized for the latter, and then we derive optimal a priori error estimates along with the corresponding rates of convergence. Next, a reliable and efficient residual-based a posteriori error estimator on arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral regions is proposed. The main tools used include Raviart-Thomas and Clément interpolation operators, inverse and discrete inequalities, and the localization technique based on triangle-bubble and edge-bubble functions. Finally, several numerical essays illustrating the good performance of the method, confirming the reliability and efficiency of the a posteriori error estimator, and showing the desired behavior of the adaptive algorithm, are reported. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1692–1725, 2017

Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear partial differential equations using the peridynamic differential operator


This study presents numerical solutions to linear and nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) by using the peridynamic differential operator. The solution process involves neither a derivative reduction process nor a special treatment to remove a jump discontinuity or a singularity. The peridynamic discretization can be both in time and space. The accuracy and robustness of this differential operator is demonstrated by considering challenging linear, nonlinear, and coupled PDEs subjected to Dirichlet and Neumann-type boundary conditions. Their numerical solutions are achieved using either implicit or explicit methods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1726–1753, 2017

High-order algorithms for Riesz derivative and their applications (V)


In this article, based on the idea of combing symmetrical fractional centred difference operator with compact technique, a series of even-order numerical differential formulas (named the fractional-compact formulas) are established for the Riesz derivatives with order α ∈ ( 1 , 2 ) . Properties of coefficients in the derived formulas are studied in details. Then applying the constructed fourth-order formula, a difference scheme is proposed to solve the Riesz spatial telegraph equation. By the energy method, the constructed numerical algorithm is proved to be stable and convergent with order O ( τ 4 + h 4 ) , where τ and h are the temporal and spatial stepsizes, respectively. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical results.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Numer Methods Partial Differential Eq 33: 1754–1794, 2017