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Wiley Online Library : Chirality

Published: 2017-09-01T00:00:00-05:00


Total synthesis and biological evaluation of spirotryprostatin A analogs


Based on the spirotryprostatin A structure, a series of compounds belonging to spiro-indolyl diketopiperazine structural class were designed and synthesized, which embody an oxindole with an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter. The total synthesis can efficiently be accessed in a seven-step reaction sequence with 18–28% overall yield from commercially available materials, and a highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, N-acylation of the resulting stereochemically complex spiro[pyrrolidin-3,3′-oxindole]s core with Fmoc-L-pro-Cl and spontaneous ring closure upon N-deprotection were obtained. The synthesized compounds 13a–e and 15a–e were evaluated for their antibacterial activities. The result showed that compounds 13b and 15b were active only against Gram-positive bacteria, and selective antibacterial activity was exhibited by compounds 13d and 13e against Streptococcus lactis. Further, all the remaining compounds showed a certain degree of antibacterial activity. In addition, the structure–activity relationship is also discussed.

Chirality sensing with stereodynamic copper(I) complexes


Three Cu(I) complexes derived from stereodynamic diphosphine ligands were synthesized and used for chirality sensing. The coordination of diamines and amino acids to these complexes generates distinct circular dichroism signals. The chiroptical sensor response allows determination of the absolute configuration and the enantiomeric excess of the analyte at low concentrations. This method is operationally simple, fast, and attractive for high-throughput sensing applications.

Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris)


Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(−)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols. The relative and absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR, electronic circular dichroism [ECD]) and computational tools. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile and radicle elongation test, (10S,11S)-(−)-epipyriculol proved to be the most toxic compound. Seed germination was much reduced and slowed with respect to the control and radicles failed to elongate. All five compounds delayed germination, but only (10S,11S)-(−)-epipyriculol was able to prevent radicle development of buffelgrass seedlings. It had no effect on coleoptile elongation, while the other four compounds caused significantly increased coleoptile development relative to the control.

Size makes a difference: Chiral recognition in complexes of fenchone with cyclodextrins studied by means of NMR titration


Gibbs energies of complex formation between enantiomers of bicyclic terpenoid, fenchone, and naturally occurring cyclodextrins, βCD and γCD, were determined by means of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration data. These results were compared with the corresponding data obtained previously for the diastereomeric fenchone/αCD complexes. The size of the inner cavity of host molecules significantly influences stoichiometry, association constants, and enantiomeric differentiation of the studied complexes. These complementary data allow us to discuss qualitatively the influence of the host size on the guest–host interactions. A method of the simultaneous use of titration data collected for several resonances of different isotopes in the determination of association constants was worked out and thoroughly analyzed. Comparison of the results of global data analyses with weighted means of individual ones revealed that both these approaches are equally trustworthy.

Developments in the synthesis of the antiplatelet and antithrombotic drug (S)-clopidogrel


S-(+)-Methyl 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(6,7-dihydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl)acetate, also known as (S)-clopidogrel, is marketed under the trade names Plavix and Iscover. It is a potent thienopyridine-class of antithrombotic and antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant). Among the two available stereoisomers of clopidogrel, for pharmaceutical activities only the S-enantiomer is applicable, as no antithrombotic activity is observed in the R-enantiomer and causes political upheavals and social turmoil in animal experiments. Worldwide sales of Plavix amounted to $6.4 billion yearly, which ranks second. Attributed to the increased demand of (S)-clopidogrel drug, it provoked the synthetic community to devise facile synthetic approaches. This review aims to summarize the synthetic methods of (S)-clopidogrel drug reported in the literature. The present review discusses the pros and cons of each synthetic methodology, which would be beneficial to the scientific community for further developments in the synthetic methodologies for (S)-clopidogrel. In addition, the compilation approach of literature-reported synthetic strategies of (S)-clopidogrel in one platform is advantageous, supportive, and crucial for the synthetic community to elect the best synthetic methodology of (S)-clopidogrel and to create new synthesis ideas.

Circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations in determining absolute configuration and E/Z isomers of conjugated oximes


The primary purpose of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in stereochemical studies of α,β-unsaturated oximes, with particular emphasis on determination of E and Z geometry of the oxime double bond. As models for this study, O-phenyl and O-triphenylmethyl (trityl) oximes of 4-hydroxy-2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one were selected. These model compounds differ in both absolute configuration at C4 carbon atom and E-Z configuration of the oxime double bond. The basic dichroic technique applied was electronic circular dichroism (ECD) assisted by quantum-chemical calculations and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) for selected cases. Such an approach enabled effective implementation of both goals. Thus, we were able to associate the signs of Cotton effects in the range of 190–240 nm with the absolute configuration at C4 and within 240–300 nm with the E- or Z-geometry of the oxime double bond. Within this work, optical activity of the protecting trityl group was also studied towards formation of the propeller-shaped conformations by using the same combined CD/DFT methodology. As shown, the helical structure of the trityl group has a considerable influence on the ECD spectra. However, the MPM and PMP conformers of the trityl group are in fact almost equally populated in the conformational equilibrium, making it impossible to distinguish them. On the other hand, rotamers of the hydroxyl group at C4 show a decisive impact on the VCD spectra in both phenoxy and trityl oximes. We implemented electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopies assisted by DFT quantum-chemical calculations to unambiguously assign the absolute configuration at C4 carbon atom and determine the E and Z geometry of O-phenyl and O-triphenylmethyl ethers of oxime derivatives of 4-hydroxy-2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one as model compounds.

Absolute configuration of the ocimene monoterpenoids from Artemisia absinthium


The absolute configuration (AC) of the naturally occurring ocimenes (−)-(3S,5Z)-2,6-dimethyl-2,3-epoxyocta-5,7-diene (1) and (−)-(3S,5Z)-2,6-dimethylocta-5,7-dien-2,3-diol (2), isolated from the essential oils of domesticated specimens of Artemisia absinthium, followed by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) studies of 1, as well as from the acetonide 3 and the monoacetate 4, both derived from 2, since secondary alcohols are not the best functional groups to be present during VCD studies in solution due to intermolecular associations. The AC follows from comparison of experimental and calculated VCD spectra that were obtained by Density Functional Theory computation at the B3LYP/DGDZVP level of theory. Careful nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were compared with literature values, providing for the first time systematic 1H and 13C chemical shift data. Regarding homonuclear 1H coupling constants, after performing a few irradiation experiments that showed the presence of several small long-range interactions, the complete set of coupling constants for 3, which is representative of the four studied molecules, was determined by iterations using the PERCH software. This procedure even allowed assigning the pro-R and pro-S methyl group signals of the two gem-dimethyl groups present in 3.

Enantioselective resolution of 4-chloromandelic acid by liquid–liquid extraction using 2-chloro-N-carbobenzyloxy-L-amino acid


A liquid–liquid extraction resolution of 4-chloro-mandelic acid (4-ClMA) was studied by using 2-chloro-N-carbobenzyloxy-L-amino acid (2-Cl-Z-AA) as a chiral extractant. Important factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the type of chiral extractant, pH value of aqueous phase, initial concentration of chiral extractant in organic phase, initial concentration of 4-ClMA in aqueous phase, and resolution temperature. It was observed that the concentration of (R)-4-ClMA was much higher than that of (S)-4-ClMA in organic phase due to a higher stability of the complex formed between (R)-4-ClMA and 2-Cl-Z-AA. A separation factor (α) of 3.05 was obtained at 0.02 mol/L 2-Cl-Z-Valine dissolved in dichloromethane, pH of 2.0, concentration of 4-ClMA of 0.11 mmol/Land T of 296.7K.

Absolute configuration of an axially chiral sulfonate determined from its optical rotatory dispersion, electronic circular dichroism, and vibrational circular dichroism spectra


The absolute configuration (AC) of an axially chiral sulfonate (aCSO), 3,5-dimethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-6-(naphthalen-1-yl)benzenesulfonate (labeled as aCSO5), was investigated using optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies. All three methods led to the same conclusion and the AC of aCSO5 is reliably determined to be (−)-(aR, aR), or conversely (+)-(aS, aS).

Chiroptical properties of dithia[3.3]cyclophanes composed of anthracene and pyridine/pyridinium moieties: A combined experimental and theoretical study


Circular dichroisms (CDs) of neutral and protonated [3.3]anthracenopyridinophane (1 and 1-H+) were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Introducing an anthracene moiety with extended conjugation affected the cyclophane structure with the bent angles being appreciably  reduced from those of parent [3.3]pyridinophane. The Cotton effects (CEs) observed at the 1Bb band for both 1 and 1-H+ were fairly strong and apparently bisignate, which, however, turned out not to be a simple exciton couplet but to be composed of multiple transitions. In contrast, the CEs were much weaker in the 1La band region. The spectral changes upon protonation were less significant compared with the parent pyridinophane, being dominated by the local transitions of anthracene. Nevertheless, the CD spectra of 1 and 1-H+ were well reproduced by theoretical calculations to allow us an unambiguous absolute configuration determination of the first high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) elute (from Chiralcel IB column) as Sp. The transannular interactions between the anthracene and pyridine/pyridinium units were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to reveal a charge-transfer (CT) band in the low-energy region, particularly for 1-H+. Despite the comparable CT interactions, the CE at the CT band was much stronger for the anthracenopyridinophane than for the parent pyridinophane, affording an anisotropy (g) factor as large as 4 × 10-3.

Estimation of optical rotation of γ-alkylidenebutenolide, cyclopropylamine, cyclopropyl-methanol and cyclopropenone based compounds by a Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach


Computing the optical rotation of organic molecules can be a real challenge, and various theoretical approaches have been developed in this regard. A benchmark study of optical rotation of various classes of compounds was carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The aim of the present research study was to find out the best-suited functional and basis set to estimate the optical rotations of selected compounds with respect to experimental literature values. Six DFT functional LSDA, BVP86, CAM-B3LYP, B3PW91, and PBE were applied on 22 different compounds. Furthermore, six different basis sets, i.e., 3-21G, 6-31G, aug-cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVTZ, DGDZVP, and DGDZVP2 were also applied with the best-suited functional B3LYP. After rigorous effort, it can be safely said that the best combination of functional and basis set is B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ for the estimation of optical rotation for selected compounds. Benchmark study for the calculation of optical rotation was carried out by applying Six DFT functional LSDA, BVP86, CAM-B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBE along with six different basis sets 3-21G, 6-31G, cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ, DGDZVP and DGDZVP2.

Racemic and enantiopure forms of 3-ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one adopt very different crystal structures


3-Ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one (EPP) is an experimental anticonvulsant based on the newly proposed α-substituted amide group pharmacophore. These compounds show robust activity in animal models of drug-resistant epilepsy and are thus promising for clinical development. In order to understand pharmaceutically relevant properties of such compounds, we are conducting an extensive investigation of their structures in the solid state. In this article, we report chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, determination of absolute configuration of enantiomers, and crystal structures of EPP. Preparative resolution of EPP enantiomers by chiral HPLC was accomplished on the Chiralcel OJ stationary phase in the polar-organic mode. Using a combination of electronic CD spectroscopy and anomalous dispersion of X-rays we established that the first-eluted enantiomer corresponds to (+)-(R)-EPP, while the second-eluted enantiomer corresponds to (−)-(S)-EPP. We also demonstrated that, in the crystalline state, enantiopure and racemic forms of this anticonvulsant have considerable differences in their supramolecular organization and patterns of hydrogen bonding. These stereospecific structural differences can be related to the differences in melting points and, correspondingly, solubility and bioavailability.

Chirality sensing of bioactive compounds with amino alcohol unit via circular dichroism


The aim of the present work was to test various chiroptical techniques, including in particular the in situ dirhodium methodology, to assign the absolute configuration of 1,2- and 1,3-amino alcohols. As models, we selected mainly compounds that have both an additional strongly absorbing and interfering chromophoric system and application in medicinal chemistry. Determination of the absolute configuration (AC) of the tested molecules such as cinchona alkaloids, Tamiflu, and others was carried out using a combination of electronic and vibrational circular dichroism (ECD, VCD) spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that both 1,2- and 1,3-aminol moieties are subject to the same sector rule correlating stereostructure of formed Rh2-complex with chiroptical properties, and that the changes in the position of the stereogenic center do not affect its proper use.

Synthesis and cytotoxicity of (R)- and (S)-ricinoleic acid amides and their acetates


An environment-friendly, free of solvent, process for the synthesis of (R)- and (S)-ricinoleic acid amides has been developed. Starting from methyl ricinoleates and pyrrolidine or ethanolamine, the corresponding amides were obtained with yields ranging from 83–88%. Among 12 synthesized derivatives of ricinoleic acid, including the starting methyl esters, amides, and their acetates, nine compounds were obtained and tested for the first time. Studies on ricinoleic acid derivatives cytotoxicity showed that methyl esters were the least cytotoxic compounds and modification of their structure resulted in increasing cytotoxicity of the obtained products against both cancer cells and normal lymphocytes. Both enantiomers of the ethanolamine-derived amides showed the most promising anticancer potential.

Chiral dialkyl ditellurides: Conformation of chiral chromophore by circular dichroism and DFT calculation


The twisted structure of ditellurides, in a similar way as in other dichalcogenes, leads to different absorption of circularly polarized light by quasi-enantiomeric chiral orbitals. Chiral optically active ditellurides are not common compounds and this phenomenon is not widely reported. As chiral ditellurides found an application in asymmetric synthesis, their molecular structure, understood as their conformation, became an important factor for understanding their reactivity. Until now there are few examples of chiral ditellurides known and their structure was not analyzed in details. This article presents the results of our most recent research on the structure of chiral ditellurides investigated by electronic circular spectroscopy (ECD) supported by quantum-chemical calculation. This enables us to suggest a relationship between chirality of alkyl substituent and chirality (conformation) of ditelluride.

Fast further purification of diastereomeric salts of a nonracemic acid by gas antisolvent fractionation


A novel, green possibility of the further purification of the diastereomeric salt of 4-chloromandelic acid and 1-phenylethane-1-amine was developed. Gas antisolvent method using supercritical carbon dioxide was applied for the first time to precipitate the diastereomeric salts with increased purity followed by the supercritical fluid extraction of the dissolved diastereomers. The RR-salt can be purified to >99%, while fractionation-based purification of the SR-salt is limited to ~80%. The limiting initial diastereomeric excess correlates strongly with the atmospheric melting eutectic composition of the same salts, which suggests that despite the fast precipitation, the diastereomeric excess of the solid product is not kinetically determined. The efficiency of the diastereomeric enrichment is in the same range as that of the atmospheric reference experiments; however, technological advantages provided by the antisolvent precipitation method such as fast processing and dry product obtained suggest that this novel procedure is a promising alternative to the atmospheric methods.

Optimization of throughput in semipreparative chiral liquid chromatography using stacked injection


An interesting mode of chromatography for preparation of pure enantiomers from pure samples is the method of stacked injection as a pseudocontinuous procedure. Maximum throughput and minimal production costs can be achieved by the use of total chiral column length in this mode of chromatography. To maximize sample loading, often touching bands of the two enantiomers is automatically achieved. Conventional equations show direct correlation between touching-band loadability and the selectivity factor of two enantiomers. The important question for one who wants to obtain the highest throughput is “How to optimize different factors including selectivity, resolution, run time, and loading of the sample in order to save time without missing the touching-band resolution?” To answer this question, tramadol and propranolol were separated on cellulose 3,5-dimethyl phenyl carbamate, as two pure racemic mixtures with low and high solubilities in mobile phase, respectively. The mobile phase composition consisted of n-hexane solvent with alcohol modifier and diethylamine as the additive. A response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to optimize separation factors against the main responses. According to the stacked injection properties, two processes were investigated for maximizing throughput: one with a poorly soluble and another with a highly soluble racemic mixture. For each case, different optimization possibilities were inspected. It was revealed that resolution is a crucial response for separations of this kind. Peak area and run time are two critical parameters in optimization of stacked injection for binary mixtures which have low solubility in the mobile phase. A method development based on stacked injection to overcome overloading problem of poorly soluble enentiomers.

Chromatographic profiles of tryptophan and kynurenine enantiomers derivatized with (S)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole using LC–MS/MS on a triazole-bonded column


d- and l-Tryptophan (Trp) and d- and l-kynurenine (KYN) were derivatized with a chiral reagent, (S)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PyNCS), and were separated enantiomerically by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a triazole-bonded column (Cosmosil HILIC) using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection. Effects of column temperature, salt (HCO2NH4) concentration, and pH of the mobile phase in the enantiomeric separation, followed by MS detection of (S)-DBD-PyNCS-d,l-Trp and -d,l-KYN, were investigated. The mobile phase consisting of CH3CN/10 mM ammonium formate in H2O (pH 5.0) (90/10) with a column temperature of 50–60 °C gave satisfactory resolution (Rs) and mass-spectrometric detection. The enantiomeric separation of d,l-Trp and d,l-KYN produced Rs values of 2.22 and 2.13, and separation factors (α) of 1.08 and 1.08, for the Trp and KYN enantiomers, respectively. The proposed LC–MS/MS method provided excellent detection sensitivity of both enantiomers of Trp and KYN (5.1–19 nM).

Cover Image, Volume 29, Issue 9


The cover image, by Alessio Cimmino et al., is based on the Special Issue Article Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: Absolute configuration and biological activity, DOI: 10.1002/chir.22719. Photo Credit: Antonio Evidente.

Issue Information


No abstract is available for this article.

Origin of enhanced VCD in amyloid fibril spectra: Effect of deuteriation and pH


Supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, protein aggregates related to many neurodegenerative diseases, is a remarkable property associated with fibril structure and polymorphism. Since its discovery almost 10 years ago there is still little understanding of this phenomenon, including the cause of the highly enhanced vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensity arising from fibril supramolecular chirality. In this study, VCD spectra, enhanced by filament supramolecular chirality, are presented for lysozyme and insulin fibrils above and below pH 2 and after deuterium exchange, above and below pD 2. Supramolecular chirality (observed by VCD) and fibril morphology (documented by atomic force microscopy) are not affected by protein deuteriation. In D2O the fibril VCD sign pattern changes to fewer bands, with implications for the amide I/II origin of enhanced VCD intensity. Separation of amide I and II signals will facilitate calculations of enhanced VCD spectra of amyloid fibrils and enable a better understanding of the origin of the VCD sign pattern. Enhanced VCD for lysozyme in H2O in the overlapped amide I/II region with sign pattern (++ − ++) simplifies to separated amide I′ and amide II’ in D2O with sign pattern (++ − +) with negligible VCD enhancement from the amide II’ band. Decoupling the amide II vibration by deuteriation provides a new and simpler sign pattern for future computational studies aiming to understand the origin of enhanced supramolecular chirality in amyloid fibrils.

Exciton coupling between enones: Quassinoids revisited


The electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of two previously reported quassinoids containing a pair of enone chromophores are revisited to gain insight into the consistency and applicability of the exciton chirality method. Our study is based on time-dependent Density Functional Theory calculations, transition and orbital analysis, and numerical exciton coupling calculations. In quassin (1) the enone/enone exciton coupling is quasi-degenerate, yielding strong rotational strengths that account for the observed ECD spectrum in the enone π-π* region. In perforalactone C (2) the nondegenerate coupling produces weak rotational strengths, and the ECD spectrum is dominated by other mechanisms of optical activity. We remark the necessity of a careful application of the nondegenerate exciton coupling method in similar cases.

Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: Absolute configuration and biological activity


Plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family are well known for their ornamental and medicinal use. Plant members of this group are distributed through both tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are dominant in Andean South America, the Mediterranean basin, and southern Africa. Amaryllidaceae plants have been demonstrated to be a good source of alkaloids with a large spectrum of biological activities, the latter being strictly related to the absolute stereochemistry of the alkaloid scaffold. Among them, great importance for practical applications in medicine has galanthamine, which has already spawned an Alzheimer's prescription drug as a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Furthermore, lycorine as well as its related isocarbostyryl analogs narciclasine and pancratistatine have shown a strong anticancer activity in vitro against different solid tumors with malignant prognosis. This review addresses the assignment of the absolute configuration of several Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and its relationship with their biological activities.

Enantioselective analysis of ibuprofen enantiomers in mice plasma and tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: Application to a pharmacokinetic study


A direct fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the analysis of ibuprofen enantiomers in mouse plasma (100 μl) and tissues (brain, liver, kidneys) using liquid–liquid extraction and 4-tertbutylphenoxyacetic acid as an internal standard. Separation of enantiomers was accomplished in a Chiracel OJ-H chiral column based on cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) coated on 5 μm silica-gel, 250 x 4.6 mm at 22 °C with a mobile phase composed of n-hexane, 2-propanol, and trifluoroacetic acid that were delivered in gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 ml min−1. A fluorometric detector was set at: λexcit. = 220 nm and λemis. = 290 nm. Method validation included the evaluation of the selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), within-run and between-run precision and accuracy. The LLOQ for the two enantiomers was 0.125 μg ml−1 in plasma, 0.09 μg g−1 in brain, and 0.25 μg g−1 in for liver and kidney homogenates. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the ranges of each enantiomers: from 0.125 to 35 μg ml−1 for plasma, 0.09–1.44 μg g−1 for brain, and 0.25–20 μg g−1 for liver and kidney homogenates. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ibuprofen enantiomers in mice treated i.v. with 10 mg kg−1 of racemate.

Preparation and evaluation of regioselectively substituted amylose derivatives for chiral separations


Six novel regioselectively substituted amylose derivatives with a benzoate at 2-position and two different phenylcarbamates at 3- and 6-positions were synthesized and their structures were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Their enantioseparation abilities were then examined as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after they were coated on 3-aminopropyl silica gels. Investigations indicated that the substituents at the 3- and 6-positions played an important role in chiral recognition of these amylose 2-benzoate serial derivatives. The derivatives demonstrated characteristic enantioseparation and some racemates were better resolved on these derivatives than on Chiralpak AD, which is one of the most efficient CSPs, utilizing coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as the chiral selector. Among the derivatives prepared, amylose 2-benzoate-3-(phenylcarbamate/4-methylphenylcarbamate)-6-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) exhibited chiral recognition abilities comparable to that of Chiralpak AD and may be useful CSPs in the future. The effect of mobile phase on chiral recognition was also studied. In general, with the decreased concentration of 2-propanol, better resolutions were obtained with longer retention times. Moreover, when ethanol was used instead of 2-propanol, poorer resolutions were often achieved. However, in some cases, improved enantioselectivity was achieved with ethanol rather than 2-propanol as the mobile phase modifier. To investigate the regioselective substituents between 3- and 6-positions on the enantioseparations of 2-benzoyl amylose derivatives and to develop new polysaccharide derivatives-based chiral stationary phases with high chiral recognition, six novel amylose derivatives were synthesized. The derivatives demonstrate characteristic chiral recognition and some racemates are better resolved on these derivatives than on Chiralpak AD. The nature of substituent as well as its position on glucose unit plays a great role in chiral recognition.

Synthesis and pKa determination of new enantiopure dimethyl-substituted acridino-crown ethers containing a carboxyl group: Useful candidates for enantiomeric recognition studies


New enantiopure dimethyl-substituted acridino-18-crown-6 and acridino-21-crown-7 ethers containing a carboxyl group at position 9 of the acridine ring [(S,S)-8, (S,S)-9, (R,R)-10] were synthesized. The pKa values of the new crown ethers [(S,S)-8, (S,S)-9, (R,R)-10] and of an earlier reported macrocycle [(R,R)-2] were determined by UV-pH titrations. Crown ether (S,S)-8 was attached to silica gel by covalent bonds and the enantiomeric separation ability of the newly prepared chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-12] was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Homochiral preference was observed and the best separation was achieved for the enantiomers of 1-NEA. Ligands (S,S)-9 and (R,R)-10 are precursors of enantioselective sensor and selector molecules for the enantiomers of protonated primary amines, amino acids, and their derivatives.

Enantioresolution and stereochemical characterization of two chiral sulfoxides endowed with COX-2 inhibitory activity


The capacity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to prevent prostanoids biosynthesis through the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme is related to their structural backbone, based on the fusion of a cis-stilbene unit with a variety of heterocyclic and carbocyclic rings. By this route, a series of new selective COX-2 inhibitors was developed, by maintaining the 4-methylsulfone or 4-methylsulfonamide substituent on the phenyl moiety, essential for their activity. In this frame, two novel propyl sulfoxide derivatives were synthesized, which proved selective and sufficiently potent COX-2 inhibition activity when tested as racemates. In the present study, the use of a cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase, in a polar-organic mode of elution, enabled the successful enantioseparation of the investigated compounds. The developed chromatography method reveals a useful tool of monitoring in view of a proper forthcoming enantioselective synthetic protocol. Moreover, the optimized chromatographic conditions allowed the isolation of appropriate amounts of single enantiomers for the electronic circular dichroism studies that, coupled with in silico simulations, allowed assessing the absolute configuration of each species.

Synthesis of CuPF6-(S)-BINAP loaded resin and its enantioselectivity toward phenylalanine enantiomers


A type of resin-anchored CuPF6-(S)-BINAP was synthesized and identified. The PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin was used to adsorb the phenylalanine enantiomers. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin toward L-phenylalanine was higher than that of resin toward D-phenylalanine. PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin exhibited good enantioselectivity toward L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. The influence of phenylalanine concentration, pH, adsorption time, and temperature on the enantioselectivity of the resin were investigated. The results showed that the enantioselectivity of the resin increased with increasing the phenylalanine concentration, pH, and adsorption time, while it decreased with an increase in temperature. The causes for these influences are discussed. The highest enantioselectivity (α = 2.81) was obtained when the condition of phenylalanine concentration was 0.05 mmol/mL, pH was 8, adsorption time was 12 h, and temperature 5°C. The desorption test for removing D/L-phenylalanine on PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin was also investigated. The desorption ratios of D-phenylalanine and L-phenylalanine at pH of 1 were 95.7% and 94.3%, respectively. This result indicated that the PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin could be regenerated by shaking with an acidic solution. The reusability of the PS-CuPF6-(S)-BINAP resin was also assessed and the resin exhibited considerable reusability.

Reliable HPLC separation, vibrational circular dichroism spectra, and absolute configurations of isoborneol enantiomers


Resolution of chiral compounds has played an important role in the pharmaceutical field, involving detailed studies of pharmacokinetics, physiological, toxicological, and metabolic activities of enantiomers. Herein, a reliable method by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an optical rotation detector was developed to separate isoborneol enantiomers. A cellulose tris(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-coated chiral stationary phase showed the best separation performance for isoborneol enantiomers in the normal phase among four polysaccharide chiral packings. The effects of alcoholic modifiers and column temperature were studied in detail. Resolution of the isoborneol racemate displayed a downward trend along with an increase in the content of ethanol and column temperature, indicating that less ethanol in the mobile phase and lower temperature were favorable to this process. Moreover, two isoborneol enantiomers were obtained via a semipreparative chiral HPLC technique under optimum conditions, and further characterized by analytical HPLC, and experimental and calculated vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, respectively. The solution VCD spectrum of the first-eluted component was consistent with the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculated pattern based on the SSS configuration, indicating that this enantiomer should be (1S, 2S, 4S)-(+)-isoborneol. Briefly, these results have provided reliable information to establish a method for analysis, preparative separation, and absolute configuration of chiral compounds without typical chromophoric groups.

Comparison of three S-β-CDs with different degrees of substitution for the chiral separation of 12 drugs in capillary electrophoresis


Three kinds of sulfated β-cyclodextrin (S-β-CD), including a single isomer, heptakis-6-sulfato-β-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD), degree of substitution (DS) of 7, which was synthesized in our laboratory and another two commercialized randomly substituted mixtures, a sulfated β-cyclodextrin with DS of 7 to 11, as well as a highly sulfated-β-cyclodextrin with DS of 12 to 15, were used for the enantioresolution of 12 drugs (the β-blockers, phenethylamines, and anticholinergic agents) in capillary electrophoresis. The enantioseparation under varying concentrations of S-β-CD and background electrolyte pH were systematically investigated and compared. Based on the experimental results, the effect of the nature of S-β-CD and analyte structure on the enantioseparation is discussed. Basic analyte is positively charged at low BGE pH. Sulfated β-cyclodextrin is anionic over the entire pH range, which can thereby lead to ionic interaction between the host and guest in addition to the hydrophobic inclusion. The formed inclusion complex migrates towards the anode itself, which is opposite to the direction of EOF. Which polarity the analyte can detect is determined by both EOF and chiral selector.

Functionalities tuned enantioselectivity of phenylcarbamate cyclodextrin clicked chiral stationary phases in HPLC


The mixed chloro- and methyl- functionalities can greatly modulate the enantioselectivities of phenylcarbamate cyclodextrin (CD) clicked chiral stationary phases (CSPs). A comparison study is herein reported for per(4-chloro-3-methyl)phenylcarbamate and per(2-chloro-5-methyl)phenylcarbamate β-CD clicked CSPs (i.e., CCC4M3-CSP and CCC2M5-CSP). The enantioselectivity dependence on column temperature was studied in both normal-phase and reversed-phase mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The thermodynamic study revealed that the stronger intermolecular interactions can be formed between CCC4M3-CSP and chiral solutes to drive the chiral separation. The higher enantioselectivities of CCC4M3-CSP were further demonstrated with the enantioseparation of 17 model racemates in HPLC.