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The Prostate

Wiley Online Library : The Prostate

Published: 2017-10-01T00:00:00-05:00


High-Level Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) expression is linked to poor prognosis in prostate cancer


Background Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) is an enzyme involved in removal of toxic byproducts accumulating during glycolysis from the cell. GLO1 is up regulated in many cancer types but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. Methods Here, we employed GLO1 immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray including 11 152 tumors and an attached clinical and molecular database. Results Normal prostate epithelium was negative for GLO1, whereas 2059 (27.3%) of 7552 interpretable cancers showed cytoplasmic GLO1 staining, which was considered weak in 8.8%, moderate in 12.5%, and strong in 6.1% of tumors. Up regulation of GLO1 was significantly linked to high original Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage and positive lymph node status (P < 0.0001 each). Comparison of GLO1 staining with several common genomic alterations of prostate cancers revealed a strong link between GLO1 up regulation and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (P < 0.0001) and an ERG-independent association with PTEN deletion (P < 0.0001). GLO1 up regulation was strongly linked to early biochemical recurrence in univariate analysis (P < 0.0001) and predicted poor prognosis independent from most (except from nodal stage) established prognostic parameters in multivariate analysis (P ≤ 0.03). Conclusions GLO1 upregulation is linked to aggressive prostate cancers characterized by ERG fusion and PTEN deletion. The strong and independent prognostic value makes it a promising candidate for routine diagnostic applications either alone or in combination with other markers.

Beyond the androgen receptor II: New approaches to understanding and treating metastatic prostate cancer; Report from the 2017 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting


Introduction The 2017 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, “Beyond the Androgen Receptor II: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Metastatic Prostate Cancer,” was held in Carlsbad, California from June 14-17, 2017. Methods The CHPCA is an annual scientific conference hosted by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) that is uniquely designed to produce extensive and constructive discussions on the most urgent and impactful topics concerning research into the biology and treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The 2017 CHPCA Meeting was the 5th meeting in this annual series and was attended by 71 investigators focused on prostate cancer and a variety of other fields including breast and ovarian cancer. Results The discussions at the meeting were concentrated on topics areas including: mechanisms and therapeutic approaches for molecular subclasses of castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the epigenetic landscape of prostate cancer, the role of DNA repair gene mutations, advancing the use of germline genetics in clinical practice, radionuclides for imaging and therapy, advances in molecular imaging, and therapeutic strategies for successful use of immunotherapy in advanced prostate cancer. Discussion This article reviews the presentations and discussions from the 2017 CHPCA Meeting in order to disseminate this knowledge and accelerate new biological understandings and advances in the treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

Somatostatin receptor subtype 1 as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer


Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly prevalent neoplasia that is strongly influenced by the endocrine system. Somatostatin (SST) and its five receptors (sst1-5 encoded by SSTR1-5 genes) comprise a pleiotropic system present in most endocrine-related cancers, some of which are successfully treated with SST analogs. Interestingly, it has been reported that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, but its regulation, functional role, and clinical implications are still poorly known. Methods PCa specimens (n = 52) from biopsies and control prostates from cystoprostatectomies (n = 12), as well as in silico databases were used to evaluate SSTR1 and miRNAs expression. In vitro studies in 22Rv1 PCa cells were implemented to explore the regulation of SSTR1/sst1 by different miRNAs, and to evaluate the consequences of SSTR1/sst1 overexpression, silencing and/or activation [with the specific BIM-23926 sst1 agonist (IPSEN)] on cell-proliferation, migration, signaling-pathways, and androgen-signaling. Results We found that SSTR1 is overexpressed in multiple cohorts of PCa samples, as compared with normal prostate tissues, wherein it correlates with androgen receptor (AR) expression, and appears to be associated with aggressiveness (metastasis). Furthermore, our data revealed that SSTR1/sst1 expression might be regulated by specific miRNAs in PCa, including miR-24, which is downregulated in PCa samples and correlates inversely with SSTR1 expression. In vitro studies indicated that treatment with the BIM-23926 sst1 agonist, as well as SSTR1 overexpression, decreased, whereas SSTR1 silencing increased, cell-proliferation in 22Rv1 cells, likely through the regulation of PI3K/AKT-CCND3 signaling-pathway. Importantly, sst1 action was also able to modulate androgen/AR activity, and reduced PSA secretion from PCa cell lines. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, where it can exert a relevant pathophysiological role by decreasing cell-proliferation and PSA secretion. Therefore, sst1, possibly in combination with miR-24, could be used as a novel tool to explore therapeutic targets in PCa.

Sexual steroids in serum and prostatic tissue of human non-cancerous prostate (STERPROSER trial)


Background The specific involvement of the sex steroids in the growth of the prostatic tissue remains unclear. Sex steroid concentrations in plasma and in fresh surgical samples of benign central prostate were correlated to prostate volume. Methods Monocentric prospective study performed between September 2014 and January 2017. Age, obesity parameters, and both serum and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroids were collected complying with the latest Endocrine Society guidelines and the steroids assessed by GC/MS. Statistical calculations were adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). Results Thirty-two patients, equally divided between normal- and high-volume prostate groups, were included in the analysis. High-volume prostate patients were older, heavier and had higher BMI. Comparison adjusted for age and BMI showed higher DHT concentrations in high-volume prostate. Both normal- and high-volume prostate tissues concentrate sex steroids in a similar way. Comparison of enzymatic activity surrogate marker ratios within tissue highlighted similar TT/E1 and TT/E2 ratios, and higher DHT/E1 ratio and lower DHT/PSA ratio in the high-volume prostates. Conclusions STERPROSER trial provides evidence for higher DHT concentration in highvolume prostates, that could reflect either higher 5-alpha reductase expression or lower expression of downstream metabolizing enzymes such as 3a-hydoxysteroid dehydrogenase.

Impact of five-tiered Gleason grade groups on prognostic prediction in clinical stage T3 prostate cancer undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy


Background We evaluated a five-tiered Gleason grade groups arising from the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on prognostic prediction in clinical stage T3a (extracapsular invasion) and T3b (seminal vesicle involvement) prostate cancer undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods From November 2003 to December 2012, 283 patients with stage T3 prostate cancer received HDR-BT and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Of these, 203 (72%) and 80 (28%) patients had stage T3a and T3b disease, respectively. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 7.5 Gy/fraction of HDR-BT. After five fractions, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients first underwent ≥6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT continued for 36 months. Median follow-up was 74 months from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 10-year biochemical recurrence (BCR) −free rate for stage T3a and T3b disease was 79% and 64%, respectively (P = 0.0083). The 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate for stage T3a and T3b was 96% and 91%, respectively (P = 0.0305). Although grade groups ≥4 were independent predictors for BCR in cT3a patients (P = 0.0270), they failed to significantly predict prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among cT3a patients. Among cT3b patients, grade group 5 was a significant predictor of both BCR (P = 0.0017) and PCSM (P = 0.0233). Among stage T3a patients, no significant difference existed in 10-year CSS between grade groups 5 and 4 (94% vs 97%, P = 0.3960). In contrast, grade group 5 had a significantly worse outcome in 10-year CSS than grade group 4 among stage T3b patients (74% vs 100%, P = 0.0350). Conclusions Stage T3a patients with grade groups 4/5 and stage T3b with grade group 4 had fairly low PCSM risk. Approximately one of four patients among stage T3b patients with grade group 5 showed PCSM after combined HDR-BT and EBRT with long-term ADT. Stage T3b patients with grade group 5 may have a greater risk for PCSM.

Hyperactive mTOR induces neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cell with concurrent up-regulation of IRF1


Background Neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer (NEPCa) is refractory to androgen deprivation therapy and shows a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms responsible for neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) are yet to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in NEPCa. Methods We utilized a gain-of-function analysis by establishing a human PCa LNCaP stable line that expresses hyperactive mTOR (LNCaP-mTOR). Then, we employed a comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis to identify a key transcription factor in LNCaP-mTOR, followed by a loss-of-function analysis using CRISPR/Cas system. Results The activation of mTOR induced NED. We observed significant cell growth arrest in NED of LNCaP-mTOR, which accompanied increased expression of p21WAF1/CIP1. A comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis identified interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) as a key transcription factor in growth arrest of LNCaP-mTOR. The disruption of IRF1 gene in LNCaP-mTOR reversed cell growth arrest along with the suppression of its target p21WAF1/CIP1. These results indicate that the growth arrest in NED is at least in part dependent on IRF1 through the induction of p21WAF1/CIP1. Conclusions We identified active mTOR as a novel inducer of NED, and elucidated a mechanism underlying the malignant transformation of NEPCa by recapitulating NED in vitro.

Reduced number of CD169+ macrophages in pre-metastatic regional lymph nodes is associated with subsequent metastatic disease in an animal model and with poor outcome in prostate cancer patients


Background Tumor-derived antigens are captured by CD169+ (SIGLEC1+) sinus macrophages in regional lymph nodes (LNs), and are presented to effector cells inducing an anti-tumor immune response. Reduced CD169 expression in pre-metastatic regional LNs is associated with subsequent metastatic disease and a poor outcome in several tumor types, but if this is the case in prostate cancer has not been explored. Methods CD169 expression was measured with immunohistochemistry in metastasis-free regional LNs from 109 prostate cancer patients treated with prostatectomy (January 1996 to April 2002). Possible associations of CD169 expression with PSA-relapse, prostate cancer death, Gleason score, and other clinical data were assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival- and Cox regression analysis. In addition, the Dunning rat prostate tumor model was used to examine CD169 expression in pre-metastatic LNs draining either highly metastatic MatLyLu- or poorly metastatic AT1-tumors. Results In patients with low CD169 immunostaining in metastasis-free regional LNs, 8 of the 27 patients died from prostate cancer compared with only three of the 82 patients with high immunostaining (P < 0.001). CD169 expression in regional LNs was not associated with PSA-relapse. Rats with highly metastatic tumors had decreased CD169 immunoreactivity in pre-metastatic regional LNs compared with rats with poorly metastatic tumors. Conclusion Low expression of CD169 in metastasis-free regional LNs indicates a reduced anti-tumor immune response. If verified in other studies, CD169 expression in regional LNs could, in combination with other factors, potentially be used as a marker of prostate cancer aggressiveness.

The protein kinase C super-family member PKN is regulated by mTOR and influences differentiation during prostate cancer progression


Background Phosphoinositide-3 (PI-3) kinase signaling has a pervasive role in cancer. One of the key effectors of PI-3 kinase signaling is AKT, a kinase that promotes growth and survival in a variety of cancers. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer have shown that AKT signaling is sufficient to induce prostatic epithelial neoplasia (PIN), but insufficient for progression to adenocarcinoma. This contrasts with the phenotype of mice with prostate-specific deletion of Pten, where excessive PI-3 kinase signaling induces both PIN and locally invasive carcinoma. We reasoned that additional PI-3 kinase effector kinases promote prostate cancer progression via activities that provide biological complementarity to AKT. We focused on the PKN kinase family members, which undergo activation in response to PI-3 kinase signaling, show expression changes in prostate cancer, and contribute to cell motility pathways in cancer cells. Methods PKN kinase activity was measured by incorporation of 32P into protein substrates. Phosphorylation of the turn-motif (TM) in PKN proteins by mTOR was analyzed using the TORC2-specific inhibitor torin and a PKN1 phospho-TM-specific antibody. Amino acid substitutions in the TM of PKN were engineered and assayed for effects on kinase activity. Cell motility-related functions and PKN localization was analyzed by depletion approaches and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. The contribution of PKN proteins to prostate tumorigenesis was characterized in several mouse models that express PKN transgenes. The requirement for PKN activity in prostate cancer initiated by loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), and the potential redundancy between PKN isoforms, was analyzed by prostate-specific deletion of Pkn1, Pkn2, and Pten. Results and Conclusions PKN1 and PKN2 contribute to motility pathways in human prostate cancer cells. PKN1 and PKN2 kinase activity is regulated by TORC2-dependent phosphorylation of the TM, which together with published data indicates that PKN proteins receive multiple PI-3 kinase-dependent inputs. Transgenic expression of active AKT and PKN1 is not sufficient for progression beyond PIN. Moreover, Pkn1 is not required for tumorigenesis initiated by loss of Pten. Triple knockout of Pten, Pkn1, and Pkn2 in mouse prostate results in squamous cell carcinoma, an uncommon but therapy-resistant form of prostate cancer.





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Peripheral blood monocyte count reflecting tumor-infiltrating macrophages is a predictive factor of adverse pathology in radical prostatectomy specimens


Background Tumor-infiltrating macrophages, which are thought to be derived from blood monocytes, interact with tumor cells to promote cancer progression. The aim of this study was to assess the association of peripheral blood monocyte count with pathological findings and local tumor-infiltrating macrophages in prostatectomy specimens. Methods Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts were retrospectively assessed for their associations with pathological findings (pathological T stage, Gleason Score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin) and biochemical recurrence of 248 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Local tumor-infiltrating macrophages were also evaluated immunohistochemically for their association with peripheral monocyte counts. Results The peripheral monocyte counts of the patients with extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or primary Gleason ≥4 were significantly higher than those of the patients without each of these pathological findings (P < 0.001, P = 0.034, and P = 0.004, respectively). Peripheral monocyte count was a significant predictor of adverse pathology and postoperative biochemical recurrence in localized prostate cancer by multivariate analysis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.041, respectively). Both the density and the count of tumor-infiltrating macrophages correlated significantly with the peripheral blood monocyte count (Spearman rank correlation coefficients were 0.463 and 0.649, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusions Peripheral blood monocyte count reflecting local tumor-infiltrating macrophages was a predictive factor for tumor progression and prognosis in patients with localized prostate cancer. Elucidating the mechanism of the interaction of peripheral monocytes with tumor-infiltrating macrophages is necessary.

PSCA regulates IL-6 expression through p38/NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer


Background Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein. We previously reported that PSCA involved in proliferation and invasion of PCa cells, however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the regulating role of PSCA gene expression in interleukin-6 (IL-6) autocrine of PCa cells. Methods The stable knockdown-PSCA and ectopically overexpressed-PSCA vector were constructed and transfected into human PCa DU145 and PC-3M cells. The effects of PSCA overexpression or knockdown were determined in proliferation, invasion, and metastasis assays. The effect of PSCA on the expression and secretion of IL-6 was evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA. Subcellular localization and expression pattern of PSCA and IL-6 protein were examined by immunohistochemistry. Its clinical significance was statistically analyzed. Results The results showed that stable knockdown of PSCA delayed proliferation, migration, and invasion while overexpressing PSCA enhanced the proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and the lung metastasis in vivo of PCa cells. Importantly, the PSCA involved in the IL-6 secretion and positively regulated p38/NF-κB/IL-6 signaling, leading to enhanced PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Both the expression of PSCA and IL-6 were significantly associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival of patients with PCa. PSCA protein expression showed a prognostic value in overall survival as indicated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusions These results indicate that PSCA regulates the expression and secretion of IL-6 in human PCa cells through p38/NF-κB signaling pathways. PSCA may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for PSCA-positive PCa.

A urinary biomarker-based risk score correlates with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection


Background Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics would greatly benefit from more accurate, non-invasive techniques for the detection of clinically significant disease, leading to a reduction of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a novel urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx), multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) outcomes, and biopsy results for PCa detection. Methods This retrospective observational study used data from the validation study of the SelectMDx score, in which urine was collected after digital rectal examination from men undergoing prostate biopsies. A subset of these patients also underwent a mpMRI scan of the prostate. The indications for performing mpMRI were based on persistent clinical suspicion of PCa or local staging after PCa was found upon biopsy. All mpMRI images were centrally reviewed in 2016 by an experienced radiologist blinded for the urine test results and biopsy outcome. The PI-RADS version 2 was used. Results In total, 172 patients were included for analysis. Hundred (58%) patients had PCa detected upon prostate biopsy, of which 52 (52%) had high-grade disease correlated with a significantly higher SelectMDx score (P < 0.01). The median SelectMDx score was significantly higher in patients with a suspicious significant lesion on mpMRI compared to no suspicion of significant PCa (P < 0.01). For the prediction of mpMRI outcome, the area-under-the-curve of SelectMDx was 0.83 compared to 0.66 for PSA and 0.65 for PCA3. There was a positive association between SelectMDx score and the final PI-RADS grade. There was a statistically significant difference in SelectMDx score between PI-RADS 3 and 4 (P < 0.01) and between PI-RADS 4 and 5 (P < 0.01). Conclusions The novel urinary biomarker-based SelectMDx score is a promising tool in PCa detection. This study showed promising results regarding the correlation between the SelectMDx score and mpMRI outcomes, outperforming PCA3. Our results suggest that this risk score could guide clinicians in identifying patients at risk for significant PCa and selecting patients for further radiological diagnostics to reduce unnecessary procedures.

Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for low-risk prostate cancer induces biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy via increased lymphangiogenesis-related parameters


Background The effects of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on pathological features and lymphangiogenesis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) for each pre-operative risk classification are unclear. Methods To clarify the anti-cancer effects of NHT, we investigated 153 patients (non-NHT group = 80 and NHT group = 73) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in Nagasaki University Hospital. Lymph vessel density and area (evaluated by D2-40-positive vessels), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D expressions, and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival were compared between these two groups for each D'Amico risk classification (low = 33, intermediate = 58, high = 62 patients). Results In low-risk PCa patients, the risks of lymph vessel invasion and BCR were significantly higher in the NHT group than in the non-NHT group (P = 0.040 and 0.022, respectively). Such significant difference was not seen in the intermediate- or high-risk PCa groups. Lymph vessel density of the peri-tumoral and intra-tumoral areas and the lymph vessel area were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the NHT group than in the non-NHT group in low-risk PCa. In regard to the expression of VEGF-C or VEGF-D, significant difference was not detected in low-risk PCa. Conclusions NHT stimulated cancer cell progression and BCR via up-regulation of lymphangiogenesis-related parameters in patients with low-risk PCa. Although VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressions were not changed by NHT, lymph vessel density and area were increased in low-risk PCa patients. We suggest that NHT for patients with low-risk PCa may have a high risk for BCR after RP.

Extracellular vesicles for personalized therapy decision support in advanced metastatic cancers and its potential impact for prostate cancer


The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression. Our pilot experiment by assessing the level of two subpopulations of small EVs, the CD9 positive and CD63 positive EVs, showed that the CD9 positive EV level is higher in plasma from patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer with detectable CTCs. These data show the potential utility of a particular EV subpopulation to serve as biomarkers for advanced metastatic prostate cancer. EVs can potentially be utilized as biomarkers to provide accurate genotypic and phenotypic information for advanced prostate cancer, where new strategies to design a more personalized therapy is currently the focus of considerable investigation.

Estradiol promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human benign prostatic epithelial cells


Background Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in pathogenesis of human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Estrogenic signaling pathways may stimulate the induction of EMT. However, the details of estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptors (ERs) effects on EMT, as well as E2-induced modulation of benign prostatic epithelial cell phenotype in vitro have not been completely clarified. Methods The effects of E2 on EMT markers and cytokeratins (CKs) expression were evaluated in benign epithelial cell lines BPH-1 and RWPE-1, which were cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) culture and three-dimensional (3D) culture model using hanging drop technique or 3D Matrigel model. ER antagonist, ICI182,780, was used to confirm the regulatory effects of E2 on EMT and phenotypic modulation. In 3D culture, immunohistochemical stainings were performed to detect the specific phenotype of cells that underwent EMT in acinar-like spheroids formed by RWPE-1. To illustrate the exact function of ERs in E2-induced EMT and phenotypic modulation, specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and agonists were used to knockdown or activate individual ERs, respectively. Results E2-induced EMT was observed both in 2D and 3D culture, with related regulation of EMT markers expression at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, E2 down-regulated luminal cell type markers CK18 and CK8 and up-regulated basal cell type markers CK5 and CK14. E2 also increased intermediate type markers CK15 and CK17, while it attenuated CK19 in 3D culture. ICI182,780 blocked E2-induced EMT and cell phenotypic switching. In 3D Matrigel culture, Vimentin was co-expressed with ERα and CK17, as well as with SMemb, which is related to cell status switching and proliferation. Knockdown of ERα but not GPR30 inhibited EMT, while ERβ knockdown facilitated EMT process. Knockdown of ERα blocked E2-induced EMT both in RWPE-1 and BPH-1. MRNA expression of EMT markers was stimulated by ERα-specific agonist PPT and inhibited by ERβ-specific agonist DPN. Conclusions Estrogenic effect mediated by ERα can promote EMT. E2 is also an inductive factor of cell phenotypic switching. Cell type modulation is associated with E2-induced EMT in benign prostatic epithelial cells. Taken together the results support a contribution of estrogens to the pathogenesis of BPH in elderly men.

Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and gene fusion pattern in prostate cancer


Background Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. Methods ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction. Two to six representative cores were selected from each tumor focus. In the cases with heterogeneous ERG IHC staining intensity, the areas showing different intensities were separately selected. Using the TMA blocks, IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were conducted to evaluate the heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and ERG fusion gene patterns, respectively, in a single tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was defined as the simultaneous presence of negative and positive cores in the same tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG FISH was defined by the presence of cores with positive and negative FISH signals or cores with break-apart and interstitial deletion FISH signals in the same tumor focus. Results A total of 202 TMA cores were isolated from 40 ERG-positive cases. Of the 202 total cores, 19 were negative for ERG IHC staining, and 46 showed 1+, 52 showed 2+, and 85 showed 3+ ERG staining intensity. Eleven cores were negative for ERG FISH signal, 119 cores showed ERG break-apart FISH signals, and the remaining 72 cores revealed interstitial deletion. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was found in 20% (8/40) of cases, and intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion pattern was found in 32.5% (13/40) of cases. Conclusions In summary, this study showed significantly frequent intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression, gene fusion status and fusion pattern. This heterogeneity can be caused by the development of subclones during cancer progression or the intermingling of different tumors.

Avoidance of androgen deprivation therapy in radiorecurrent prostate cancer as a clinically meaningful endpoint for salvage cryoablation


Background To investigate the ability of salvage cryoablation of the prostate (SCAP) to delay the need for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in local recurrence after radiation therapy to the prostate using the Cryo-On-Line Database (COLD) registry. Methods The COLD registry is comprised of a combination of retrospectively and prospectively collected data on patients undergoing primary and SCAP. Patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate ADT-free survival. Results We identified 898 patients that have undergone SCAP in the COLD registry. Overall, the calculated 5-year ADT-free survival probability was 0.713. When stratified by D'Amico risk group, 264 high-risk patients (71.9%), 234 intermediate-risk (86.7%),and 228 low-risk (87.7%) were free of ADT post-SCAP. This correlates with a 5-year ADT-free survival of 60.7, 73.9, and 82.4%, respectively. Patients with post-SCAP PSA nadir of <0.2 ng/mL had a 5 year ADT-free survival of 87.1% compared to 48.7% with a PSA nadir ≥0.2 ng/mL. Pre-operative ADT use or full versus partial gland SCAP did not have an effect on ADT use post-operatively. In 118 (55.4%) of patients with post-operative biochemical recurrence, ADT was not used. Conclusion For patients with local recurrence after radiation, SCAP is an option that provides a high chance of avoiding or delaying ADT. The potential to delay ADT and its associated side effects should be a part of counseling sessions with the patient when discussing treatment options for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation. Avoidance of ADT is more clinically relevant than PSA elevation.