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Color Research & Application



Wiley Online Library : Color Research & Application



Published: 2018-04-01T00:00:00-05:00

 



Color appearance rating of familiar real objects under immersive viewing conditions

2018-02-10T00:26:18.569468-05:00

With the concept of memory colors being considered to play a crucial role for many imaging and lighting applications, the questions how people assess the color appearance of familiar objects and what kind of fundamental characteristics can be derived from these assessments have extensively been studied in the past. However, all of the previous studies, the authors of this article are aware of, lack in realistic viewing and adaptation conditions. In the attempt of overcoming these deficiencies, a new experiment investigating the impact of long-term memory on the color appearance ratings of 12 familiar test objects was performed. The pooled observer data were modeled in CIECAM02 color space using bivariate Gaussian functions whose centroids define the corresponding memory color centers for each test object. Comparisons with previous results obtained by Smet et al. revealed no significant differences in the reported memory color centers, but showed distinct deviations in the covariance matrices defining the shape of the fitted distribution functions. It is supposed that this new set of functions will lead to significantly different results when being used for the construction of an updated memory-based color quality metric.






Observer preference for perceived illumination chromaticity

2018-02-10T00:26:08.509223-05:00

Subjects assessed white tone preference and tint percentage perception (e.g., a faint greenish tint perceived in the white tone) in a viewing booth containing small colored objects at the illuminance level of 1000 lx for cool white, neutral white and warm white spectra. White points with the lowest perceived tint percentage were most preferred. White tone preference was rated on interval scales labeled by semantic categories, for example, “very good,” “good,” and “moderate” The location of the white points of different preference levels (e.g., “good-very good” level or “moderate-good” level) was depicted in the u′-v′ chromaticity diagram. The most preferred white points were located below the Planckian locus, inside the region of the white points required by CIE Publication 13.3 (1995) with the criterion of the chromaticity difference DC being <0.0054. The most preferred correlated color temperature (CCT) was at 3400, 4500, and 5800 K in the warm, neutral, and cool white CCT groups, respectively. Results were interpreted in terms of the Rea and Freyssinier (2014) model.



The influence of color on impulsiveness and arousal: Part 2 – Chroma

2018-02-10T00:26:02.195267-05:00

In the preceding Part 1, the effect of hue on impulsiveness and arousal was studied. From those results, yellow, red and orange were selected for further investigation since participants' performance was consistent with a low arousal state (high error rate and long response time) for the yellow background and high arousal state (low error rate and short response time) for the red background, whereas orange tended to result in high impulsiveness. This article will mainly investigate the fundamental theory of how chroma influences people's impulsiveness and arousal state. As in the previous article, the two main factors used to measure impulsiveness and arousal are also response time and error rate for each colored background. In the psychophysical experiment, participants were looking separately at backgrounds consisting of three hues (red, yellow and orange) with different chroma levels on screen to complete a range of psychometric tests. During the experiment, participants gave their response to the psychometric test as quickly and accurately as possible. From the results it can be seen that chroma has a significant influence on participants' response time and error rate, and influences impulsiveness and arousal. Gender difference will also be discussed in this article.



Computational color analysis of paintings for different artists of the XVI and XVII centuries

2018-02-10T00:25:25.981685-05:00

We have performed a computational color analysis of images of paintings for six master painters: Titian, Rubens, El Greco, Velázquez, Rembrandt, and Vermeer. These painters show the evolution from the renaissance to the baroque style. Different first and second-order statistical parameters have been obtained and analyzed in order to fix which of them can be common for the different artists and which of them can be representative of a certain period of time or the evolution of the art. The firsts include the orientation and semi-axes ratio of the ellipses that define the gamut in the chromaticity diagram and the dependencies with the frequency of the power of the Fourier transforms. Most differences among artists can be found in the volume and area of the gamut, the number of discernible colors which is greater for Titian, El Greco and Rubens, compared to Velázquez, Rembrandt and Vermeer, the average value of L* and the number of dark pixels.






Color appearance of afterimages compared to the chromatic adaptation to illumination

2018-02-01T23:40:29.658934-05:00

The color appearance of negative afterimages was measured by the elementary color naming method, and the results were compared with those obtained by the two-room technique. Twenty adapting stimuli were presented on a display sequentially. Subjects first assessed the color appearance of the stimuli. After looking at the adapting stimulus for 10 seconds, the subjects assessed color of the afterimage. Apparent hue of the afterimage was in general not opponent color to the adapting color. The relation between the adapting stimuli and the afterimages was analyzed by the angle difference Δθ, when apparent hues are expressed by the angles of the points on the polar diagram of the opponent color theory. The relation relationship of Δθ to the angle of the adapting color θing was quite similar to the results obtained by the two-room technique, implying that the chromatic adaptation shown by the afterimage also occurs in the brain rather than in the retina.



Apparel color preferences for different regions in China: The connection to personal values

2018-02-01T07:50:30.650007-05:00

This article examines the associations between personal values and apparel color preferences, and deduces the apparel color preferences of consumers based on the mainstream values in different regions in China. Clustering analysis was used to classify the values, and a Chi-square test was used to verify whether the different values had a significant effect on the consumer's color preferences. Finally, a corresponding analysis was conducted to clarify the associations between personal values and apparel color preferences. The associations reported in the study suggest the apparel color preferences in the 4 major urban agglomerations in China. It was found that consumers in the Pearl River Delta region were mainly ideal-oriented and authority value types and preferred darker apparel colors than other city groups in China; consumers in the Yangtze River Delta region were mainly responsibility-oriented and justice value types and preferred warmer and more contrasting colors; and consumers in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei and Chengdu–Chongqing regions were mainly benevolence-oriented value types, preferring more highly saturated and brighter colors than the other regions. Self-oriented consumers, who preferred cool and dark apparel colors were found to have no clear correspondence to any region. These results are important for fashion designers and fashion brands in China; it can assist the Chinese fashion industry in regionalizing their product offerings and in providing a theoretical reference for the development of the garment industry.



Requirements capture for colour information for design professionals

2018-02-01T07:50:26.139793-05:00

This article presents the results of a study that investigates the status of colour information use in the design process and generates ideas for a colour tool. Face-to-face interviews with senior designers and brand managers from the packaging and branding fields were conducted as the primary data collection method. The results are categorized into six topics: colour decision, types of colour information considered to be important in the design process, reasons for considering colour information important in the design process, current use of colour information, design professionals' preferences for existing colour tool types and data types and suggestions for a colour tool. It is concluded that there are problems with existing colour resources and tools regarding their availability and usefulness; there is a strong demand for a colour tool in the packaging design and branding processes. The insight from this work will help researchers, design professionals and colour tool developers to make informed decisions on the areas on which they should focus, how they should do so and why. This will facilitate better provisions and uptake of useful colour information for design professionals in the design process and strategy fields.



Noise segmentation for improving performance of Wiener filter method in spectral reflectance estimation

2018-01-07T23:52:35.801039-05:00

Noise is an indispensable part of an imaging system. For having acceptable performance of reflectance estimation from digital signals, noise effects should be controlled. In this study a new method based on segmentation of noise is presented. Simulation and real experiments on four reflectance data sets showed that noise segmentation improves Wiener filter estimation method. However, oversegmentation can have reverse effect on the reflectance estimation results.



Digitally reconstructing Van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles part 3: Determining the original colors

2017-12-13T23:09:14.365762-05:00

In earlier articles, we determined the spatial distributions and concentrations of all pigments used by Van Gogh in his painting Field with Irises near Arles. The colors of some pigments are expected to have changed over time, especially those of chrome yellow, cochineal, and eosin lake. For all pigments in this painting, we made physical paint reconstructions by following historical sources on raw materials and production processes, and we determined their optical properties. We combined this with pigment concentration maps to reconstruct the original colors of the painting digitally. When substituting the reconstruction paints into the calculations, we found that technical-scientific data was not sufficient to resolve several issues. In those cases, discussions within the broad interdisciplinary team allowed us to make informed decisions. These issues refer to the representation of the sky area, and the original contributions of the red lake pigments to local colors. The digitally reconstructed colors of the painting show that due to discoloring of red lake pigments, the irises in the field have changed from a warm purple to purplish blue, and many pink spots in the field have turned to white. The range of yellows in the field has decreased and partly turned to dark brown. The digital reconstruction gives a better understanding of the color scheme used by Van Gogh when compared to remarks the artist made in letters when describing this painting. Also, the original color composition is seen to be aligned with color theories on which Van Gogh based his work.



Toward improved aesthetics and data discrimination for treemaps via color schemes

2017-12-13T23:08:40.389945-05:00

In this article, we present a novel treemap coloring method which can help users to analyze visual data more easily. Our method overcomes two major limitations of existing treemaps in that they are either aesthetically unpleasing or unable to readily discriminate data blocks with close sizes. Our study indicates that the use of proper color schemes can surprisingly address these two seemingly uncorrelated limitations simultaneously. To improve the aesthetic value of a treemap, we apply the color aesthetic model to treemap generation. To better the degree of data discrimination of similar data, based on the principle of expansive and contractive colors, we propose a novel quantitative color-visually perceived area (C-VPA) model via experimental methods. Furthermore, we combine these two models to derive a genetic algorithm-based treemap coloring method. Our experimental results confirm the superiority of our method in terms of improved data discrimination and aesthetics of the treemaps.



A study on Fuzzy C-means application in Austronesian language cultural and creative product colors

2017-12-13T23:07:43.838983-05:00

As culture has brought unlimited possibility and business opportunities, the countries propose the cultural and creative industry to strengthen the distinctive feature of their own, to distinguish the cultural differences of every country, and to avoid assimilation of powerful countries and neighbor countries, thereby revitalize the economy of that country. In countries affected by Austronesian culture, such as Taiwan and New Zealand, the rules by the Western colonial powers caused impact of different cultural uniqueness, which led to cultural differences. It is important to figure out the way to integrate exclusive cultures into diverse cultures in order to identify the cultural features of the country, promote the country's culture to others and realize the goal of the cultural and creative industry. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to provide the application of Fuzzy C-means on cultural and creative products for designers. Finally, through the result of the design of case, cultural and creative products developed from Taiwan and New Zealand, fulfilled the purpose that the theory has been realized in practice, and the products successfully entered the markets.



Color matching of fiber blends: Stearns-Noechel model of digital rotor spun yarn

2017-11-16T00:25:31.804627-05:00

Stearns-Noechel model was utilized as a primary reference to study color matching principles of digital rotor spun yarn. Three primary colored (red, yellow and blue) cotton fibers were used to spin blended yarns. Spectral reflectance of the two-component and three-component samples was measured with data color spectrophotometer. For these samples, the Stearns-Noechel model parameter M was determined. Four methods were employed to calculate the M value to improve accuracy of the model, 1.Classical method, named as M1; 2.Optimizing the M1 value obtained by the classical method considering the wavelength factor, named as M2; 3.Simplified M2 according to the linear correlation with the wavelength, named as M3; 4. Simplified M2 according to the segmentation correlation with the wavelength, named as M4. The study shows that average color difference of the two-component decreases from 2.7 to 1.48, and for three-component samples from 3.32 to 1.66, by using M2 instead of M1. While calculated using M3, the color difference of the two types of samples will be 1.73 and 2.19, correspondingly. This cannot meet color matching needs. As for M4, the average color difference of the two categories will be 1.54 and 1.91, better than the result obtained using M1 and M3, worse than M2.



An online color naming experiment in Russian using Munsell color samples

2017-10-17T05:40:56.690638-05:00

Russian color naming was explored in a web-based experiment. The purpose was 3-fold: to examine (1) CIELAB coordinates of centroids for 12 Russian basic color terms (BCTs), including 2 Russian terms for “blue”, sinij “dark blue”, and goluboj “light blue”, and compare these with coordinates for the 11 English BCTs obtained in earlier studies; (2) frequent nonBCTs; and (3) gender differences in color naming. Native Russian speakers participated in the experiment using an unconstrained color-naming method. Each participant named 20 colors, selected from 600 colors densely sampling the Munsell Color Solid. Color names and response times of typing onset were registered. Several deviations between centroids of the Russian and English BCTs were found. The 2 “Russian blues”, as expected, divided the BLUE area along the lightness dimension; their centroids deviated from a centroid of English blue. Further minor departures were found between centroids of Russian and English counterparts of “brown” and “red”. The Russian color inventory confirmed the linguistic refinement of the PURPLE area, with high frequencies of nonBCTs. In addition, Russian speakers revealed elaborated naming strategies and use of a rich inventory of nonBCTs. Elicitation frequencies of the 12 BCTs were comparable for both genders; however, linguistic segmentation of color space, employing a synthetic observer, revealed gender differences in naming colors, with more refined naming of the “warm” colors from females. We conclude that, along with universal perceptual factors, that govern categorical partition of color space, Russian speakers’ color naming reflects language-specific factors, supporting the weak relativity hypothesis.



Supporting history of art with colorimetry: The paintings of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso

2017-10-14T03:40:28.963759-05:00

Colour is a key element in paintings but its quantitative analysis is seldom used as an interpretative element in the context of the history of art. Here, we show how this can be accomplished by measuring and analyzing the colours of the paintings of the influential Portuguese painter Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918). His last paintings have been classified by art historians as the most successful and are considered a chromatically homogeneous nucleus in his career. However, there are no quantitative data supporting these considerations. To access this we compared 24 of his paintings (1911-17) using hyperspectral imaging data. From estimates of the number of colours that can be perceived in each painting we show that in the later works Amadeo has expanded the range of colours by including more hues and more levels of lightness. Moreover, the paintings dated from 1917 have similar chromatic distributions in colour space. This colorimetric analysis revealed to be an important tool that provides quantitative support to the hypothesis formulated by art historians.



ISSUE INFORMATION

2018-02-08T23:32:22.074832-05:00

The cover image, by Eric Kirchner et al., is based on the Research Article Digitally reconstructing van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles part 2: Pigment concentration maps, DOI 10.1002/col.22164.



Issue Information - TOC

2018-02-08T23:32:22.117867-05:00




In this issue

2018-02-08T23:32:21.136049-05:00




Digitally reconstructing Van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles. Part 1: Varnish

2017-08-18T03:25:50.906886-05:00

Varnish layers applied to paintings often discolor as they age, upsetting the original colour relationships intended by the artist. The removal of aged varnish layers using physical and chemical means is a highly skilled and often time-consuming operation, which is not lightly undertaken. There are many aspects under consideration before embarking upon such treatment, including the visual result inferred by spot cleaning tests. In this article, we develop a technique for digital removal of discolored varnish that can help to envisage how a painting will look following cleaning treatment. The digital technique was applied to Vincent van Gogh's painting Field with Irises near Arles (May 1888), in parallel to the painting actually being cleaned, which allowed direct validation of the method developed. In the new method, we utilized not only hyperspectral data from parts of the painting with and without the varnish, but also experts' identification of spots on the painting where unmixed white pigment has been applied. The physical model that we use is based on Kubelka-Munk two-constant theory, commonly used to model the optical properties of paint. We show that with this model it is possible to determine the transmittance and reflectance of the varnish layer as function of wavelength. Results from previous studies confirm the calculated values. With the new method, we created a high-resolution digital image of the painting, as it would look after varnish removal, at a moment when the actual varnish was still present on the painting. The new method may help conservators and others involved in decisions made regarding issues of varnish removal from paintings, or may help to visualize the colors of a painting without discolored varnish in cases where its physical removal cannot be safely accomplished and so is not an option.



Digitally reconstructing Van Gogh's Field with Irises near Arles. Part 2: Pigment concentration maps

2017-08-25T06:56:00.004214-05:00

Colors in many paintings of great art historical value have changed over time, due to the combined effects of natural ageing, accumulated surface grime, and materials added during later conservation treatments. The physical restoration of the colors in such paintings is not possible. This article describes one part of work done to digitally restore the colors of Van Gogh's painting Field with Irises near Arles, dating from May 1888. We have used multispectral reflectance data to estimate absorption K and backscattering S parameters of Kubelka-Munk 2-constant theory. This was done for all 13 pigments known to have been used by Van Gogh in this painting, and based on this the concentration maps for each of these pigments were calculated. We validated the calculated concentration maps in several ways. For some pigments, we were able to predict spots on the painting where the pigment is expected to occur in unmixed form based on visual examination. For several other pigments, the concentration maps could be shown to agree with XRF data. Finally, for some other pigments the concentration maps were supported by additional evidence from microscopic examinations, remarks in Van Gogh's letters and from early color reproductions. For the 1.7 million pixels for which multispectral data is available, the average color difference between the calculated and measured spectral reflectance curves is CIEDE2000 = 1.05. This further confirms that the Kubelka-Munk calculations are well suited to describe the variety of spectral reflectance on the painting.



Identification of vivianite, an unusual blue pigment, in a sixteenth century painting and its implications

2017-10-09T00:00:31.888702-05:00

Vivianite, a blue pigment employed in the past practically only in Northern and Central Europe, but with very limited use, was identified in an early sixteenth century painting, stylistically with Flemish features, from a church in Portugal. The identification of this iron phosphate mineral was made by SEM-EDS based on the atomic ratio between phosphorus and iron in layers of blue paint (area analysis) and in particles of these same layers (spot analysis). This painting, about which there is no document to prove its authorship, becomes the first case, known in detail, of a sixteenth century painting containing vivianite. Moreover, this find and the presence of a chalk ground, also identified, strongly support the hypothesis of being a Flemish painting.



Development of a novel tissue-mimicking color calibration slide for digital microscopy

2017-10-09T00:00:51.06857-05:00

Digital microscopy produces high resolution digital images of pathology slides. Because no acceptable and effective control of color reproduction exists in this domain, there is significant variability in color reproduction of whole slide images. Guidance from international bodies and regulators highlights the need for color standardization. To address this issue, we systematically measured and analyzed the spectra of histopathological stains. This information was used to design a unique color calibration slide utilizing real stains and a tissue-like substrate, which can be stained to produce the same spectral response as tissue. By closely mimicking the colors in stained tissue, our target can provide more accurate color representation than film-based targets, whilst avoiding the known limitations of using actual tissue. The application of the color calibration slide in the clinical setting was assessed by conducting a pilot user-evaluation experiment with promising results. With the imminent integration of digital pathology into the routine work of the diagnostic pathologist, it is hoped that this color calibration slide will help provide a universal color standard for digital microscopy thereby ensuring better and safer healthcare delivery.



Identification and formalization of knowledge for coloring qualitative geospatial data

2017-10-11T08:25:52.881786-05:00

Creating a satisfying qualitative color scheme from scratch may be difficult for novice mapmakers and experts. A probability-based method is proposed to identify knowledge regarding qualitative color selection from readily available color schemes and formalize the discovered knowledge to assist in color creation. An unsupervised method to extract the general trends of color selection is presented, and the issue of qualitative color selection is translated into a multi-constraint optimization problem. A feasible solution for achieving the global optimum is then provided. A probability-based method is also proposed to match abstract color values with specific mapping features. This proposed approach is evaluated in a case study. The results of the case study suggest that the proposed method allows users to create qualitative color schemes more efficiently and confidently.



Gender difference in color preference across cultures: An archetypal pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype

2017-10-11T23:05:36.160842-05:00

A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. The 35-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) and Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) questionnaires were also administered to explore possible links between personality traits, gender schemata, and color preferences. Results confirmed a gender difference in both cultures; participants collectively expressed a preference for cool over warm colors, while in addition females showed a preference for pink colors, with a warm bias for Indian females and a cool bias for British females. While these results extend gender difference to Indian culture and support the universality of an underlying pattern they also reveal a culture-specific contribution essentially observed in females. In British participants, color preference was correlated exclusively with BSRI scores in females and overwhelmingly with IPIP scores in males; this gender-specific pattern of correlation was not replicated in the Indian sample. Results point to an archetypal pattern of gender difference in color preference with a remarkable cross-cultural similarity in men and a subtle but significant cultural difference in women whose origin is yet to be explained.



Correspondence analysis of color–emotion associations

2017-08-30T00:53:41.05815-05:00

Emotions are often associated with colors, but what mediates color–emotion associations is not fully understood. This study examined associations between colors and emotions using correspondence analysis. The hypothesis that emotions are associated with colors through the correspondence between the hue circle and the circumplex model of emotion/affect was tested. Participants viewed 40 colors and reported a word that expressed an emotion that they associated with or felt in response to each color. Participants' responses were aggregated into a contingency table of colors and emotion words, and a correspondence analysis was conducted. An eight-dimensional biplot was obtained. The first and second dimensions were related to hue, and the hue configuration was similar to colors' spectral trajectory in the CIE xy space or the CIELAB a*b* color space. The configuration of emotions was not consistent with the circumplex model of emotion, which rejected the above hypothesis. The associations in dimensions 1 and 2 appeared to be mediated by the perceived temperature of colors and emotions. In dimensions 3–6, dimensions that seemed to reflect secondary associations based on cultural convention or personal experiences (such as white with emotionless and purity and blue with depression) were obtained. These results also demonstrated the usefulness of correspondence analysis for analyzing color–emotion associations due to its ability to reveal the underlying statistical structure of associations.



Application of the nondestructive second derivative spectrophotometry to eliminate the effect of substrate in identification of madder used in Persian carpets

2017-09-23T01:00:23.492854-05:00

The handmade Persian carpet is famous worldwide not only for its elegant design and artistic structure, but also for its brilliant color harmony and incomparable raw materials. Various natural dyes accompanied by different mordants are used on various woolen yarns to obtain a wide range of unrepeatable shades for carpet. In this article, as a first step, the diversity of the undyed woolen yarns used in Persian carpets was statistically investigated by implementation of the Principle Component Analysis. Then the second derivative of Kubelka-Munk function of samples dyed with madder was considered to reach a pattern for identifying madder. The results show that, although the spectral reflectance of different selected woolen yarns has at least 3 dimensions, all derivative curves are qualitatively very similar with the same minimum and maximum peaks at 510 and 605 nm, respectively. The findings are confirmed when various types of madder were used in the dyeing process. As a result, it is shown that the nondestructive derivative spectrophotometry is able to identify madder on alum mordanted woolen yarns used in Persian carpets and to eliminate the effect of substrate. It is a useful technique for preservation, conservation, and dissemination of the Persian carpet.



The association between colors and emotions for emotional words and facial expressions

2017-10-11T23:06:03.472144-05:00

Color sensations are tied not only to other sensations, but also emotions. There have been many studies on this. One study regarding architectural color showed that colors were associated with mental status; for example, red relates to arousal, excitation, and stimulus. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how colors are evoked by emotions. The emotions were described both by emotional words and by schematic faces. Since facial expressions are accompanied by facial color, facial expressions should relate more closely to facial color than emotional words. Therefore, we used numerous color samples for our experiments to show discrimination sensitivity to stimuli in subtle differences of color. Some associations between colors and emotions were found, and the tendencies of associations were different among emotions. Anger, joy, surprise, sadness, and no emotion were connected to particular colors. The distribution of color responses in sadness was spread among bluish colors. The emotional tendencies, among anger, joy, surprise, and sadness, were similar in the two conditions of our experiment. However, in the schematic face condition, the color responses for all emotions were increased in the skin-colored samples. Thus, the context of the face elicited the color responses.



The role of individual colour preferences in consumer purchase decisions

2017-10-10T23:05:41.428398-05:00

The purpose of this study is to test whether consumers' personal colour preferences (in an abstract sense rather than for a particular product) affect their intended product purchase decisions if they are given various colour choices. This work employs two experiments with visual components to investigate which colour a participant would choose if asked to select a product to purchase when there is a range of colours available. Two experiments were also designed to elicit a response about which colour each participant prefers (in an abstract sense). The study finds that personal colour preferences affect intended product-colour purchase decisions but that the extent of this varies from one product category to the next. Further analysis reveals that personal colour preferences are secondary to factors such as colour functionality and colour performance. This work presents new experimental data about the role of colour in product and product packaging on intended consumer purchase decisions. A conceptual framework, supported by the experimental findings, are understanding the relationship between individual colour preferences and product-choice colours, and more functional aspects of colour itself (such as the effect of colour on product's performance or functionality).



Does uniform color affect offside in association football?

2017-09-28T04:55:35.062934-05:00

Past research has documented an impact of sportswear color on performance and referees' judgments in combat and team sports. Amongst other things, it was argued that these effects may arise from differences in visibility. In this regard, the current study was aimed at questioning the impact of uniform color on offside judgments in association football. We analyzed the number of offside judgments for 1530 matches from the first and second division of the football league in Germany and recorded the color of shirts, shorts and stockings for both teams. Data analyses revealed that attacking teams wearing black shirts and black stockings were accompanied by fewer offside decisions. In contrast, defending teams wearing black or green kits were accompanied by increased offside judgments against the opposing teams. Thus, it seems that black and green kits yielded favourable offside judgments. Regarding the low color contrast with green uniforms on a green lawn and the lower detection rate of dark colors the results suggest that green and black kits are less visible, which may impede players' visual detection. The results emphasise the importance of analyzing the role of uniform color in the context of offside decisions to ensure fair play and equal opportunities of winning.



Handling translucent specimens in an opaque Kubelka–Munk Environment

2017-09-20T22:05:24.043265-05:00

Computer-color matching usually employs a subset of Kubelka–Munk equations which require that each specimen analyzed be at complete hiding. This set of equations is preferred because they are simpler than their counterpart equations that operate at incomplete hiding. On the other hand, in coatings and plastics very often colorant specimens must be utilized that, either because of their nature or concentration, fail to qualify as being at complete hiding. This communication examines techniques for handling such cases and makes recommendations for obtaining the theoretical opaque reflectance of the specimens from measurements over both black and white. In addition, the article recommends a new relationship that more aptly characterizes the contrast ratios required than previous methods have done.



The relationship between container colors and the beauty benefits of skin care products

2017-10-18T05:01:17.368148-05:00

This study explored the best color selections to match the benefits of beauty products based on rankings obtained from an experimental perception of different skin care product containers. Gender (64 males, 75 females) and cultural (76 Taiwanese, 63 Malaysians) differences were also compared, aiming to explore color associations and emotional bonding by using psychophysical testing methods. A survey of 205 market samples showed that nearly half of the existing skin care product containers had a white body color. White appeared frequently on containers for skin whitening, firming, exfoliating, antiaging, and antiacne products. However, skin moisturizing products used an equal amount of white and blue on their containers. The psychophysical experiment results showed that participants felt that white best matched skin whitening products, red matched skin firming and antiaging products, blue matched skin moisturizing products, black matched exfoliating products, and green matched antiacne products. Neither gender nor cultural differences were found to be significant. Comparing the results with color emotion studies, it was found that (1) for color emotion weight, firming products were related to heaviness, whereas whitening products were connected to lightness; (2) for color emotion heat, whitening, moisturizing, exfoliating and antiacne products were aligned with coolness; and (3) for color emotion activity, product container colors were not related, except slightly for firming products. These findings suggest that psychological responses to color meaning are context- and experience-dependent, meaning that selection of colors to match beauty benefits is based more on people's expectations of the products than their color emotion response.