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HESS - recent papers



Combined list of the recent articles of the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences and the recent discussion forum Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions



 



Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Root growth, water uptake, and sap flow of winter wheat in response to different soil water conditions
Gaochao Cai, Jan Vanderborght, Matthias Langensiepen, Andrea Schnepf, Hubert Hüging, and Harry Vereecken
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2449-2470, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2449-2018, 2018
Different crop growths had consequences for the parameterization of root water uptake models. The root hydraulic parameters of the Couvreur model but not the water stress parameters of the Feddes–Jarvis model could be constrained by the field data measured from rhizotron facilities. The simulated differences in transpiration from the two soils and the different water treatments could be confirmed by sap flow measurements. The Couvreur model predicted the ratios of transpiration fluxes better.



Critical scales to explain urban hydrological response: an application in Cranbrook, London

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Critical scales to explain urban hydrological response: an application in Cranbrook, London
Elena Cristiano, Marie-Claire ten Veldhuis, Santiago Gaitan, Susana Ochoa Rodriguez, and Nick van de Giesen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2425-2447, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2425-2018, 2018
In this work we investigate the influence rainfall and catchment scales have on hydrological response. This problem is quite relevant in urban areas, where the response is fast due to the high degree of imperviousness. We presented a new approach to classify rainfall variability in space and time and use this classification to investigate rainfall aggregation effects on urban hydrological response. This classification allows the spatial extension of the main core of the storm to be identified.



Multimodel assessment of climate change-induced hydrologic impacts for a Mediterranean catchment

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Multimodel assessment of climate change-induced hydrologic impacts for a Mediterranean catchment
Enrica Perra, Monica Piras, Roberto Deidda, Claudio Paniconi, Giuseppe Mascaro, Enrique R. Vivoni, Pierluigi Cau, Pier Andrea Marras, Ralf Ludwig, and Swen Meyer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-165,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
This work addresses the impact of climate change on the hydrology of a catchment in the Mediterranean, a region that is highly susceptible to variations in rainfall and other components of the water budget. The assessment is based on a comparison of responses obtained from five hydrologic models implemented for the Rio Mannu catchment in southern Sardinia (Italy). The examined models – CATchment HYdrology (CATHY), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), TOPographic Kinematic APproximation and Integration (TOPKAPI), TIN-based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), and WAter balance SImulation Model (WASIM) – are all distributed hydrologic models but differ greatly in their representation of terrain features and physical processes and in their numerical complexity. After calibration and validation, the models were forced with bias-corrected, downscaled outputs of four combinations of global and regional climate models in a reference (1971–2000) and a future (2041–2070) period under a single emission scenario. Climate forcing variations and the structure of the hydrologic models influence the different components of the catchment response. Three water availability response variables – discharge, soil water content, and actual evapotranspiration – are analyzed. Simulation results from all five hydrologic models show for the future period decreasing mean annual streamflow and soil water content at 1 m depth. Actual evapotranspiration in the future will diminish according to four of the five models due to drier soil conditions. Despite their significant differences, the five hydrologic models responded similarly to the reduced precipitation and increased temperatures predicted by the climate models, and lend strong support to a future scenario of increased water shortages for this region of the Mediterranean basin. The multimodel framework adopted for this study allows estimation of the agreement between the five hydrologic models and between the four climate models. Pairwise comparison of the climate and hydrologic models is shown for the reference and future periods using a recently proposed metric that scales the Pearson correlation coefficient with a factor that accounts for systematic differences between datasets. The results from this analysis reflect the key structural differences between the hydrologic models, such as a representation of both vertical and lateral subsurface flow (CATHY, TOPKAPI, and tRIBS) and a detailed treatment of vegetation processes (SWAT and WASIM).



Using paleoclimate reconstructions to analyse hydrological epochs associated with Pacific Decadal Variability

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Using paleoclimate reconstructions to analyse hydrological epochs associated with Pacific Decadal Variability
Lanying Zhang, George Kuczera, Anthony S. Kiem, and Garry Willgoose
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-173,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
The duration of dry or wet hydrological epochs (run lengths) associated with positive or negative Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) or Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phases, termed Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV), is an essential statistical property for understanding, assessing and managing hydroclimatic risk. Numerous IPO and PDO paleoclimate reconstructions provide a valuable opportunity to study the statistical signatures of PDV, including run lengths. However, disparities exist between these reconstructions making it problematic to determine which reconstruction(s) to use to investigate pre-instrumental PDV and run length. Variability and persistence on centennial scales are also present in some millennium long reconstructions, making consistent run length extraction difficult. Thus, a robust method to extract meaningful and consistent run lengths from multiple reconstructions is required. In this study, a dynamic threshold framework to account for centennial trends in PDV reconstructions is proposed. The dynamic threshold framework is shown to extract meaningful run length information from multiple reconstructions. Two hydrologically important aspects of the statistical signatures associated with the PDV are explored: (i) whether persistence (i.e. run lengths) during positive epochs is different to persistence during negative epochs and (ii) whether the reconstructed run lengths are stationary during the past millennium. Results suggest that there is no significant difference between run lengths in positive and negative phases of PDV and that it is more likely than not that the PDV run length has been non-stationary in the past millennium. This raises concerns about whether variability seen in the instrumental record (the last ~ 100 years), or even in the shorter 300–400 year paleoclimate reconstructions, is representative of the full range of variability.



Hydrological effects of climate variability and vegetation dynamics on annual fluvial water balance at global large river basins

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Hydrological effects of climate variability and vegetation dynamics on annual fluvial water balance at global large river basins
Jianyu Liu, Qiang Zhang, Vijay P. Singh, Changqing Song, Yongqiang Zhang, and Peng Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-200,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Considering effective precipitation (Pe), the Budyko framework was extended to the annual water balance analysis. To reflect the mismatch between water supply (precipitation, P) and energy (potential evapotranspiration, E0), a climate seasonality and asynchrony index (SAI) were proposed in terms of both phase and amplitude mismatch between P and E0.



Multi-site calibration and validation of SWAT with satellite-based evapotranspiration in a data sparse catchment in southwestern Nigeria

Mon, 23 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Multi-site calibration and validation of SWAT with satellite-based evapotranspiration in a data sparse catchment in southwestern Nigeria
Abolanle E. Odusanya, Bano Mehdi, Christoph Schürz, Adebayo O. Oke, Olufiropo S. Awokola, Julius A. Awomeso, Joseph O. Adejuwon, and Karsten Schulz
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-170,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
The main objective of this study was to calibrate and validate each of Soil and Water Assessment Tool delineated subbasins with satellite based actual evapotranspiration data (MOD16 and GLEAM_3a),thereby obtaining a better performing model at the local scale as well as at the whole watershed level .This study demonstrated the potential to use remotely sensed evapotranspiration data for hydrological model calibration and validation in a sparsely gauged large river basin with reasonable accuracy.



Analyzing the future climate change of Upper Blue Nile River basin using statistical downscaling techniques

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Analyzing the future climate change of Upper Blue Nile River basin using statistical downscaling techniques
Dagnenet Fenta Mekonnen and Markus Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2391-2408, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2391-2018, 2018
In this study we used multimodel GCMs (because of recognized intervariable biases in host GCMs) and two widely used statistical downscaling techniques (LARS-WG and SDSM) to see comparative performances in the Upper Blue Nile River basin, where there is high climate variability. The result from the two downscaling models suggested that both SDSM and LARS-WG approximate the observed climate data reasonably well and project an increasing trend for precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature.



Analytical flow duration curves for summer streamflow in Switzerland

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Analytical flow duration curves for summer streamflow in Switzerland
Ana Clara Santos, Maria Manuela Portela, Andrea Rinaldo, and Bettina Schaefli
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2377-2389, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2377-2018, 2018
This paper assesses the performance of an analytical modeling framework for probability distributions for summer streamflow of 25 Swiss catchments that present a wide range of hydroclimatic regimes, including snow- and icemelt-influenced streamflows. Two versions of the model were tested: linear and nonlinear. The results show that the model performs well for summer discharges under all analyzed regimes and that model performance varies with mean catchment elevation.



Automatic design of basin-specific drought indexes for highly regulated water systems

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Automatic design of basin-specific drought indexes for highly regulated water systems
Marta Zaniolo, Matteo Giuliani, Andrea Francesco Castelletti, and Manuel Pulido-Velazquez
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2409-2424, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2409-2018, 2018
Drought indexes are an effective tool to support drought management in water systems, but their definition must be tailored to the features of the considered basin. In highly regulated contexts, non-generalizable ad hoc methods are usually employed to design these indexes. This paper contributes the novel Framework for Index-based Drought Analysis (FRIDA) that supports the automatic construction of basin-customized drought indexes representing a surrogate of the basin drought conditions.



Potential application of hydrological ensemble prediction in forecasting flood and its components over the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, China

Fri, 20 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Potential application of hydrological ensemble prediction in forecasting flood and its components over the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, China
Li Liu, Su L. Pan, Zhi X. Bai, and Yue P. Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-179,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
The ensemble flood forecasting system can skillfully predict annual maximum floods with a lead time of more than 10 days and has skill in forecasting the snowmelt-related components in about 7 days ahead. The accuracy of forecasts for annual first floods is inferior with a lead time of only 5 days. The snowmelt-induced surface runoff is the most poorly captured component by the system, and the well-predicted rainfall-related components are the major contributor for good performance.



Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model

Thu, 19 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model
Xinzhong Du, Narayan Kumar Shrestha, Darren L. Ficklin, and Junye Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2343-2357, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2343-2018, 2018
In this study we propose using the equilibrium temperature approach to model complex heat transfer processes at the water–air interface in the SWAT model, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model provided a better and more consistent performance in simulating stream temperatures in the different regions of the Athabasca River basin.



Analysis of groundwater flow and stream depletion in L-shaped fluvial aquifers

Thu, 19 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Analysis of groundwater flow and stream depletion in L-shaped fluvial aquifers
Chao-Chih Lin, Ya-Chi Chang, and Hund-Der Yeh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2359-2375, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2359-2018, 2018
An semanalytical model is developed for estimating the groundwater flow and stream depletion rates (SDR) from two streams in an L-shaped fluvial aquifer located at Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The predicted spatial and temporal hydraulic heads agree well with those of simulations and measurements. The model can be applied to evaluate the contribution of extracted water from storage and nearby streams.



Compound flood potential in Europe

Thu, 19 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Compound flood potential in Europe
Dominik Paprotny, Michalis I. Vousdoukas, Oswaldo Morales-Nápoles, Sebastiaan N. Jonkman, and Luc Feyen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-132,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 2 comments)
The interaction between storm surges and inland runoff has been gaining increasing attention recently, as they have the potential to result in compound floods. In Europe, several flood events of this type have been recorded in the past century in Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and United Kingdom. Here, we investigate the probability of joint occurrence of storm surges, precipitation, river discharges and waves. A coincidence of those factors have a potential to cause compound floods. We use several datasets covering most of Europe, including observations and data from the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS), ERA-Interim climate reanalysis and a regional climate model within the CORDEX framework, and carry out a statistical analysis based on copulas to assess the likelihood of joint occurrence. Further, we synthesize the joint probability of occurrence of extreme compound events, and their intensity, in the form of a composite index, thus identifying areas where compound floods could be of most concern. The results show considerable regional differences in dependency structure and the resulting joint probability of extreme surge, precipitation and river discharge events. In southern Europe the probability of joint occurrence of storm surge and precipitation is relatively high due to significant flash flood hazard. In northern Europe, along the main corridor of winter storms, dependency between surges and river discharges is higher than elsewhere, with large differences between west-facing and east-facing coasts. The occurrence of compound floods in most of the Nordic countries and along the Black Sea is very unlikely. The results allow the identification of areas at risk from compound flooding. Future studies that utilize statistical and physical methods are recommended to assess interactions between surges and inland runoff at a local scale.



Regional evapotranspiration from an image-based implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model and its validation across an aridity gradient in the conterminous US

Wed, 18 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Regional evapotranspiration from an image-based implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model and its validation across an aridity gradient in the conterminous US
Nishan Bhattarai, Kaniska Mallick, Nathaniel A. Brunsell, Ge Sun, and Meha Jain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2311-2341, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2311-2018, 2018
We report the first ever regional-scale implementation of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC1.2) model for mapping evapotranspiration (ET) using MODIS land surface and gridded climate datasets to overcome the existing uncertainties in aerodynamic temperature and conductance estimation in global ET models. Validation and intercomparison with SEBS and MOD16 products across an aridity gradient in the US manifested better ET mapping potential of STIC1.2 in different climates and biomes.



Breeze effects at a large artificial lake: summer case study

Wed, 18 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Breeze effects at a large artificial lake: summer case study
Maksim Iakunin, Rui Salgado, and Miguel Potes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-201,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Lakes and reservoirs can affect local weather regime but usually it is difficult to trace and assess it. In this work we used Meso-NH atmospheric model to study an impact of Alqueva reservoir, one of the largest artificial lakes in Western Europe located in South-East of Portugal, on meteorological parameters and formation of lake breeze system. The magnitude of this impact as well as intensity of the breeze are shown in the paper.



Rapid Phase Transfer of DOC and DIC Transport in a Subtropical Small Mountainous River

Tue, 17 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Rapid Phase Transfer of DOC and DIC Transport in a Subtropical Small Mountainous River
Yu-Ting Shih, Pei-Hao Chen, Li-Chin Lee, Chien-Sen Liao, Shih-Hao Jien, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Tsung-Yu Lee, Thomas Hein, Franz Zehetner, Chung-Te Chang, and Jr-Chuan Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-126,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Transport of riverine dissolved carbon (including DOC and DIC) is a crucial process which links terrestrial and aquatic C storages, but is rarely examined in small subtropical mountainous rivers. This study monitored DOC and DIC concentrations on a biweekly basis during regular flow period and at 3-hour intervals during two typhoons in 3 small mountainous rivers in southwestern Taiwan between Jan 2014 and Aug 2016. A hydrological model, HBV, and three end-member mixing model were applied to determine the quantities of DOC and DIC transport from different flowpaths. The results showed that the annual DOC and DIC fluxes were 2.7–4.8 and 48.4–54.3 ton-C km−2 yr−1, which were 2- and 20 times higher than the global mean of 1.4 and 2.6 ton-C km−2 yr−1. The DIC / DOC ratio was 14.08, much higher than the mean (1.86) of large rivers worldwide, indicating the high rates of chemical weathering and/or low rates of decomposition in this region. Two typhoons contributed 12–14 % of the annual streamflow in only 3 days (~ 1.0 % of the annual time), whereas 15.0–23.5 % and 9.2–12.6 % of the annual DOC and DIC flux, respectively, suggested that typhoons play a more important role on DOC transport than DIC transport. End-member mixing model suggested that DOC export was mainly from surface runoff, while DIC transport was mainly through deep groundwater. The unique patterns seen in Taiwan SMRs characterized by high dissolved carbon flux, high DIC / DOC ratio, and large transport by intense storms should be taken into consideration when estimating global carbon budgets.



Exploring the relationship between warm season precipitation, potential evaporation, and apparent potential evaporation at site scale

Tue, 17 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Exploring the relationship between warm season precipitation, potential evaporation, and apparent potential evaporation at site scale
Xi Chen and Steven G. Buchberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-186,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Based on warm season data from 259 weather stations across the US, we analyze the correlation between precipitation, potential evaporation, and apparent potential evaporation (measured by pan evaporation). Over 93 % of the stations show negative correlation between precipitation and apparent potential evaporation, but no clear relationship is shown between precipitation and potential evaporation. The collected data points are also following the trend of the newly derived Bouchet-Budyko curve.



Microbial community changes induced by Managed Aquifer Recharge activities: Linking hydrogeological and biological processes

Tue, 17 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Microbial community changes induced by Managed Aquifer Recharge activities: Linking hydrogeological and biological processes
Carme Barba, Albert Folch, Núria Gaju, Xavier Sanchez-Vila, Marc Carrasquilla, Alba Grau-Martínez, and Maira Martínez-Alonso
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-174,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Managed aquifer recharge allows increasing water resources and can be used to improve water quality. We assess the degradative capabilities of infiltrating pollutants by mapping the composition of microbial communities' linked to periods of infiltration/drought. From samples of soil, surface and groundwater, we found some microbial species involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles. Furthermore, we found that during infiltration microbial abundance rises, increasing degradative capabilities.



Cross-validation of bias-corrected climate simulations is misleading

Tue, 17 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Cross-validation of bias-corrected climate simulations is misleading
Douglas Maraun and Martin Widmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-151,2018
Manuscript under review for HESS (discussion: open, 0 comments)
Cross-validation of free running bias-corrected climate change simulations against observations is misleading, because it is dominated by internal variability. In particular, a sensible bias correction may be rejected and a non-sensible bias correction may be accepted. We therefore propose to avoid cross-validation when evaluating bias correction of free running bias-corrected climate change simulations. Instead, one should evaluate temporal, spatial and process-based aspects.



Reconstruction of droughts in India using multiple land-surface models (1951–2015)

Mon, 16 Apr 2018 23:57:45 +0200

Reconstruction of droughts in India using multiple land-surface models (1951–2015)
Vimal Mishra, Reepal Shah, Syed Azhar, Harsh Shah, Parth Modi, and Rohini Kumar
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2269-2284, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-2269-2018, 2018
India has witnessed some of the most severe historical droughts in the current decade, and severity, frequency, and areal extent of droughts have been increasing. As a large part of the population of India is dependent on agriculture, soil moisture drought affecting agricultural activities (crop yields) has significant impacts on socio-economic conditions. Due to limited observations, soil moisture is generally simulated using land-surface hydrological models (LSMs); however, these LSM outputs have uncertainty due to many factors, including errors in forcing data and model parameterization. Here we reconstruct agricultural drought events over India during the period of 1951–2015 based on simulated soil moisture from three LSMs, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), the Noah, and the Community Land Model (CLM). Based on simulations from the three LSMs, we find that major drought events occurred in 1987, 2002, and 2015 during the monsoon season (June through September). During the Rabi season (November through February), major soil moisture droughts occurred in 1966, 1973, 2001, and 2003. Soil moisture droughts estimated from the three LSMs are comparable in terms of their spatial coverage; however, differences are found in drought severity. Moreover, we find a higher uncertainty in simulated drought characteristics over a large part of India during the major crop-growing season (Rabi season, November to February: NDJF) compared to those of the monsoon season (June to September: JJAS). Furthermore, uncertainty in drought estimates is higher for severe and localized droughts. Higher uncertainty in the soil moisture droughts is largely due to the difference in model parameterizations (especially soil depth), resulting in different persistence of soil moisture simulated by the three LSMs. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for the LSMs' uncertainty and consideration of the multi-model ensemble system for the real-time monitoring and prediction of drought over India.