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Published: 2018-03-19T20:30:00-05:00
When a gravitational wave is detected by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, sophisticated parameter estimation (PE) pipelines spring into action. These pipelines leverage approximants to generate large numbers of theoretical gravitational waveform predictions to characterize the detected signal. One of the most accurate and physically comprehensive classes of approximants in wide use is the "Spinning Effective One Body--Numerical Relativity" (SEOBNR) family. Waveform generation with these approximants can be computationally expensive, which has limited their usefulness in multiple data analysis contexts. In prior work we improved the performance of the aligned-spin approximant SEOBNR version 2 (v2) by nearly 300x. In this work we focus on optimizing the full eight-dimensional, precessing approximant SEOBNR version 3 (v3). While several v2 optimizations were implemented during its development, v3 is far too slow for use in state-of-the-art source characterization efforts for long-inspiral detections. Completion of a PE run after such a detection could take centuries to complete using v3. Here we develop and implement a host of optimizations for v3, calling the optimized approximant v3_Opt. Our optimized approximant is about 340x faster than v3, and generates waveforms that are numerically indistinguishable.
Gravitational Wave (GW) astronomy severely narrowed down the theoretical space for scalar-tensor theories. We propose a (non-conformal) class of attractor models in which GWs propagate at the speed of light in the nearby universe but not in the past. To do so we derive new solutions to the interacting dark sector in which the ratio of dark energy and dark matter remains constant, which we refer to as {\it doppelg{\"a}nger dark energy} (DDE). We then remove the interaction between dark matter and dark energy by a suitable change of variables. The accelerated expansion that (we) baryons observe is due to a conformal coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We show how in this context it is possible to find a non trivial subset of solutions in which GWs propagate at the speed of light only at low red-shifts. The model is an attractor, thus reaching the limit $c_{T}\to1$ relatively fast. However, the effect of baryons turns out to be non-negligible and severely constrains the form of the Lagrangian. In passing, we found that in the simplest DDE models the no-ghost conditions for perturbations require a non-universal coupling to gravity. In the end, we comment on possible ways to solve the lack of matter domination stage for DDE models.
Recently, the inverse $\beta$-decay rate calculated with respect to uniformly accelerated observers (experiencing the Unruh thermal bath) was revisited. Concerns have been raised regarding the compatibility of inertial and accelerated observers' results when neutrino mixing is taken into account. Here, we show that these concerns are unfounded by discussing the properties of the Unruh thermal bath with mixing neutrinos and explicitly calculating the decay rates according to both sets of observers and confirming that they are in agreement. The Unruh effect is perfectly valid for mixing neutrinos.
A model is presented where the quintessence parameter, w, is related to a time-varying gravitational constant. Assuming a present value of w equals -.98, we predict a current variation of G dot/G = -.06 H0. H0 is Hubbles parameter, G is Newtons constant and G dot is the derivative of G with respect to time. Thus, G has a cosmic origin, is decreasing with respect to cosmological time, and is proportional to H0, as originally proposed by the Dirac-Jordan hypothesis. Within our model, we can explain the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem, the discrepancy between the present very weak value of the cosmological constant, and the much greater vacuum energy found in earlier epochs. To formalize and solidify our model, we give two distinct functions of G(a), the cosmic scale parameter. We treat inverse G as an order parameter, which vanishes at high energies; at low temperatures, it reaches a saturation value, a value we are close to today. Our first function for inverse G is motivated by a charging capacitor; the second treats inverse G by analogy to a magnetic response. Both functions, even though very distinct, give a remarkably similar tracking behavior for w(a). Interestingly, both functions indicate the onset of G formation at a temperature of approximately 7 *1021 degrees Kelvin, in contrast to the concordance model. At the temperature of formation, we find that G has increased to roughly 4*1020 times its present value. For most of cosmic evolution, however, our variable G model gives results similar to the predictions of the concordance model, except in the very early universe, as we shall demonstrate. Within our framework, the weakening of G to its current value G0 is speculated as the true cause for the observed unanticipated acceleration of the universe.
We give the formulation and the general analysis of the rotational accretion problem on $D$-dimensional spherical spacetime and investigate sonic points and critical points. First, we construct the simple two-dimensional rotating accretion flow model in general $D$-dimensional static spherically symmetric spacetime and formulate the problem. The flow forms a two-dimensional disk lying on the equatorial plane and the disk is assumed to be geometrically thin and has uniform distribution in the polar angle directions. Analyzing the critical point of the problem, we give the conditions for the critical point and its classification explicitly and show the coincidence with the sonic point for generic equation of state (EOS). Next, adopting the EOS of ideal photon gas to the analysis, we reveal that there always exists a correspondence between the sonic points and the photon spheres of the spacetime. Our main result is that the sonic point of the rotating accretion flow of ideal photon gas must be on (one of) the unstable photon sphere(s) of the spacetime in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. This paper extends this correspondence for spherical flows shown in the authors' previous work to rotating accretion disks.
We analyze the motion of a massless particle very near to the event horizon. It reveals that the radial motion has exponential growing nature which is the signature of the presence of chaos in the particle motion. This is being confirmed by investigating the Poincar$\acute{e}$ section of the trajectories with the introduction of a harmonic trap to confine the particle's motion. Two situations are investigated: (a) the black hole is {\it any} static, spherically metric and, (b) spacetime represents a stationary, axisymetric black hole (e.g., Kerr metric). In both cases, the largest Lyapunov exponent has upper bound which is the surface gravity of the horizon. We find that the inclusion of rotation in the spacetime introduces more chaotic fluctuations in the system. The possible implications are finally discussed.
We study the invariant Planck scale correction to the white dwarf dynamics. We have considered the modified dispersion relation and the cut-off to the maximum possible momentum/energy of the non-interacting Fermi gas particles as a signal of appearance of the effects of Quantum Gravity phenomena. With such a modification the expression for the degenerate pressure of white dwarf gets modified accordingly and so does the Chandrasekhar mass limit. The mass-radius M-R plot shows that the modified/ corrected radius of the white dwarf can be greater than, equal to and smaller than the usual special relativity (SR) value for particular masses. We found that the Chandrasekhar mass limit gets a positive correction i.e, the maximum possible mass for white dwarf increases in this formalism. The correction is purely perturbative in the SR limit which is quite unusual for a theory having an ultraviolet energy cut-off. Therefore this correction is solely because of the modified dispersion relation. The value of the obtained degenerate pressure for a given mass is found to be greater than, equal to and smaller than the usual special relativity (SR) value for particular masses as expected. It is shown by Mishra et al. that the Stefan-Boltzmann law gets a correction in such a theory with an ultraviolet cut-off. Using this result we have calculated the luminosity of the white dwarf by taking the model of partially degenerate gas and considering the modified radiative envelope equation. In such an analysis we observe that the pressure for a given mass and temperature value is less than that predicted by the usual SR theory. The luminosity also gets a negative correction. The correction to luminosity is nonperturbative as expected for such a theory.
In this paper, we address the problem of causality violation in the solutions of Einstein equations and seek possible causality restoration mechanisms in modifed theories of gravity. We choose for the above problem, the causality violation due to the existence of closed time-like curves in the context of Kerr-Newman black hole. We first revisit and quantify the details of the causality violation in the Kerr-Newman spacetime. We then show that the issue is also existent in two of the modified solutions to the Kerr Newman spacetime: The Non-Commutativity inspired solution and the f(R)-Gravity modifed solution. We explore the possibility of mechanisms present within the model that prevent causality violation. We show that, in both the models, the model parameters can be chosen such that the causality violating region is eliminated. We argue that in the context of non commutativity inspired solution, the non commutativity parameter can be chosen such that the causality violating region is eliminated and the inner horizon is no longer the Cauchy horizon. We then discuss the geodesic connectivity of the causality violating region in both the scenarios and quantify the geodesics that have points in the causality violating regions. We also discuss the causal aspects of Kerr Newman deSitter/antideSitter spacetimes.
We consider a massless, minimally-coupled quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole background, and study the leading asymptotic behavior of the expectation value of the stress energy tensor operator $<\hat{T}_{\mu\nu}>_{ren}$ and of $<\hat{\Phi}^{2}>_{ren}$ near the inner horizon, in both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking quantum states. We find that the coefficients of the expected leading-order divergences of these expectation values vanish, indicating that the modifications of the classical geometry due to quantum vacuum effects might be weaker than expected. In addition, we calculate the leading-order divergences of $<\hat{T}_{\mu\nu}>_{ren}$ and $<\hat{\Phi}^{2}>_{ren}$ in Boulware state near the outer (event) horizon, and obtain analytical expressions that correspond to previous numerical results.
To find the origin of chaos near black hole horizon in string-theoretic AdS/CFT correspondence, we perform a chaos analysis of a suspended string in AdS black hole backgrounds. It has a definite CFT interpretation: chaos of Wilson loops, or in other words, sensitive time-evolution of a quark antiquark force in thermal gauge theories. Our nonlinear numerical simulation of the suspended Nambu-Goto string shows chaos, which would be absent in pure AdS background. The calculated Lyapunov exponent $\lambda$ satisfies the universal bound $\lambda \leq 2\pi T_{\rm H}$ for the Hawking temperature $T_{\rm H}$. We also analyze a toy model of a rectangular string probing the horizon and show that it contains a universal saddle characterized by the surface gravity $2\pi T_{\rm H}$. Our work demonstrates that the black hole horizon is the origin of the chaos, and suggests a close interplay between chaos and quark deconfinement.
We construct analytic solutions of Einstein gravity coupled to a dilaton field with a potential given by a sum of two exponentials, by rewriting the equations of motion in terms of an integrable Toda chain. Such solutions can be interpreted as domain walls interpolating between different asymptotics, and as such they can have interesting applications in holography. In some cases we can find flows that start from an AdS fixed point. We also find analytic black brane solutions at finite temperature. We discuss the properties of the solutions and the interpretation in terms of RG flow.
Quantum field theory on curved spacetimes lacks an obvious distinguished vacuum state. We review a recent no-go theorem that establishes the impossibility of finding a preferred state in each globally hyperbolic spacetime, subject to certain natural conditions. The result applies in particular to the free scalar field, but the proof is model-independent and therefore of wider applicability. In addition, we critically examine the recently proposed "SJ states", that are determined by the spacetime geometry alone, but which fail to be Hadamard in general. We describe a modified construction that can yield an infinite family of Hadamard states, and also explain recent results that motivate the Hadamard condition without direct reference to ultra-high energies or ultra-short distance structure.
Strong gravitational lenses provide source/lens distance ratios D_obs useful in cosmological tests. Previously, a catalog of 69 such systems was used in a one-on-one comparison between the standard model, LCDM, and the R_h=ct universe, which has thus far been favored by the application of model selection tools to many other kinds of data. But in that work, the use of model parametric fits to the observations could not easily distinguish between these two cosmologies, in part due to the limited measurement precision. Here, we instead use recently developed methods based on Gaussian Processes (GP), in which D_obs may be reconstructed directly from the data without assuming any parametric form. This approach not only smooths out the reconstructed function representing the data, but also reduces the size of the 1-sigma confidence regions, thereby providing greater power to discern between different models. With the current sample size, we show that analyzing strong lenses with a GP approach can definitely improve the model comparisons, producing probability differences in the range ~10-30%. These results are still marginal, however, given the relatively small sample. Nonetheless, we conclude that the probability of R_h=ct being the correct cosmology is somewhat higher than that of LCDM, with a degree of significance that grows with the number of sources in the subsamples we consider. Future surveys will significantly grow the catalog of strong lenses and will therefore benefit considerably from the GP method we describe here. In addition, we point out that if the R_h=ct universe is eventually shown to be the correct cosmology, the lack of free parameters in the study of strong lenses should provide a remarkably powerful tool for uncovering the mass structure in lensing galaxies.
We investigate the constraints on the total neutrino mass in the scenario of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter. We focus on two typical interaction forms, i.e., $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ and $Q=\beta H\rho_{\Lambda}$. To avoid the occurrence of large-scale instability in interacting dark energy cosmology, we adopt the parameterized post-Friedmann approach to calculate the perturbation evolution of dark energy. We employ the observational data including the Planck cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the JLA sample of type Ia supernovae observation, the direct measurement of the Hubble constant, and the redshift space distortions data. We find that, compared with those in the $\Lambda$CDM model, much looser constraints on $\sum m_{\nu}$ are obtained in the $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ model, while slightly tighter constraints are obtained in the $Q=\beta H\rho_{\Lambda}$ model. After considering the mass hierarchies of neutrinos, the smallest upper limit results of $\sum m_{\nu}$ are given in the degenerate hierarchy case. By comparing the values of $\chi^2_{\rm min}$, we find that the normal hierarchy case is more favored than the inverted one. In particular, we find that the difference $\Delta \chi^2_{\rm min} \equiv \chi^2_{\rm IH; min}-\chi^2_{\rm NH; min}> 2$ in the $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ model. In addition, we find that $\beta=0$ is consistent with the current observations in the $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ model, and $\beta < 0$ is favored at the more than $1\sigma$ level in the $Q=\beta H\rho_{\Lambda}$ model.
A recent observation points to an excess in the expected 21-cm brightness temperature from cosmic dawn. In this paper, we present an alternative explanation of this phenomenon, an interaction in the dark sector. Interacting dark energy models have been extensively studied recently and there is a whole variety of such in the literature. Here we particularize to a specific model in order to make explicit the effect of an interaction.
In a five-dimensional formalism we study the evolutionary behavior as well as the ultimate fate of the universe, in the course of which the contribution of dark energy in these phases are investigated. At one stage we get a situation (a condition) where the dark energy contained may contribute in maintaining the ecological balance of the universe. In the model universes we obtain here the dark energy is found to be of $\wedge$CDM and quintessence types-which bear testimony to being real universes. In one of the cases where the equation of state between the fluid pressure and density is of the type of the Van der waals equation, it is found that our universe may end in dust. And, also, it is seen that the behavior of the deceleration parameter is almost compatible with the recent observation.
We calculate and analyse non-local gravitational form factors induced by quantum matter fields in curved two-dimensional space. The calculations are performed for scalars, spinors and massive vectors by means of the covariant heat kernel method up to the second order in the curvature and confirmed using Feynman diagrams. The analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) limit reveals a generalized "running" form of the Polyakov action for a nonminimal scalar field and the usual Polyakov action in the conformally invariant cases. In the infrared (IR) we establish the gravitational decoupling theorem, which can be seen directly from the form factors or from the physical beta function for fields of any spin.
This paper is a generalization of earlier papers [Nucl. Phys. B 884, 344 (2014) (arXiv:1312.2759) and JHEP 6, 63 (2015) (arXiv:1401.2488)]. We generalize the idea of quantum clock time to quantum spacetime reference frame via physical realization of a reference system by quantum rulers and clocks. Omitting the internal degrees of freedom (such as spins) of the physical rulers and clocks, only considering their metric properties, the spacetime reference frame is described by a bosonic non-linear sigma model (NLSM). We study the quantum behavior of the system under approximations, and obtain (1) a cosmological constant valued $(2/\pi)\rho_{c0}$ ($\rho_{c0}$ the critical density at near current epoch) which is very close to the observations; (2) an effective Einstein-Hilbert term; (3) the ratio of variance to mean-squared of spacetime interval tends to a universal constant $2/\pi$ in the infrared region. This effect is testable by observing a linear dependence between the inherent quantum variance and mean-squared of the redshifts from cosmic distant spectral lines. The proportionality is expected to be the observed percentage of the dark energy. The equivalence principle is also generalized to the quantum level.
We consider, in Palatini formalism, a modified gravity of which the scalar field derivative couples to Einstein tensor. In this scenario, Ricci scalar, Ricci tensor and Einstein tensor are functions of connection field. As a result, the connection field gives rise to relation, $h_{\mu\nu} = f g_{\mu\nu}$ between effective metric, $h_{\mu\nu}$ and the usual metric $g_{\mu\nu}$ where $f \,=\,1 - \kappa{\phi}^{,\alpha}{\phi}_{,\alpha}/2 $. In FLRW universe, NMDC coupling constant is limited in a range of $ -2/ \dot{\phi}^{2} < \kappa \leq \infty $ preserving Lorentz signature of the effective metric. Slowly-rolling regime provides $\kappa < 0$ forbidding graviton from travelling at superluminal speed. Effective gravitational coupling and entropy of blackhole's apparent horizon are derived.
In case of negative coupling, acceleration could happen even with $w_{\rm eff} > -1/3$. Power-law potentials of chaotic inflation are considered. For $V \propto \phi^2$ and $V \propto \phi^4$, it is possible to obtain tensor-to-scalar ratio lower than that of GR so that it satisfies $r < 0.12$ as constrained by Planck 2015 \cite{Ade:2015lrj}. The $V \propto \phi^2$ case yields acceptable range of spectrum index and $r$ values. The quartic potential's spectrum index is disfavored by the Planck results. Viable range of $\k$ for $V \propto \phi^2$ case lies in positive region, resulting in less blackhole's entropy, superluminal metric, more amount of inflation, avoidance of super-Planckian field initial value and stronger gravitational constant.
Highly spinning Kerr black holes with masses $M = 1 - 100\ M_{\odot}$ are subject to an efficient superradiant instability in the presence of bosons with masses $\mu \sim 10^{-10} - 10^{-12}\ {\rm eV}$. We observe that this matches the effective plasma-induced photon mass in diffuse galactic or intracluster environments ($\omega_{\rm pl} \sim 10^{-10} - 10^{-12}\ {\rm eV}$). This suggests that bare Kerr black holes within galactic or intracluster environments, possibly even including the ones produced in recently observed gravitational wave events, are unstable to formation of a photon cloud that may contain a significant fraction of the mass of the original black hole. At maximal efficiency, the instability timescale for a massive vector is milliseconds, potentially leading to a transient rate of energy extraction from a black hole in principle as large as $\sim 10^{55} \ {\rm erg \, s}^{-1}$. We discuss possible astrophysical effects this could give rise to, including a speculative connection to Fast Radio Bursts.
We carry out a theoretical investigation on the collective dynamics of an ensemble of correlated atoms, subject to both vacuum fluctuations of spacetime and stochastic gravitational waves. A general approach is taken with the derivation of a quantum master equation capable of describing arbitrary confined nonrelativistic matter systems in an open quantum gravitational environment. It enables us to relate the spectral function for gravitational waves and the distribution function for quantum gravitational fluctuations and to indeed introduce a new spectral function for the zero-point fluctuations of spacetime. The formulation is applied to two-level identical bosonic atoms in an off-resonant high-$Q$ cavity that effectively inhibits undesirable electromagnetic delays, leading to a gravitational transition mechanism through certain quadrupole moment operators. The overall relaxation rate before reaching equilibrium is found to generally scale collectively with the number $N$ of atoms. However, we are also able to identify certain states of which the decay and excitation rates with stochastic gravitational waves and vacuum spacetime fluctuations amplify more significantly with a factor of $N^2$. Using such favourable states as a means of measuring both conventional stochastic gravitational waves and novel zero-point spacetime fluctuations, we determine the theoretical lower bounds for the respective spectral functions. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings on future observations of gravitational waves of a wider spectral window than currently accessible. Especially, the possible sensing of the zero-point fluctuations of spacetime could provide an opportunity to generate initial evidence and further guidance of quantum gravity.
In this paper, we have proposed a generalized parametrization for the deceleration parameter $q$ in order to study the evolutionary history of the universe. We have shown that the proposed model can reproduce three well known $q$-parametrized models for some specific values of the model parameter $\alpha$. We have used the latest compilation of the Hubble parameter measurements obtained from the cosmic chronometer (CC) method (in combination with the local value of the Hubble constant $H_{0}$) and the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) data to place constraints on the parameters of the model for different values of $\alpha$. We have found that the resulting constraints on the deceleration parameter and the dark energy equation of state support the $\Lambda$CDM model within $1\sigma$ confidence level at the present epoch.
General relativity in four dimensions can be reformulated as a gauge theory, referred to as Palatini-Cartan-Holst theory. This paper describes its reduced phase space using a geometric method due to Kijowski and Tulczyjew and its relation to that of the Einstein-Hilbert approach.
The extended Einstein-Maxwell-aether-axion model describes internal interactions inside the system, which contains gravitational, electromagnetic fields, the dynamic unit vector field describing the velocity of an aether, and the pseudoscalar field associated with the axionic dark matter. The specific feature of this model is that the axion field controls the dynamics of the aether through the guiding functions incorporated into the Jacobson's constitutive tensor. Depending on the state of the axion field these guiding functions can control and switch on or switch off the influence of acceleration, shear, vorticity and expansion of the aether flow on the state of physical system as a whole. We obtain new exact solutions, which possess the pp-wave symmetry, and indicate them by the term pp-wave aether modes in contrast to the pure pp-waves, which can not propagate in this field conglomerate. These exact solutions describe a specific dynamic state of the pseudoscalar field, which corresponds to one of the minima of the axion potential, and switches off the influence of shear and expansion of the aether flow; the model does not impose restrictions on the Jacobson's coupling constants and on the axion mass. Properties of these new exact solutions are discussed.
We study gravitational-wave production from bubble collisions in a cosmic first-order phase transition, focusing on the possibility of model separation by the bubble nucleation rate dependence of the resulting gravitational-wave spectrum. By using the method of relating the spectrum with the two-point correlator of the energy-momentum tensor $\left< T(x)T(y) \right>$, we first write down analytic expressions for the spectrum with a Gaussian correction to the commonly used nucleation rate, $\Gamma \propto e^{\beta t}\rightarrow e^{\beta t-\gamma^2t^2}$, under the thin-wall and envelope approximations. Then we quantitatively investigate how the spectrum changes with the size of the Gaussian correction. It is found that the spectral shape shows ${\mathcal O}(10)\%$ deviation from $\Gamma \propto e^{\beta t}$ case for some physically motivated scenarios. We also briefly discuss detector sensitivities required to distinguish different spectral shapes.
We show how twisting the spectral triple of the Standard Model of elementary particles naturally yields the Krein space associated with the Lorentzian signature of spacetime. We discuss the associated spectral action, both for fermions and bosons. What emerges is a tight link between twist and Wick rotation.
We study Finsler spacetimes and Killing vector fields taking care of the fact that the generalized metric tensor associated to the Lorentz-Finsler function $L$ is in general well defined only on a subset of the slit tangent bundle. We then introduce a new class of Finsler spacetimes endowed with a timelike Killing vector field that we call stationary splitting Finsler spacetimes. We characterize when a Finsler spacetime with a timelike Killing vector field is locally a stationary splitting. Finally, we show that the causal structure of a stationary splitting is the same of one of two Finslerian static spacetimes naturally associated to the stationary splitting.
Short duration Gamma Ray Bursts(SGRB) and their afterglows are among the most promising electro-magnetic (EM) counterparts of Neutron Star (NS) mergers. The afterglow emission is broadband, visible across the entire electro-magnetic window from $\gamma$-ray to radio frequencies. The flux evolution in these frequencies is sensitive to the multi-dimensional afterglow physical parameter space. Observations of gravitational wave (GW) from BNS mergers in spatial and temporal coincidence with SGRB and associated afterglows can provide valuable constraints on afterglow physics. We run simulations of GW-detected BNS events and assuming all of them are associated with a GRB jet which also produces an afterglow, investigate how detections or non-detections in X-ray, optical and radio frequencies can be influenced by the parameter space. We narrow-down the regions of afterglow parameter space for a uniform top-hat jet model which would result in different detection scenarios. We list inferences which can be drawn on the physics of GRB afterglows from multi-messenger astronomy with coincident GW-EM observations.
Assuming all binary Neutron Star mergers produce Short Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRBs), we combine the merger rates of binary Neutron Stars (BNS) from population synthesis studies, the sensitivities of advanced Gravitational Wave (GW) interferometer networks, and of the electromagnetic (EM) facilities in various wave bands, to compute the detection rate of associated afterglows in these bands. Using the inclination angle measured from GWs as a proxy for the viewing angle and assuming a uniform distribution of jet opening angle between 3 to 30 degrees, we generate light curves of the counterparts using the open access afterglow hydrodynamics package BoxFit for X-ray, Optical and Radio bands. For different EM detectors we obtain the fraction of EM counterparts detectable in these three bands by imposing appropriate detection thresholds. In association with BNS mergers detected by five (three) detector network of advanced GW interferometers, assuming a BNS merger rate of $0.6-774{\rm Gpc}^{-3}{\rm yr}^{-1}$~\citep{dominik2012double}, we find the afterglow detection rates (per year) to be $0.04-53$ ($0.02-27$), $0.03-36$ ($0.01-19$) and $0.04-47$ ($0.02-25$) in the X-ray, optical and radio bands respectively. Our rates represent maximum possible detections for the given BNS rate since we ignore effects of cadence and field of view in EM follow up observations.
The dynamics of compact binary systems at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) approximation of general relativity has been recently completed in a self-consistent way. In this paper, we compute the ten Poincar\'e constants of the motion and present the equations of motion in the frame of the center of mass (CM), together with the corresponding CM Lagrangian, conserved energy and conserved angular momentum. Next, we investigate the reduction of the CM dynamics to the case of quasi-circular orbits. The non local (in time) tail effect at the 4PN order is consistently included, as well as the relevant radiation-reaction dissipative contributions to the energy and angular momentum.
It was proposed recently that the black hole may undergo a transition to the state, where inside the horizon the Fermi surface is formed that reveals an analogy with the recently discovered type II Weyl semimetals. In this scenario the low energy effective theory outside of the horizon is the Standard Model, which describes excitations that reside near a certain point $P^{(0)}$ in momentum space of the hypothetical unified theory. Inside the horizon the low energy physics is due to the excitations that reside at the points in momentum space close to the Fermi surface. We argue that those points may be essentially distant from $P^{(0)}$ and, therefore, inside the black hole the quantum states are involved in the low energy dynamics that are not described by the Standard Model. We analyse the consequences of this observation for the physics of the black holes and present the model based on the direct analogy with the type II Weyl semimetals, which illustrates this pattern.
We use data from the GW170814 gravitational wave event detected by the three LIGO-VIRGO observatories to study the polarization properties of the gravitational waves. We find that within the LIGO-VIRGO 90% credible region of source sky locations, there is a range in which pure vector polarization is consistent with the observed amplitude ratios. Confirmation of a vector polarization component of gravitational waves would be a sign of post-general relativity physics.
Quantum tunneling of a black hole into a white hole provides a model for the full life cycle of a black hole. The white hole acts as a long-lived remnant, solving the black-hole information paradox. The remnant solution of the paradox has long been viewed with suspicion, mostly because remnants seemed to be such exotic objects. We point out that (i) established physics includes objects with precisely the required properties for remnants: white holes with small masses but large finite interiors; (ii) non-perturbative quantum-gravity indicates that a black hole tunnels precisely into such a white hole, at the end of its evaporation. We address the objections to the existence of white-hole remnants, discuss their stability, and show how the notions of entropy relevant in this context allow them to evade several no-go arguments. A black hole's formation, evaporation, tunneling to a white hole, and final slow decay, form a unitary process that does not violate any known physics.
In this manuscript we present a calculation of a physical observable in a non-perturbative quantum gravitational physical process from covariant Loop Quantum Gravity. The process regards the transition of a trapped region to an anti--trapped region, treated as a quantum geometry transition akin to gravitational tunneling. Figuratively speaking, this is a quantum transition of a black hole to a white hole. The physical observables are the characteristic timescales in which the process takes place.
After an introduction, we begin with two chapters that review, define and extend main tools relevant to Lorentzian spinfoams and their semiclassical limit. We then dedicate a chapter to the classical exterior spacetime, which provides the setup for the problem. In the last two chapters, we arrive at an explicit, analytically well-defined and finite expression for a transition amplitude describing this process and use the semiclassical approximation to estimate the relevant amplitudes for an arbitrary choice of boundary conditions. We conclude that the transition is predicted to be allowed by LQG, with a characteristic duration that is linear in the mass, when the process takes place. The probability for the process to take place is exponentially suppressed but non-zero, resulting to a long lifetime.
We investigate the memory effects associated with the kicks of particles. We explicitly show that, in addition to the leading piece, the subleading and subsubleading soft theorems are equivalent to the subleading and subsubleading memory effects, respectively. It is known that the memory effects can be probed by the displacements or kicks of the test particles. We point out that the these memory effects are also probed by the permanent change of the direction of the spin. We also show that the axion memory effect, recently proposed by the current authors, can be detected as the change of the spin of the test particle. We discuss that if we consider the magnetic monopole as an external particle, the parity-odd electromagnetic memory appears.
We discuss the role of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions (BCs) and the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) terms in general relativity (GR) and f (R)-gravity in arbitrary dimensions. We do our calculations in GR both covariantly by using the holographic property of the Einstein-Hilbert action and by foliating the space-time in the framework of ADM formalism. For f (R)-gravity, using the equivalent scalar-tensor formulation, the holographic relation does not hold completely, showing that f(R)-gravity does not belong to the class of Lanczos-Lovelock Lagrangians. This turns out to be the origin of BCs problem of f (R)-gravity, where we need to impose boundary conditions on coordinate and momentum variables simultaneously. We show that, in contrast to the case of GR, it is not possible to avoid this problem by any kind of GHY terms.
One of the pronounced characteristics of gravity, distinct from other interactions, is that there are no local observables which are independent of the choice of the spacetime coordinates. This property acquires crucial importance in the quantum domain in that the structure of the Hilbert space pertinent to different observers can be drastically different. Such intriguing phenomena as the Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect are all rooted in this feature. As in these examples, the quantum effect due to such observer-dependence is most conspicuous in the presence of an event horizon and there are still many questions to be clarified in such a situation. In this paper, we attempt to perform a comprehensive study of the observer dependence of the quantum Hilbert space of a massless scalar field in the vicinity of the horizon of the Schwarzschild black holes in four dimensions, both in the eternal (two-sided) case and in the physical (one-sided) case created by collapsing matter. Specifically, we compare and relate the Hilbert spaces of the three types of observers, namely (i) the freely falling observer, (ii) the observer who stays at a fixed proper distance outside of the horizon and (iii) the natural observer inside of the horizon analytically continued from outside. The relations we obtain have a number of important implications, such as on the quantum equivalence principle and the related firewall phenomenon, on the number of degrees of freedom seen by each type of observer, and on the "thermal-type" spectrum of particles realized in a pure state.
In this paper, we study the nonequilibrium dynamics of the Bose-Hubbard model with the nearest-neighbor repulsion by using time-dependent Gutzwiller (GW) methods. In particular, we vary the hopping parameters in the Hamiltonian as a function of time, and investigate the dynamics of the system from the density wave (DW) to the superfluid (SF) crossing a first-order phase transition and vice-versa. From the DW to SF, we find scaling laws for the correlation length and vortex density with respect to the quench time. This is a reminiscence of the Kibble-Zurek scaling for continuous phase transitions and contradicts the common expectation. On the other hand from the SF to DW, the system evolution depends on the initial SF state. When the initial state is the ground-state obtained by the static GW methods, a coexisting state of the SF and DW domains forms after passing through the critical point. Coherence of the SF order parameter is lost as the system evolves. This is a phenomenon similar to the glass transition in classical systems. Starting from the SF with small local phase fluctuations, the system is getting a large-size DW-domain structure with thin domain walls.