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Abestos Exposure Monitoring





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Land surveying and civil engineering basics

Tue, 28 Jul 2009 15:36:00 +0000

One of the oldest and most useful engineering professions is civil engineering. This form of engineering can be found in various areas of society and it focuses on the study of structural systems. In time, the demand for civil engineering increased and at present it has diversified into several branches of study which include structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, hydraulic engineering and others. Land surveying on the other hand focuses on detailed analysis of construction projects such as highways, airstrips and housing development. The surveyor is in charge of recording the readings in an accurate manner and maintains field notes in order to see if the survey is accurate.




The main branches of civil engineering include the following: transportation, environmental, geotechnical, structural and water resources. The first branch is concerned with developing transportation systems such as highways, airports and rail systems, the second one focuses on wastewater treatment, air pollution management and the handling hazardous wastes, geotechnical engineering includes the design and construction of rock and soil based structures, structural engineering is all about the design and construction of steel structures while water resources includes the construction of dams, canals and water pipeline systems. All these civil engineering branches are meant to increase our safety.




Also, civil engineering requires creativity and technical skills in order to make sure the facilities that are essential to modern life operate safely and efficiently. Civil engineers are meant to solve problems, being frequently confronted with the challenges of pollution, traffic congestion, drinking water, urban redevelopment and community planning, being vital for the development of a country. Since construction is a complicated task, civil engineering doesn"t focus only on the aesthetic aspect of a construction but also on the effects nature can have on a building.




Another essential aspect in construction is land surveying, which is done to verify the accuracy of the existing records and the obtained information is used to prepare legal documents such as deeds and leases. Furthermore, land surveying helps in planning, designing and establishing the boundaries of properties, including services such as mapping, construction layout services, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area and volume. This surveying is vital in all the forms of construction and it is up to the surveyor to decide exactly what type of surveying you need.




Usually, land surveying is needed when someone purchases a house or a piece of land. Important investments that are made rarely should be based on accurate information such as record and field research, measurements and calculations. Although land surveying is most of the time unnoticed, this is essential in the land sale process and it asserts that the owners know the locations of the property boundaries and all the developments that must be done. As a rule, the land survey must be done by licensed surveyors who know their business.


As you can see, there are many things that must be known about land surveying and about civil engineering and you can be informed regarding these aspects as long as you are interested in this aspect. Knowing the necessary information is always the key to obtaining the best services at the most reasonable prices.

chartered surveyors: Chartered Surveyor

chartered surveyors: Chartered Surveyor

Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com




Abestos Exposure Monitoring

Tue, 28 Jul 2009 15:35:00 +0000

Employee exposure is measured by collecting representative air samples whose aggregate sampling time is as close as possible to the employee's full work shift, not to exceed 8 hoursExposure monitoring samples must be analysed by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) in accordance with the SafetyHealth and Welfare at Work (Exposure to Asbestos) Regulations, 2006Asbestos Location and Condition SurveysUnder current legislation (Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Construction) Regulations 2006) there is a duty on employers to identify any Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) before commencing demolition, building maintenance or removal works. When working at a third party"s workplace, employers and contractors must obtain information from the owner regarding ACM. If there is any doubt as to the presence of ACM, then legislation requires that the employer take the necessary steps to identify the presence of ACM.OHSS is accredited by the Irish National Accreditation Board (INAB) to undertake inspection surveys of asbestos in buildings and for the analysis of asbestos in materials. In line with legislation, we offer 3 levels of Asbestos Location and Condition Surveys: * All surveys are carried out in accordance with MDHS 100 and HSG 248 recognised in Ireland as best practice from the Health and Safety Executive in the UK. * All our surveyors are trained to BOHS P402 or higher standards with extensive experience throughout the industry.Survey Type 1: Location and Assessment Survey (Presumptive Survey)The purpose of the Type 1 survey is to locate, as far as reasonably practicable, the presence and extent of any suspect asbestos containing materials in the building and assess their condition. An experienced, well-trained surveyor, familiar with the range of asbestos products, can usually, by inspection alone, say that a material can be "presumed" to contain asbestos.However, it is much more difficult for surveyors to presume that some materials do not contain asbestos. Many materials such as vinyl floor tiles have exactly the same appearance whether they contain asbestos or not.A Type 1 survey may well list many materials that are presumed to contain asbestos that would be eliminated from the asbestos register by laboratory analysis of representative samples of the materials.This survey essentially defers the need to sample and analyse for asbestos (or the absence thereof) until a later time prior to any disturbance of the material by demolition, alteration or maintenance.The duty holder bears the potentially significant additional costs of management for some non asbestos containing materials. Our experience suggests the additional cost of management of the non asbestos containing materials usually outweighs the additional cost of a Type 2 survey with representative sampling of such materials for laboratory analysis.All areas are accessed and inspected as far as reasonably practicable (e.g. above false ceilings and inside risers, service ducts, lift shafts, etc) or where not accessible will be presumed to contain asbestos.Any material which can reasonably be expected to contain asbestos will be presumed to contain asbestos, and where it appears highly likely to contain asbestos, there will be a strong presumption that it does.Survey Type2: Standard Sampling, Identification and Assessment Survey (Sampling Survey)The purpose and procedures used in this survey are the same as for Type 1, except that representative samples are collected from suspect ACMs and analysed for the presence of asbestos in order to confirm or refute the surveyor"s judgement.If the material sampled is found to contain asbestos, other similar homogeneous materials used in the same way in the building can be strongly presumed to contain asbestos.Less homogeneous materials will require a greater number of samples. The number should be sufficient for the surveyor to make an assessment of whether asbestos is or is not present.We always recommend Type 2 surveys as the additional cost of representative sampling means the duty holder has [...]