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Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - nature.com science feeds



Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.



 



Is there a right not to know?

2017-04-04

Does a patient with advanced incurable disease have a right not to hear the bad news? We think not. Failing to disclose a poor prognosis undermines patient autonomy and increases the likelihood of poor end-of-life care.



Haematological cancers: Promising epigenetic targets in leukaemia identified

2017-04-04

Epigenetic alterations are one of the hallmarks of cancer; the chromatin machinery is often exploited by cancer cells to change gene-expression patterns in order to alter the cellular phenotype. Histone modifications can be decoded by protein 'readers' that help orchestrate these cellular changes. Although potential



Colorectal cancer: Screening provides long-term benefits

2017-03-14

The findings of a randomized phase III clinical trial reveal the long-term benefits of screening, involving a single flexible sigmoidoscopy examination. In a cohort of 170,034 individuals, sigmoidoscopy was found to confer a 26% reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to



Pancreatic cancer: New biomarkers improve standard screening

2017-03-14

Data from three cohorts of patients with early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) indicate that a two-protein biomarker panel, consisting of plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and tenascin-C (TNC-FN-III-C), as measured in plasma samples using an ELISA improves the prognostic value of CA 19-9.



Haematological cancer: Treg predict responsiveness to blinatumomab

2017-03-14

Newly published data indicate that patients with blinatumomab-sensitive B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) have significantly fewer regulatory T cells (Treg) than those with blinatumomab-refractory B-ALL. This observation is attributed to IL-10 production by blinatumomab-activated Treg cells, resulting in suppression of T-cell



Ovarian cancer: Algorithm enables early detection

2017-03-14

An observational study of the performance of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), interpreted using the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm, reveals the sensitivity of this approach in women with a high risk of ovarian cancer. In the study cohort consisting of 4,348 women, 19 were



Genetics: Fitness depends on KRAS imbalance

2017-03-07

One of the major challenges in cancer research is finding pharmacological approaches to target the activity of proteins from the RAS family, which are encoded by the oncogenes most commonly mutated in solid tumours. In a study with results now published in Cell, Michael



Targeted therapies: Reversal of fortunes for TKI resistance

2017-03-07

New data show that resistance to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be overcome by targeting HDAC-mediated overexpression and stabilization of HIF-1α using the HDAC inhibitor abexinostat. This strategy was shown to prolong treatment exposure and improve patient responses.Aggarwal and colleagues enrolled patients to a phase



Immunotherapy: Genomic and immunological features predict a response

2017-03-21

Despite enabling durable remissions in some patients with advanced-stage cancer most patients fail to respond to immune-checkpoint inhibition. Now, research in a cohort of patients with advanced-stage melanoma receiving anti-CTLA-4, followed by anti-PD-1 antibodies upon tumour progression reveals several genomic and immune-related features associated with



Targeted therapies: New standard for relapsed ALL

2017-03-21

The overall survival duration of patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is



Immunotherapy: DLBCL remissions driven by CARs

2017-03-29

The typical survival duration of patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who have disease progression after chemotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation is 9 months. Now, promising new data indicate that immunotherapy with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-19) T cells offers the hope of achieving longer-term



Haematological cancer: Anti-PD-1 therapy with nivolumab after allo-HSCT for Hodgkin lymphoma

2017-03-29

Nivolumab is approved for the treatment of progressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and brentuximab vedotin therapy. Allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) is also indicated in this setting, and can result in long-term survival in some, but not all, patients; nivolumab is a



Prostate cancer: Clinical hallmarks in whole cancer genomes

2017-04-04

Fraser and colleagues describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) profiles of over 200 localized intermediate-risk prostate cancers. WGS has been widely used in research but not, thus far, in clinical settings. Herein, we consider the possible use of WGS in the field of precision oncology.



Skin Cancer: Have melanoma and skin cancer finally met their match?

2017-04-19

Early diagnosis is a key component of melanoma prevention, but diagnostic accuracy varies considerably among clinicians managing patients with potentially suspicious skin lesions. Several tools have been developed to objectively enhance diagnostic assessment and accuracy. Herein, we discuss the potential diagnostic value and limitations of GoogleNet Inception, a new tool for image-based classification of skin lesions.



Cancer, obesity, and diabetes: TKIs exert multiple effects on glucose homeostasis

2017-04-19

Cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide; a greater understanding of the links between these medical conditions is urgently needed in order to identify novel targets for treatment. In a Review published in the February 2017 issue of this



Cancer, obesity, and diabetes: TKIs exert multiple effects on glucose homeostasis

2017-04-19

We thank Drs Minglin Lin and Junfei Jin for their interest in our recent Review. They are particularly interested in the effects of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in cancer treatment on glycaemic control (Cancer, obesity, and diabetes: TKIs exert multiple effects on glucose



Strategies to avoid treatment-induced lineage crisis in advanced prostate cancer

2016-11-22

The increasing potency of therapies that target the androgen receptor (AR) signalling axis has correlated with a rise in the proportion of patients with prostate cancer harbouring an adaptive phenotype, termed treatment-induced lineage crisis. This phenotype is characterized by features that include soft-tissue metastasis and/or



Delivering widespread BRCA testing and PARP inhibition to patients with ovarian cancer

2016-12-13

The treatment of patients with ovarian cancer is rapidly changing following the success of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in clinical trials. Olaparib is the first PARP inhibitor to be approved by the EMA and FDA for BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Germ line BRCA



Surveillance after curative treatment for colorectal cancer

2016-12-20

Treatments for colorectal cancer (CRC) of all stages have evolved considerably over the past two decades, resulting in improved long-term outcomes. After curative treatment, however, 30% of patients with stage I–III and up to 65% of patients with stage IV CRC develop recurrent disease. Thus,



Precision medicine needs randomized clinical trials

2017-02-07

The advent of precision medicine has prompted profound changes in clinical cancer research, and the rising numbers of new therapeutic agents pose challenges in terms of the most appropriate trial designs and effects on the drug-approval process. In the past 5 years, some remarkably efficacious