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Preview: Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Breast cancer: Genetic signature might spare 100,000 women annually from chemotherapy


Adjuvant chemotherapy can benefit a subset of patients with early stage breast cancer, and is typically allocated to those deemed to be at a high clinical risk of distant metastasis. This risk can be determined using various algorithms incorporating disease characteristics (such as intrinsic molecular

Sarcoma: Genetic determinants of sarcoma risk revealed


Sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous cancers with a mean age at onset that is earlier than that of many other types of cancer; however, the genetic basis of sarcoma remains largely unknown. Data from a recently published genetic-association study involving 1,162 patients with sarcoma from four

Haematological cancer: Carfilzomib is superior to bortezomib in rMM


Patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (rMM) often receive multiple lines of therapy, which can make identification of the true efficacy of new agents in clinical trials challenging. Now, a subgroup analysis of data from the ENDEAVOR study reveal that the protesome inhibitor carfilzomib has superior

Genetics: Surveillance effective for TP53-mutation carriers


Individuals with Li–Fraumeni syndrome, who harbour pathogenic germline TP53 mutations, have a substantially increased risk of developing cancer than those with wild-type TP53. Data from a newly published study confirm that regular surveillance of these individuals for asymptomatic cancers is warranted. In a

Cell signalling: Melanoma melanosomes shape the stromal niche


Melanocytes are specialized epidermal cells that produce the skin pigment melanin and transfer this pigment to adjacent keratinocytes via tissue-specific vesicles termed 'melanosomes'. Melanoma cells derived from melanocytes retain the ability to produce and secrete melanosomes. Now, Carmit Levy and colleagues have uncovered a novel

Immunotherapy: CAR T cells pursue CLL cells and avoid innocent bystanders


Despite considerable therapeutic advances, refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remains extremely difficult to treat. Adoptive cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells holds promise in this setting, but current CARs targeting CD19 or CD20 lack selectivity for malignant B cells. Researchers have now

Thyroid cancer: Occult disease risks quantified


Patients with thyroid cancer who undergo thyroidectomy are at risk of harbouring occult disease, owing to undetected tumour invasion of the lymph nodes; however, the extent of lymph-node examination required to determine this risk is unknown. Now, findings from a National Cancer Database study of

Genetics: Novel oesophageal cancer risk loci identified


Barrett's oesophagus, a condition usually caused by chronic exposure to stomach acid, is a precursor state to the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma; however, only a small fraction of those with Barrett's oesophagus develop cancer. Data from a newly published meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of

Haematological cancer: Shelterin complex mutated in familial CLL


The existence of a familal risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has been established for some time, although, thus far, evidence of germ-line alleles that might explain this risk has been lacking. Now, researchers have shown that loss-of-function variations in POT1, a shelterin complex

Pancreatic cancer: Promise of doublet chemotherapy


The survival duration of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the lowest of all cancers. For patients who present with resectable PDAC, adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment; however, survival improvements have been noted in patients receiving doublet gemcitabline and platinum-based therapy. In

Haematological cancer: Improvements with daratumumab


The standard regimens for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) include proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib or carfilzomib) and immunomodulatory agents. Daratumumab is a novel antibody that targets CD38, which is highly expressed in MM cells, and was approved by the FDA in 2015 as a monotherapy for

Urological cancer: Non-traditional CTCs indicate prognosis


Circulating tumour cell (CTC) enumeration, based on an FDA-approved CTC-enrichment approach, can provide valuable information on a patient's tumour status without a need for tumour biopsy sampling; however, the potential for analysis of biomarkers in these cells has not been widely explored. Now, researchers have

Pancreatic cancer: Clinical practice guidelines — what is the evidence?


In three practice guidelines from ASCO, experts provide evidence-based recommendations that address overarching clinical questions for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. These guidelines offer improved strategies for interdisciplinary patient management and highlight the need for further research in several areas.

Lung cancer: First-line immunotherapy in lung cancer — taking the first step


The use of programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors has become the standard-of-care approach for patients with advanced-stage, previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. The inevitable adoption of these agents in the first-line setting is rapidly approaching, but the optimal strategy remains unclear. Two published clinical trial reports, examining different approaches, help to frame this question.

Translational and clinical implications of the genetic landscape of prostate cancer


Over the past several years, analyses of data from high-throughput studies have elucidated many fundamental insights into prostate cancer biology. These insights include the identification of molecular alterations and subtypes that drive tumour progression, recurrent aberrations in signalling pathways, the existence of substantial intertumoural and

Balancing efficacy of and host immune responses to cancer therapy: the yin and yang effects


Local and systemic treatments for cancer include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, molecularly targeted therapies, antiangiogenic therapy, and immunotherapy. Many of these therapies can be curative in patients with early stage disease, but much less frequently is this the case when they are used to

Correction regarding data on blinatumomab-associated seizures


With regard to the Review article by Stone and DeAngelis, published in the February 2016 issue of this journal (Cancer-treatment-induced neurotoxicity — focus on newer treatments. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol.13, 92–105 (2016)), we wish to address an erroneous statement made by

Clinical development of new drug–radiotherapy combinations


In countries with the best cancer outcomes, approximately 60% of patients receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment, which is one of the most cost-effective cancer treatments. Notably, around 40% of cancer cures include the use of radiotherapy, either as a single modality or combined

Patient-reported outcomes in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer


Many novel therapies are available for use in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), some of which convey substantial progression-free survival and overall survival benefits. Delaying disease progression and providing palliation of symptoms are primary therapeutic aims of treating patients with mCRPC; therefore, ensuring

Correction regarding data on blinatumomab-associated seizures


We would like to thank Max Topp, Zachary Zimmerman and Hagop Kantarjian for their correspondence on our Review article (Cancer-treatment-induced neurotoxicity — focus on newer treatments. Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol.13, 92–105 (2016)). After carefully reviewing the data discussed by Topp