2017-04-04Does a patient with advanced incurable disease have a right not to hear the bad news? We think not. Failing to disclose a poor prognosis undermines patient autonomy and increases the likelihood of poor end-of-life care.
2017-04-04Epigenetic alterations are one of the hallmarks of cancer; the chromatin machinery is often exploited by cancer cells to change gene-expression patterns in order to alter the cellular phenotype. Histone modifications can be decoded by protein 'readers' that help orchestrate these cellular changes. Although potential
2017-03-14The findings of a randomized phase III clinical trial reveal the long-term benefits of screening, involving a single flexible sigmoidoscopy examination. In a cohort of 170,034 individuals, sigmoidoscopy was found to confer a 26% reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to
2017-03-14Data from three cohorts of patients with early stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) indicate that a two-protein biomarker panel, consisting of plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and tenascin-C (TNC-FN-III-C), as measured in plasma samples using an ELISA improves the prognostic value of CA 19-9.
2017-03-14Newly published data indicate that patients with blinatumomab-sensitive B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) have significantly fewer regulatory T cells (Treg) than those with blinatumomab-refractory B-ALL. This observation is attributed to IL-10 production by blinatumomab-activated Treg cells, resulting in suppression of T-cell
2017-03-14An observational study of the performance of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), interpreted using the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm, reveals the sensitivity of this approach in women with a high risk of ovarian cancer. In the study cohort consisting of 4,348 women, 19 were
2017-03-07One of the major challenges in cancer research is finding pharmacological approaches to target the activity of proteins from the RAS family, which are encoded by the oncogenes most commonly mutated in solid tumours. In a study with results now published in Cell, Michael
2017-03-07New data show that resistance to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be overcome by targeting HDAC-mediated overexpression and stabilization of HIF-1α using the HDAC inhibitor abexinostat. This strategy was shown to prolong treatment exposure and improve patient responses.Aggarwal and colleagues enrolled patients to a phase
2017-03-21Despite enabling durable remissions in some patients with advanced-stage cancer most patients fail to respond to immune-checkpoint inhibition. Now, research in a cohort of patients with advanced-stage melanoma receiving anti-CTLA-4, followed by anti-PD-1 antibodies upon tumour progression reveals several genomic and immune-related features associated with
2017-03-21The overall survival duration of patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is
2017-03-29The typical survival duration of patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who have disease progression after chemotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation is 9 months. Now, promising new data indicate that immunotherapy with anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-19) T cells offers the hope of achieving longer-term
2017-03-29Nivolumab is approved for the treatment of progressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and brentuximab vedotin therapy. Allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) is also indicated in this setting, and can result in long-term survival in some, but not all, patients; nivolumab is a
2017-04-04Fraser and colleagues describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) profiles of over 200 localized intermediate-risk prostate cancers. WGS has been widely used in research but not, thus far, in clinical settings. Herein, we consider the possible use of WGS in the field of precision oncology.
2017-04-19Early diagnosis is a key component of melanoma prevention, but diagnostic accuracy varies considerably among clinicians managing patients with potentially suspicious skin lesions. Several tools have been developed to objectively enhance diagnostic assessment and accuracy. Herein, we discuss the potential diagnostic value and limitations of GoogleNet Inception, a new tool for image-based classification of skin lesions.
2017-04-19Cancer, obesity, and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide; a greater understanding of the links between these medical conditions is urgently needed in order to identify novel targets for treatment. In a Review published in the February 2017 issue of this
2017-04-19We thank Drs Minglin Lin and Junfei Jin for their interest in our recent Review. They are particularly interested in the effects of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in cancer treatment on glycaemic control (Cancer, obesity, and diabetes: TKIs exert multiple effects on glucose
2016-11-22The increasing potency of therapies that target the androgen receptor (AR) signalling axis has correlated with a rise in the proportion of patients with prostate cancer harbouring an adaptive phenotype, termed treatment-induced lineage crisis. This phenotype is characterized by features that include soft-tissue metastasis and/or
2016-12-13The treatment of patients with ovarian cancer is rapidly changing following the success of poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in clinical trials. Olaparib is the first PARP inhibitor to be approved by the EMA and FDA for BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Germ line BRCA
2016-12-20Treatments for colorectal cancer (CRC) of all stages have evolved considerably over the past two decades, resulting in improved long-term outcomes. After curative treatment, however, 30% of patients with stage I–III and up to 65% of patients with stage IV CRC develop recurrent disease. Thus,
2017-02-07The advent of precision medicine has prompted profound changes in clinical cancer research, and the rising numbers of new therapeutic agents pose challenges in terms of the most appropriate trial designs and effects on the drug-approval process. In the past 5 years, some remarkably efficacious