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Preview: Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Breast cancer: PALOMA-2 — hope beyond the threshold


Resistance to endocrine therapy, the standard of care for patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, is common. The cyclin-D–cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6)–Rb pathway is a promising therapeutic target in HR+ cancer, which account for 60–65% of all malignant breast neoplasms. Indeed, gene alterations affecting cell-cycle

Lung cancer: Liquid biopsy of SCLC chemosensitivity


Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is arguably the most-aggressive form of lung cancer. Most patients with SCLC present with metastatic disease and have limited treatment options; although novel therapies are now on the horizon, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the current mainstay therapy. Frustratingly, most SCLCs are initially

CNS cancer: Tracing stem cells in oligodendroglioma


Intratumoural heterogeneity is a major cause of acquired anticancer drug resistance. The regulation of development and differentiation is a driver of tumour heterogeneity, as supported by evidence from studies of several malignancies (but mainly leukaemias). Among solid tumours, glioblastoma provides one of the best-established example,

Targeted therapies: Widening the treatment NET


The incidence of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) is increasing, and treatment options are limited. Mouse model of NETs are responsive to the antiangiogenic agent sunitinib. In 2006, results from the first phase I trial investigating this agent in patients with various types of NETs were published.

Clinical trials: Does significance indicate clinical benefit?


An analysis of phase III trial results published between 2011–2015 using the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO)–magnitude of clinical benefit scale (MCBS) indicates that only 31% of treatments that resulted in statistically significant improvements in outcomes met the thresholds for clinical benefit. Investigators also

Colorectal cancer: Recurrent disease detected using FDG–PET


Newly published data indicate the sensitivity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)–PET for the detection of recurrent disease. A total of 88 patients with no, or equivocal signs of recurrence on clinical examination, but who had raised carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were examined using 18

Breast cancer: Eribulin effective against male breast cancer


Data from a retrospective study in a cohort of 23 men with breast cancer indicate that eribulin is a safe and effective treatment for men with this disease. All patients had at least a stable disease response, with two complete responses, after a median of

Haematological cancer: Free light chains should be monitored in blood


Biochemical tests for the presence of free light chains (FLCs) are used to indicate a possible diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM). Most guidelines recommend measurement of urinary FLCs; however, recent research indicates that the presence of FLCs in blood might be a better indicator. In

Genetics: New paediatric glioblastoma treatment option


Glioblastoma is an extremely aggressive cancer associated with an average survival of 12–18 months, and is incurable with current treatment options. Paediatric glioblastoma is highly heterogeneous and genetically distinct from its adult counterpart and, although some genetic causes have been identified, a substantial fraction of

Gastrointestinal cancer: Keeping aFLOaT with new combination


Surgery is curative for 90% of patients with early stage gastric tumours (T1), but those with advanced-stage tumours (T2–4) or regional lymph-node involvement have a poor prognosis. Perioperative chemotherapy regimens containing epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil (ECF) or epirubicin, cisplatin and capecitabine (ECX) can improve the

Lung cancer: Local therapy, global benefits?


Retrospective data indicate that failure of first-line chemotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and ≤3 metastases occurs mostly at lesions known to exist prior to treatment, and that advances in local and maintenance therapies can be leveraged to improve survival. This possibility has now

Diagnosis: Improved diagnosis, therapy and outcomes for patients with CUP


Molecular cancer-classifier assays enable the diagnosis of a single cancer type for most patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP), thus opening the door to the administration of site-specific therapies. Herein, I discuss how such therapies can improve the survival of patients with CUP, and the resulting paradigm shift towards tissue-of-origin diagnostics and treatments that is now becoming the standard of care for this patient population.

Prostate cancer: Screening and treatment: where do we go from here?


Active surveillance has been proposed as a management option that reduces the risk of overtreatment in patients diagnosed with early stage prostate cancer. However, up until now, this approach has not been tested in a prospective, randomized fashion. The PROTECT study confirms that patients diagnosed with prostate cancer through prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening are at a very low risk of cancer-related mortality, but patients undergoing active surveillance do have an increased risk of disease progression and metastases compared with those managed with upfront therapy.

Palliative care: Lemonade from lemons: exploring the results of the VOICE study


The VOICE study addressed the oncologist–patient dyad by adding a two-sided intervention. The results of this ostensibly positive study are, at best, limited and, at worst, cosmetic because clinically relevant long-term outcomes were unaffected. VOICE is the first attempt at addressing complexity in this genre of studies and, even with its shortcomings, teaches us some important lessons.

Cancer metabolism: a therapeutic perspective


Awareness that the metabolic phenotype of cells within tumours is heterogeneous — and distinct from that of their normal counterparts — is growing. In general, tumour cells metabolize glucose, lactate, pyruvate, hydroxybutyrate, acetate, glutamine, and fatty acids at much higher rates than their nontumour equivalents;

Does the mobilization of circulating tumour cells during cancer therapy cause metastasis?


Despite progressive improvements in the management of patients with locoregionally confined, advanced-stage solid tumours, distant metastasis remains a very common — and usually fatal — mode of failure after attempted curative treatment. Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary curative modalities for these patients, often combined

Diagnosis of cancer as an emergency: a critical review of current evidence


Many patients with cancer are diagnosed through an emergency presentation, which is associated with inferior clinical and patient-reported outcomes compared with those of patients who are diagnosed electively or through screening. Reducing the proportion of patients with cancer who are diagnosed as emergencies is, therefore,

Combine and conquer: challenges for targeted therapy combinations in early phase trials


Our increasing understanding of cancer biology has led to the development of molecularly targeted anticancer drugs. The full potential of these agents has not, however, been realised, owing to the presence of de novo (intrinsic) resistance, often resulting from compensatory signalling pathways, or the