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Preview: Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology - Issue - nature.com science feeds

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology



Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.



 



Immunotherapy: Combine and conquer — antiangiogenic immunotherapy

2017-05-03

The benefits of antiangiogenic therapies for patients with cancer are, arguably, limited. In particular, agents targeting the VEGF pathway are approved only in combination with other therapies, and provide a modest, if any, overall survival benefit. By contrast, antibodies that block the PD-1–PD-L1 immune checkpoint



Haematological cancer: Dual targeting to defeat resistance

2017-04-11

Following the advent of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the BCR–ABL1 fusion protein, the prognosis of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has improved. The TKIs currently administered to these patients block the catalytic activity of BCR–ABL1 through competition with ATP. ABL001, an inhibitor with a



Immunotherapy: Cul-TIL-vating uveal melanoma regression

2017-04-25

Uveal melanoma is a rare tumour that has no established treatments once metastases develop. Although a variety of immune-based therapies have demonstrated some impressive responses in metastatic cutaneous melanoma, to date, such therapies have been disappointing in uveal melanoma. For instance, immune-checkpoint blockade is poorly



Urological cancer: Vinflunine is an effective maintenance therapy

2017-05-03

Data from a phase II trial reveal the superiority of vinflunine as maintenance chemotherapy, relative to best-supportive care until disease progression, in patients with metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract following 4–6 cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine. A total of 66% of patients in



Pancreatic cancer: ROCK inhibition sensitizes preclinical models

2017-05-03

The findings of a preclinical study, involving both genetically engineered and patient-derived mouse models of pancreatic cancer, indicate that the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor fasudil is able to disrupt the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumours, and thus improve exposure to subsequent treatment with chemotherapy. Crucially,



Haematological cancer: Nivolumab is effective in PCNSL and PTL

2017-05-03

Data from a small series of four patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) and one patient with primary testicular lymphoma (PTL), for whom no standard-of-care treatment options are available, indicate the effectiveness of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab. This approach was selected based upon the high



Immunotherapy: Reinvigorated T-cell numbers counterbalance tumour burden

2017-04-25

Blockade of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint has defined a new era of anticancer therapy. However, only a minority of patients respond to PD-1 blockade, and reliable predictive biomarkers have proved elusive. In a recently published study, researchers have identified a



CNS cancer: New chemoradiation standard for elderly patients with glioblastoma

2017-04-11

The incidence of glioblastoma is increasing, and this disease portends a dismal prognosis, especially for elderly patients. Although trials performed over a decade ago have established temozolomide chemotherapy and concurrent radiotherapy as the standard treatment, these trials did not assess the role of short-course radiotherapy



In the news: From AACR 2017

2017-04-25

In April 2017, ∼20,000 cancer researchers descended upon Washington DC for the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). Perhaps fittingly, considering its location, many delegates expressed concern regarding recent political developments and the anticipated funding cuts to the National Institutes of



Immunotherapy: A CAR T-cell recipe for success

2017-05-03

Promising outcomes have been obtained in trials of CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies, although responses were variable owing to the heterogeneous composition, differentiation status and transgene expression levels of the T cells infused. To overcome



Drug therapy: Exploiting synthetic lethality to improve cancer therapy

2017-03-29

The success of cancer therapies is hampered by a paucity of suitable drug targets and the rapid development of therapy resistance. The concept of synthetic lethality provides a potential solution to these constraints via the identification of novel therapeutic vulnerabilities, as exemplified in two recent studies.



Immunotherapy: Hiding in plain sight: immune escape in the era of targeted T-cell-based immunotherapies

2017-04-11

Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is now considered a bona fide treatment modality within the evolving field of anticancer immunotherapy. Great advances have enabled the adoptive transfer of tumour-selective lymphocytes for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. Unfortunately, this selectivity has led to the emergence of antigen-loss variants. New strategies need to be employed to minimize the incidence of this phenomenon, enabling the full potential of ACT to be realized.



The landscape of new drugs in lymphoma

2016-12-29

The landscape of drugs for the treatment of lymphoma has become crowded in light of the plethora of new agents, necessitating the efficient prioritization of drugs for expedited development. The number of drugs available, and the fact that many can be given for an extended



Beyond the margins: real-time detection of cancer using targeted fluorophores

2017-01-17

Over the past two decades, synergistic innovations in imaging technology have resulted in a revolution in which a range of biomedical applications are now benefiting from fluorescence imaging. Specifically, advances in fluorophore chemistry and imaging hardware, and the identification of targetable biomarkers have now positioned



Radiotherapy and immunotherapy: a beneficial liaison?

2017-01-17

Investigations into the interaction between radiotherapy and the host immune system have uncovered new mechanisms that can potentially be exploited to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. Radiation promotes the release of danger signals and chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells into the tumour microenvironment, including antigen-presenting



Tumour microenvironment: informing on minimal residual disease in solid tumours

2017-04-11

Patients with resectable solid tumours can harbour minimal residual disease (MRD) after initial treatment, which is a potential source for subsequent metastatic relapse. The interaction between disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) and the new microenvironment in which they reside determines whether DTCs remain dormant or progress into overt metastases. We highlight the promise of liquid biopsies to inform on MRD.



The high price of anticancer drugs: origins, implications, barriers, solutions

2017-03-14

Globally, annual spending on anticancer drugs is around US$100 billion, and is predicted to rise to $150 billion by 2020. In the USA, a novel anticancer drug routinely costs more than $100,000 per year of treatment. When adjusted for per capita spending power, however, drugs