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Preview: Nature Reviews Cardiology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Cardiology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Cardiology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Basic research: Cardioprotective benefits of dietary spermidine


Oral supplementation of a natural polyamine spermidine in rodent models of cardiovascular disease is associated with reduced cardiac hypertrophy, preserved diastolic function, and prolonged lifespan. This finding comes from a study published in Nature Medicine, which proposes a new and feasible strategy for the

Genetics: HMGCR and PCSK9 variants and cardiovascular risk


Genetic variation in PCSK9 that results in the lowering of LDL-cholesterol levels has a similar effect on the risk of cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus to that of genetic variation in HMGCR (which encodes the protein target of statins). This finding comes from

Heart failure: Phase II trial results of omecamtiv mecarbil


Omecamtiv mecarbil is a selective cardiac myosin activator. In the phase II, pharmacokinetic COSMIC-HF study, this drug was associated with decreased ventricular diameters and improvements in cardiac function. A total of 148 patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were randomly

Arrhythmias: Weight loss and reduced risk of atrial fibrillation


The risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is reduced by weight loss after bariatric surgery. This finding comes from the SOS study conducted in Sweden. The prospective, matched cohort study involved 4,021 obese individuals in sinus rhythm and with no history of AF; 2,000 underwent

Device therapy: Optimization of CRT with novel contractility sensor


A novel contractility sensor that allows automatic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) timings was as safe and effective as echocardiography-guided optimization in improving responsiveness to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This finding from the RESPOND-CRT trial was published in the European Heart Journal.

Vascular diseases: Shear-thinning biomaterial for endovascular embolization


Metallic coils that are used for the embolization of injured vessels are associated with complications such as coil migration and compaction, breakthrough bleeding, and toxicity. A shear-thinning biomaterial described in Science Translational Medicine was found to be a safe and viable alternative to coil

Dyslipidaemias: Cardiovascular effects of low Lp(a)


Lipoprotein(a), also known as Lp(a), is a circulating lipoprotein comprising an LDL particle and apolipoprotein B covalently attached to apolipoprotein(a). In a large analysis, genetically lowered Lp(a) levels were associated with a reduced risk of various atherosclerosis-related diseases, suggesting that pharmacological lowering of Lp(a) levels

Atherosclerosis: TREM1 in atherosclerosis development


Innate immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages have an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the upstream pathways that mediate the generation of proinflammatory macrophages are unknown. TREM1 proteins are expressed constitutively on macrophages, and have been shown to induce production of

Inflammation: NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk in arthritis


In the PRECISION trial involving patients with arthritis, moderate doses of a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor were not associated with increased cardiovascular events compared with submaximal doses of nonselective NSAIDs. The balance between pain relief and cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs should be further investigated in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

Atherosclerosis in 2016: Advances in new therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis


In 2016, advances in atherosclerosis research were focused on the discovery and validation of new targets with genetic and mechanistic links to atherothrombotic heart disease. Novel targets include proteins involved in glycoprotein recognition and clearance, regulators of triglyceride-rich particle metabolism, inflammatory pathways that impair efferocytosis, and the gut microbiome.

Genetics of CHD in 2016: Common and rare genetic variants and risk of CHD


Much of the progress in cardiovascular genetics in 2016 has been driven by next-generation sequencing studies, and the clinical utility of knowing an individual's genotype for predicting their risk of cardiovascular disease is gaining credibility, both for monogenic and polygenic disorders. Additionally, phenotype data are increasingly abundant, although databases linking genotype with clinically relevant phenotypes require optimization.

Arrhythmias in 2016: Arrhythmia treatment — evidence catching up with technology


Clinical cardiac electrophysiology has evolved rapidly over the past 2 decades. Although the fast pace of technical and therapeutic advances has occasionally outpaced evidence supporting widespread effectiveness, the highlights of electrophysiology research in 2016 illustrate the emergence of robust evidence for implementation of several important therapies.

Acute coronary syndromes in 2016: Assessing strategies to improve patient management


The leading studies in 2016 on acute coronary syndromes focused on strategies of acute coronary management, from the influence of revascularization timing on outcomes, to selection of second-generation antiplatelet therapy and the utility of monitoring platelet function in patients at high risk of coronary artery disease.

Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis


Infections have been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Findings from the past decade have identified microbial ecosystems residing in different habitats of the human body that contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular-related disorders. In this Review, we describe three pathways by which

Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of exercise-induced arrhythmias


The cardiovascular benefits of physical activity are indisputable. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that both atrial fibrillation and right ventricular arrhythmia can be caused by intense exercise in some individuals. Exercise-induced atrial fibrillation is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged, otherwise healthy men who have been engaged

Grey zones in cardiomyopathies: defining boundaries between genetic and iatrogenic disease


Genetic cardiomyopathies are complex diseases with heterogeneous clinical presentation and phenotypes. Early descriptions of cardiomyopathies originated from case studies involving individuals with severe, paradigmatic presentation, which provided insight into the worst-case scenarios of these conditions. With time, improved diagnostic sensitivity and awareness of cardiomyopathies has

Atrial fibrillation in women: treatment


Sex-specific differences in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, prognosis, and treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasingly recognized. Women with AF generally experience worse symptoms, poorer quality of life, and have higher risk of stroke and death than men with AF. Effective treatment of the arrhythmia

Implications of MRGPRX2 in human and experimental cardiometabolic diseases


We read the excellent Review by Guo-Ping Shi et al. (Mast cells in human and experimental cardiometabolic diseases. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.12, 643–658; 2015) with great interest. The authors proposed a role for neuropeptides in the activation of cardiac and

Reply: The complexity of substance P-mediated mast cell activation


We thank Azimi and Lerner for their Correspondence (Implications of MRGPRX2 in human and experimental cardiometabolic diseases. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2017) on our Review (Mast cells in human and experimental cardiometabolic diseases. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.12, 643–658; 2015).

NLRP3 inflammasome: common nexus between depression and cardiovascular diseases


We read with great interest the Review by Carney and Freedland (Depression and coronary heart disease. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2016), in which the mechanisms linking depression and coronary heart disease are discussed. Specifically, this Review provides an update on biological and

Reply: NLRP3 inflammasome as a mechanism linking depression and cardiovascular diseases


We thank Alcocer-Gómez and Cordero for their Correspondence (NLRP3 inflammasome: common nexus between depression and cardiovascular diseases. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2017) on our Review (Depression and coronary heart disease. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2016). Alcocer-Gómez and Cordero correctly