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Nature Reviews Cardiology

Nature Reviews Cardiology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Atherosclerosis: Somatic mutations in haematopoietic cells contribute to atherosclerosis


Clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is characterized by the expansion of haematopoietic clones that carry recurrent somatic mutations. CHIP has been previously linked with advanced age and increased risk of haematological cancer, but a new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine

Risk factors: Low educational attainment linked to high CVD risk


Socioeconomic factors such as education and income are thought to contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Researchers in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study assessed the lifetime risks of CVD according to educational attainment in 13,948 individuals followed up from 1987 to 2013.

Vascular disease: Treatment of ischaemic vascular disease with 3D-printed vessels


Guideline-recommended approaches for revascularization in ischaemic vascular disease include artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous intervention. The use of 3D-printed vascular patches might be a complementary strategy, according to new research published in Nature Biomedical Engineering.Christopher Chen and colleagues used 3D printing to

Dyslipidaemia: Anti-PCSK9 vaccines to halt atherosclerosis


An anti-PCSK9 vaccine called AT04A, which consists of a peptide mimicking the N-terminal epitope of the protein, reduces plasma lipid levels and hampers development of atherosclerosis in mice, according to new research. “In our study, we could show for the first time that AT04A does

Diabetes: Lower risk of cardiovascular death with canagliflozin


Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. The CANVAS Program Collaborative Group sought to determine the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of canagliflozin, a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, by combining data from two trials (CANVAS and CANVAS-R) involving

Valvular disease: Cadherin 11 in calcific aortic valve disease


Idiopathic calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) has been associated with silencing of the NOTCH1 gene. Valve interstitial cells from Notch1+/− mice have been shown to overexpress cadherin 11, a cell junction protein. To determine whether targeting cadherin 11 can prevent CAVD in

Regenerative medicine: New targets for enhancing cardiac regeneration


The capacity of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate after injury is limited and is insufficient for repairing tissue damage after injury. Strikingly, the neonatal mammalian heart has regenerative potential, but this capacity is lost shortly after birth. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the

Pharmacotherapy: NAC plus nitrate therapy in PCI


The addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to background nitroglycerin therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reduces infarct size and improves myocardial salvage. This finding comes from the NACIAM trial published in Circulation.Intravenous nitroglycerin (also known as glyceryl trinitrate

Thrombosis: Novel target with antithrombotic potential and low bleeding risk


Current antithrombotic agents impair haemostasis, which increases the risk of bleeding. A new study now reveals a novel target with antithrombotic potential and with reduced risk of bleeding. “We have identified a pathway that regulates thrombosis, but not haemostasis,” says corresponding author, Daniel Simon. The

Atherosclerosis: Trehalose induces macrophage autophagy–lysosomal biogenesis


The development of atherosclerotic plaques is characterized by progressive macrophage autophagy–lysosomal dysfunction. According to a new study by Sergin et al. published in Nat. Comms., the natural disaccharide trehalose can be used to treat atherosclerosis, given its capacity to induce macrophage autophagy–lysosomal

Dyslipidaemia: Statin-associated muscle symptoms — really all in the mind?


The nocebo effect might be involved in a substantial proportion of patients experiencing muscle symptoms attributed to statin therapy. This observation underlines the importance of patient counselling and physician opposition to misinformation. Nonetheless, clinicians face a reality in which many patients do not tolerate adequate statin therapy despite rigorous efforts. Novel treatment strategies are, therefore, much needed.

Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes


Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of

Monocytes and macrophages in abdominal aortic aneurysm


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening disease associated with high morbidity, and high mortality in the event of aortic rupture. Major advances in open surgical and endovascular repair of AAA have been achieved during the past 2 decades. However, drug-based therapies are still lacking,

High-sensitivity assays for troponin in patients with cardiac disease


Troponin is a widely used biomarker in patients with cardiac disease. The use of troponin is well established in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but troponin measurement is also used in other acute and nonacute settings. In patients with suspected AMI, early decision-making

Redefining the identity of cardiac fibroblasts


Cardiac fibroblasts deposit and maintain extracellular matrix during organogenesis and under physiological conditions. In the adult heart, activated cardiac fibroblasts also participate in the healing response after acute myocardial infarction and during chronic disease states characterized by augmented interstitial fibrosis and ventricular remodelling. However, delineation

Dominant and recessive imprinting of exosomes from parent cells


We read with great interest the Review by Boulanger et al. (Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.14, 259–272; 2017). The authors discuss the role of extracellular vesicles (including exosomes) as transporters of biological information between cells

Efficient design of clinical trials and epidemiological research: is it possible?


Randomized clinical trials and large-scale, cohort studies continue to have a critical role in generating evidence in cardiovascular medicine; however, the increasing concern is that ballooning costs threaten the clinical trial enterprise. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the changing landscape of clinical research, and