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Preview: Nature Reviews Cardiology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Cardiology - Issue - science feeds

Nature Reviews Cardiology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Anticoagulation therapy: Registries reveal real-world use of anticoagulant drugs in AF


Data from two registries reveal the 'real-world' use of anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Findings from phase 2 of the international GLORIA-AF registry indicate that non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been highly adopted in clinical practice,

Stem cells: Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells for dilated cardiomyopathy


Patients with chronic nonischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) treated with allogenic (allo) human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) show improved cardiac function and quality of life compared with those treated with autologous (auto) hMSCs. These findings were reported by the POSEIDON-DCM trial investigators, and published in J.

Metabolism: Calorie restriction for healthy ageing


Prolonged fasting and very low calorie diets are known to extend lifespan and are associated with healthy metabolic ageing in animal models. A study now shows that a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) is also effective in reducing markers and risk factors of ageing in humans. Compared

Thrombosis: Rivaroxaban, a cost-effective alternative for SVT?


A 45-day course of daily subcutaneous injection with the factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux or with low-molecular-weight heparin is the recommended treatment for patients with superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT). A clinical trial now shows that rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is noninferior to fondaparinux for the

Valvular disease: DPP4 inhibitors to prevent aortic valve calcification


Mechanisms leading to calcification of the aortic valve are unclear. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), an enzyme involved in glucose metabolism, might contribute to this process, according to a new study. In human, cultured valvular interstitial cells (VICs), activation of nuclear factor-κB induced the expression of

Hypertension: The rise of the four-in-one pill?


A combination of four common blood-pressure-lowering drugs, each at a quarter of the standard dose, effectively reduced systolic blood pressure in patients with hypertension, according to the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial published in The Lancet. “The blood-pressure-lowering effect of the

Risk factors: Aircraft noise impairs vascular function


Environmental stressors such as noise have been associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. A new experimental model of aircraft noise stress developed by Münzel and colleagues might help to elucidate these molecular mechanisms, as well as enable testing of possible therapeutic

Hypertension: Controversies in blood-pressure goals among the elderly


The optimal blood-pressure (BP) goals for elderly patients remain inconclusive, despite the recent publication of meta-analyses comparing intensive BP control with standard BP control. In searching for therapeutic approaches in these patients, researchers should change the focus from optimal BP values to a more holistic, individual approach.

Inflammation: Old, caffeinated, and healthy


Inflammation is a recognized component of many diseases, including atherosclerosis and its complications. IL-1β is a crucial cytokine promoting the inflammatory cascade. In the February 2017 issue of Nature Medicine, Furman et al. show that metabolites can trigger inflammation via inflammasome-dependent IL-1β production in elderly individuals. Intriguingly, caffeine is protective by offsetting this activation.

Aetiology and management of hereditary aortopathy


Aortic aneurysms are a major health problem because they account for 1–2% of all deaths in the Western population. Although abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are more prevalent than thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs), TAAs have been more exhaustively studied over the past 2 decades because they

Advanced imaging in valvular heart disease


Although echocardiography remains the mainstay imaging technique for the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), innovations in noninvasive imaging in the past few years have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of VHD, early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and

Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy: cardiac, neuromuscular, and genetic factors


Left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT) or noncompaction is a myocardial abnormality of unknown aetiology, frequently associated with monogenic disorders, particularly neuromuscular disorders, or with chromosomal defects. LVHT is diagnosed usually by echocardiography by the presence of a bilayered myocardium consisting of a thick, spongy, noncompacted endocardial

Cardiovascular disease prevention: lifestyle attenuation of genetic risk


Both rare and common genetic variants predict the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but recent studies have provided compelling evidence that individuals who harbour variants that elevate their risk of CVD can substantially lower this risk by controlling lifestyle-related risk factors, such as smoking, diet, and physical activity.

Expert consensus document: Mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure


Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in