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Nature Reviews Cardiology

Nature Reviews Cardiology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Arrhythmias: Safety backups to keep the pace


The human sinoatrial node (SAN), the main pacemaker of the heart, has redundant, fail-safe mechanisms that maintain a consistent heart rhythm and protect the heart from rhythm failure even under stress conditions, according to a new study published in Science Translational Medicine. “[We found

Growth and development: Poly(A) tail-based regulation of cardiac hypertrophy


Protein synthesis in the heart is a dynamic process, characterized by low synthesis rates in the adult heart that can increase substantially in periods of hypertrophy; however the regulatory mechanisms involved are unclear. New research now reveals that the dynamic regulation of PABPC1 translation,

Arrhythmias: Long working hours and risk of atrial fibrillation


Working long hours is associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), according to a new study published in European Heart Journal. Whether the relationship is causal remains to be determined.Members of the IPD-Work Consortium conducted a prospective, multicohort study involving

Developmental biology: Formation of hybrid myocardial zone


Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy is characterized by the presence of excessive recesses in the trabecular network that can result in heart failure, arrhythmia, and thromboembolism. Using genetic lineage tracing, Tian and colleagues found that inhibition of Hey2+ cell expansion results in the formation

Basic research: New cardiomyocyte formation in adult mouse hearts


Previous studies have shown that new cardiomyocytes can be generated in the adult mammalian heart, but the source of these new cardiomyocytes was unclear. In a new study published in Circulation, Zeng and colleagues report that existing adult cardiomyocytes can re-enter the cell cycle

Dyslipidaemia: Effect of hypercholesterolaemia on HDL particle remodelling


Hypercholesterolaemia induces lipidomic and proteomic changes in HDL particles, which impair the functionality of the HDL particles and reduce their cardioprotective properties. This finding comes from a study on ischaemia–reperfusion injury in pigs, in which the beneficial effects of HDL were abolished by hypercholesterolaemia.Pigs

Basic research: Where do new endothelial cells come from in the injured heart?


Revascularization of ischaemia-injured myocardium is critical for functional recovery. A new study shows that endothelial cells of neovessels in the injured heart derive from pre-existing endothelial cells. This new finding focuses research on therapeutic strategies to direct the neovasculature to deliver oxygen and nutrients effectively to the ischaemic myocardium.

Demystifying rotors and their place in clinical translation of atrial fibrillation mechanisms


Treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice, remains challenging. Improved understanding of underlying mechanisms is needed to improve therapy. Functional re-entry is central to AF maintenance. The first detailed, quantitative theory of functional re-entry, the 'leading circle' model, was developed

Autoimmune channelopathies as a novel mechanism in cardiac arrhythmias


Cardiac arrhythmias confer a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. Although coronary artery disease and heart failure are the prevalent causes of cardiac arrest, in 5–15% of patients, structural abnormalities at autopsy are absent. In a proportion of these patients, mutations in

Pathology, imaging, and treatment of cardiac tumours


Cardiac tumours are a rare, but often devastating, clinical diagnosis. They encompass a broad set of lesions that include both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. Cardiac tumours are often diagnosed incidentally during work-up for other conditions, or during ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans for unusual or

Physical function and exercise training in older patients with heart failure


Heart failure (HF) is a common end point for numerous cardiovascular conditions, including coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and hypertension. HF predominantly affects older individuals (aged ≥70 years), particularly those living in developed countries. The pathophysiological sequelae of HF progression have a substantial negative effect

Has the SPRINT trial introduced a new blood-pressure goal in hypertension?


SPRINT is the first randomized, controlled trial showing that a systolic blood-pressure goal of

Autoimmune channelopathies: questions remain


We read with interest the Review by Lazzerini et al. (Autoimmune channelopathies as a novel mechanism in cardiac arrhythmias. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2017). In their manuscript, Lazzerini et al. provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of

Autoimmune cardiac channelopathies: the heart of the matter


We thank Jin Li and Ange Maguy for their Correspondence (Autoimmune channelopathies: questions remain. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2017) on our Review (Lazzerini, P. E. et al. Autoimmune channelopathies as a novel mechanism in cardiac arrhythmias. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.;

MicroRNAs in muscle wasting and cachexia induced by heart failure


We read with great interest the Review by von Haehling et al. (Muscle wasting and cachexia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapies. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.14, 323–341; 2017), which discussed the pathophysiological mechanisms of muscle wasting and cachexia in heart

Role of microRNAs in wasting in heart failure


We thank Bei and Xiao for their Correspondence (MicroRNAs in muscle wasting and cachexia induced by heart failure. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.; 2017) on our Review (Muscle wasting and cachexia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapies. Nat. Rev. Cardiol.14, 323–