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Nature Reviews Cardiology

Nature Reviews Cardiology provides physicians and academics with authoritative and topical discussions of key developments in the field.


Immunology: Surprising role of cardiac macrophages in heart electrical conduction


Many studies have demonstrated that macrophages have multiple functions in different organs and tissues beyond their classical phagocytic activity. However, the specific functions of heart-resident macrophages in the steady state remained unclear. A new study published in Cell now shows that cardiac macrophages are

Dyslipidaemia: Hypertriglyceridaemia caused by GPIHBP1 autoantibodies


Autoantibodies against glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) can block the transport of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) into capillaries, preventing the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and causing severe hypertriglyceridaemia. These autoantibodies mimic the effects of loss-of-function mutations in the GPIHBP1 gene.GPIHBP1 is expressed on

Hypertension: Very low achieved SBP increases risk of cardiovascular death


Current guidelines recommend a blood-pressure target of

Genetics: ANGPTL3 deficiency protects from CAD


Deficiency of angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3), an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), according to a study that involved atherosclerotic phenotyping of three individuals with complete ANGPTL3 deficiency, a population-based genomic analysis of ANGPTL3 loss-of-function variants,

Heart failure: No effect of ularitide in heart failure outcomes


Results from the TRUE-AHF trial on ularitide show that early administration of this intravenous vasodilator to patients with acute heart failure (HF) reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), but has no effect on the coprimary end point of

Public health: Active commuting can lower your risk of CVD


The mode of transport you use to commute to work matters. A new study shows that cycling or walking to and from work reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and death compared with nonactive commuting (using the car or public transport). Commuting by

Calcium: Mitochondrial calcium efflux essential for heart function


Calcium signalling in mitochondria has a crucial role in cell physiology, both in health and disease, but its function in the cardiovascular system is controversial. John Elrod and colleagues now show that loss of the mitochondrial sodium–calcium exchanger (NCLX), encoded by the Slc8b1 gene,

Interventional cardiology: Increased risk of stent thrombosis with bioresorbable scaffolds


Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds are associated with a higher rate of device thrombosis than drug-eluting metallic stents. This finding comes from the AIDA trial, and is consistent with previous findings from the ABSORB II trial.In the AIDA trial, investigators randomly assigned 1,845 patients undergoing percutaneous

Valvular disease: Transcatheter repair of severe tricuspid regurgitation


Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is associated with high morbidity, and therapeutic strategies for symptomatic patients are limited. In a new study published in Circulation, Nickenig et al. show that treatment of TR using the MitraClip system (Abbott Vascular, USA) is both safe

Basic research: Kidneys and cardiac stress


The development of heart failure is closely influenced by comorbid renal dysfunction, given the pathophysiological link between the heart and kidneys. In a new study published in Nature Medicine, Fujiu and colleagues report a dynamic relationship between the heart, brain, and kidneys that is

Dyslipidaemia: The PCSK9 adventure — humanizing extreme LDL lowering


PCSK9 inhibitors are the most potent LDL-cholesterol lowering drugs on the market. The latest cardiovascular outcome trials of these anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies show positive results with fully-human antibodies, although with modest effect on major adverse cardiovascular events in patients who attain LDL-cholesterol target levels with statin therapy, whereas humanized antibodies are associated with the development of neutralizing antibodies.

Antiplatelet therapy: New score for predicting bleeding risk after DAPT


The investigators of PRECISE-DAPT devised a five-item score to predict out-of-hospital bleeding risk in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after coronary stenting. In patients at high risk of bleeding treated with prolonged DAPT, significantly more bleeding events were observed, with no reduction in ischaemic events.

Muscle wasting and cachexia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapies


Body wasting is a serious complication that affects a large proportion of patients with heart failure. Muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, is the loss of muscle mass and strength, whereas cachexia describes loss of weight. After reaching guideline-recommended doses of heart failure therapies, the

Sarcoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria communication in cardiovascular pathophysiology


Repetitive, calcium-mediated contractile activity renders cardiomyocytes critically dependent on a sustained energy supply and adequate calcium buffering, both of which are provided by mitochondria. Moreover, in vascular smooth muscle cells, mitochondrial metabolism modulates cell growth and proliferation, whereas cytosolic calcium levels regulate the arterial vascular

Antithrombotic therapy for patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI


Antithrombotic therapy, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, is the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment to optimize clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Intravenous anticoagulant drugs available for PPCI include the indirect thrombin inhibitors unfractionated heparin and