2017-01-05A characterization of transcriptomic changes in autism spectrum disorder points to shared cortical alterations that result in profound changes in neuronal gene transcription, long non-coding RNA transcription, cortical patterning and glial function.
2016-12-22Shank3 deficiency disrupts TRPV1 signalling, pain processing and the induction of heat hyperalgesia in mice.
2016-12-22Unattended information can lie latent in working memory and then be reactivated by transcranial magnetic stimulation.
2016-12-22It is not known how mammals sense potentially life-threatening reductions in oxygen in the ambient air, but a novel mechanism has been found in mice that involves a novel subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons that express the soluble guanylate cyclase GUCY1β2.
2017-01-05The stage-specific regulation of sets of enhancers by the 'programming' transcription factor islet 1 regulates the transcription of effector genes during motor neuron differentiation.
2017-01-20Depression is characterized by a range of symptoms that can be experienced in different combinations and to different extents depending on the individual. Efforts to categorize depression by matching symptoms to physiological changes have had limited success. Here, functional MRI was used to compare whole-brain
2017-01-20In rodents, postnatal neurogenesis is restricted to certain brain areas including the olfactory bulb. It has been shown that blocking this neurogenesis disrupts olfactory learning, but the techniques used lacked specificity. Here, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) were used to inactivate newborn
2017-01-20A group of people witnessing the same event will often have similar memories of it, but the cortical representations of these memories are not well studied. Participants in this study were scanned using functional MRI while watching a movie and also when recalling the movie.
2017-01-20Currently, there is no technique available that enables specific and inducible genetic manipulation of astrocytes in the brain. Here, the authors identified a marker that enabled selective targeting of astrocytes in mice using the Cre–LoxP system. They combined this with expression of a
2017-01-05Dopamine-releasing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have central roles in reward-related and goal-directed behaviours. VTA dopamine-releasing neurons are heterogeneous in their afferent and efferent connectivity and, in some cases, release GABA or glutamate in addition to dopamine. Recent findings show that motivational signals
2016-12-22Neurofeedback is a psychophysiological procedure in which online feedback of neural activation is provided to the participant for the purpose of self-regulation. Learning control over specific neural substrates has been shown to change specific behaviours. As a progenitor of brain–machine interfaces, neurofeedback has provided a
2017-01-20Intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich protein aggregates called Lewy pathology (LP) and neuronal death are commonly found in the brains of patients with clinical Parkinson disease (cPD). It is widely believed that LP appears early in the disease and spreads in synaptically coupled brain networks, driving neuronal
2017-01-20Nature Reviews Neuroscience18, 20–30 (2017)In Box 1 and on page 26 of this article, in the section Activity-dependent 'switches', Aβ afferents were incorrectly defined. This has been corrected in the online version of the article.
2016-11-24We recently read with interest the timely and scholarly Review by
2017-01-05Functional neuroimaging techniques have transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour and are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions that are drawn from some human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or