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Preview: Nature Reviews Neuroscience - Issue - nature.com science feeds

Nature Reviews Neuroscience





 



Neural circuits: The influence of hunger

2017-07-19

In mice, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide-expressing neurons modulate food-cue-associated insular cortex activity to influence behaviour.



Neuroimmunology: Mistaken identity

2017-07-06

Fragments of the protein α-synuclein, which accumulates in substantia nigra neurons in Parkinson disease, are expressed on the surface of these substantia nigra neurons and induce a form of autoimmunity that could account for the degeneration of these cells in the disease.



Gut-brain communication: Making contact

2017-07-13

Enterochromaffin cells in the gut epithelium act as chemosensors and can modulate neural function in response to intestinal signals.



Psychiatric disorders: A sensitive window

2017-07-06

In mice, postnatal stress leads to long-lasting changes in transcription in the ventral tegmental area, sensitizing the brain to stress later in life.



Sensory systems: Tasting the water

2017-06-29

Water in the external environment is detected by acid-sensing taste receptor cells via a carbonic anhydrase 4-mediated pH change.



Microglia: A protective population?

2017-06-29

Disease progression in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease is associated with the appearance of a population of disease-associated microglia that can phagocytose amyloid-β.



Neural circuits: Hanging in the balance

2017-07-19

Oxytocinergic (OXT) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) project to tonically active dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the vental tegmental area (VTA) and reticular area of the substantia nigra (SN), both of which regulate reward-based behaviour via projections to the ventral striatum (vStr). Optogenetic stimulation of



Learning and memory: Catching fear memories

2017-07-19

Memory traces of long-term auditory fear memories are stored in the auditory cortex. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are stable components of the extracellular matrix that could potentially provide a scaffold for long-term synaptic plasticity. In a model of auditory fear conditioning, mRNAs encoding three lecticans —



Neural development: Regional influence

2017-07-19

In mice, the ventricular–subventricular zone (V–SVZ) continuously produces neural stem cells (NSCs). Proopiomelanocortin-expressing (POMC+) neurons of the hypothalamus were found to project selectively to anterior ventral (AV) regions of the V–SVZ. Ablation of these neurons decreased NSC proliferation selectively in the AV V–SVZ,



Neurodegenerative disorders: Amyloid clearance

2017-07-19

Microglia play a part in protein clearance and synaptic pruning. This latter process is re-activated in Alzheimer disease (AD) and promoted by amyloid-β (Aβ). A screen of 18 AD-associated genes revealed that loss of the DNA–RNA binding protein TDP43 led to a considerable increase in



Neural coding: Face values

2017-06-22

Neurons in the 'face patch' system in macaques code features of realistic faces along various continuous axes.



Pain: A painful loss of inhibition

2017-07-13

The development of chronic neuropathic pain is associated with cortical hyperexcitability and a marked decrease in inhibition, particularly from cortical somatostatin-expressing interneurons.



Cancer: Appetite suppressors

2017-07-06

Calcitonin gene-related peptide-expressing neurons in the external parabrachial nucleus can drive cancer-induced anorexia in mice.



Neural circuits underlying thirst and fluid homeostasis

2017-06-22

Thirst motivates animals to find and consume water. More than 40 years ago, a set of interconnected brain structures known as the lamina terminalis was shown to govern thirst. However, owing to the anatomical complexity of these brain regions, the structure and dynamics of their



Neuroimmunology and neuroepigenetics in the establishment of sex differences in the brain

2017-06-22

The study of sex differences in the brain is a topic of neuroscientific study that has broad reaching implications for culture, society and biomedical science. Recent research in rodent models has led to dramatic shifts in our views of the mechanisms underlying the sexual differentiation



Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses

2017-06-29

The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings



Mammalian empathy: behavioural manifestations and neural basis

2017-06-29

Recent research on empathy in humans and other mammals seeks to dissociate emotional and cognitive empathy. These forms, however, remain interconnected in evolution, across species and at the level of neural mechanisms. New data have facilitated the development of empathy models such as the perception–action



Non-motor features of Parkinson disease

2017-07-13

Nature Reviews Neuroscience18, 435–450 (2017)In this Review, Figure 4 was incorrectly positioned, cutting off some of the labels. This has been corrected in the online version of the article. The editors apologize to the authors and readers