2016-09-09Several large-scale international research initiatives have recently been launched, fuelling substantial financial investments in neuroscience and raising expectations for the development of new knowledge and therapies. Meeting these expectations will require global coordination of stakeholders and the adoption of team-based approaches that are not yet
2016-09-19Two studies show that cortical feedback and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 are necessary for the proper refinement of reticulogeniculate synapses during visual system development.
2016-08-19In Drosophila melanogaster, signals of water satiety and hunger converge on interoceptive neurons in the suboesophageal zone that in turn influence water intake and feeding.
2016-08-19The proximity of neurotransmitter-release sites to the corresponding postsynaptic receptors influences synaptic strength and plasticity, but the precise alignment between the two is poorly elucidated. Here, the density of the active-zone proteins Rab3-interacting molecule 1 and 2 (RIM1/2) at synapses between cultured hippocampal neurons was
2016-08-19The synaptic remodelling that occurs during activity-dependent plasticity and that is thought to underlie memory formation is incompletely understood, but complement component 1 q subcompartment-like (C1qL) proteins have been reported to be involved. Here, C1qL3 was found to be expressed in an activity-dependent manner in
2016-08-19Damaged mitochondria can be released from neurons for uptake by glia for disposal. In this study, however, exposure of mice to focal cerebral ischaemia resulted in the release of functional mitochondria from astrocytes and their uptake into adjacent neurons, and these events were coincident with
2016-08-19Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are produced throughout life and are required for motor learning, but their role in this process is unclear. Within 2–3 hours of beginning a motor-learning task, mice lacking the transcription factor MYRF (myelin regulator factor) showed reduced levels of new oligodendrocytes
2016-08-25The connectivity pattern of the left occipitotemporal cortex of 5-year-olds who cannot yet read can predict where the functionally specific 'visual word form area' will form once the children learn to read.
2016-09-19How warmth is detected is not fully understood at the molecular level. Here, the authors identified neuronal subpopulations in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic neuron cultures that responded to non-painful heat but not to agonists of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels that are
2016-09-19Orexin neurons have been suggested to stimulate eating; however, loss of these cells in mice leads to obesity. Here, the authors used fibre photometry to measure calcium signalling in orexin neurons in freely behaving fasted and fed mice and found that the activity of these
2016-09-19Dum et al. explored which cortical areas may be involved in cognitive control of the stress response by injecting rabies virus into the adrenal medulla — which secretes hormones as part of this response — of non-human primates and assessing its retrograde transport. Two
2016-09-19Mapping long-range neuronal projections with high resolution and high throughput has proved difficult. In an attempt to achieve this goal, Kebschull et al. developed a method termed multiplex analysis of projections by sequencing (MAP-seq). In mice, they injected the locus coeruleus (LC) with a
2016-09-19Interviews with this year's winners of the Kavli prize in neuroscience, Eve Marder, Michael M. Merzenich and Carla J. Shatz.
2016-08-11As polarized cells, neurons maintain different sets of resident plasma membrane proteins in their axons and dendrites, which is consistent with the different roles that these neurites have in electrochemical signalling. Axonal and dendritic proteins are synthesized together within the somatodendritic domain; this raises a
2016-08-25GluN3-containing NMDA receptors (GluN3-NMDARs) are rarer than the 'classical' NMDARs, which are composed solely of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, and have non-conventional biophysical, trafficking and signalling properties. In the CNS, they seem to have important roles in delaying synapse maturation until the arrival of sensory
2016-09-02Dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)–urocortin (UCN) system has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. It has been proposed that CRF–CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) signalling promotes the stress response and anxiety-like behaviour, whereas UCNs and CRFR2 activation mediate stress recovery
2016-09-19Maltreatment-related childhood adversity is the leading preventable risk factor for mental illness and substance abuse. Although the association between maltreatment and psychopathology is compelling, there is a pressing need to understand how maltreatment increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that maltreatment alters