2016-09-22The independent worldwide brain-research initiatives should collaborate in order to enable them to reach their shared goal: gaining a better understanding of the tremendous complexity of the human brain.
2016-10-13With the emergence of brain research initiatives around the world, the need for standards to facilitate neuroscience data sharing is growing. A crucial first step will be to establish a minimal metadata standard that allows the discovery of and access to similar or related data
2016-11-17Transplanted embryonic neurons can functionally replace ablated neurons in the primary visual cortex in adult mice.
2016-11-10Reductions in the response of the amygdala to dishonesty predict the escalation of self-serving dishonesty.
2016-11-17Following injection into the brain, different strains of tau aggregates induce different presentations of tau neuropathology in a mouse model of tauopathy.
2016-11-04The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is a common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but the mechanism is unknown. Using quantitative proteomics, the authors found that C9orf72 protein interacts with the actin-binding protein cofilin. Cofilin
2016-11-04In humans, some neurons can be detected migrating after birth from the subventricular zone (SVZ) to cortical regions; however, it is not known to what extent these cells mature and become integrated into human forebrain circuits. Here, brain imaging and time-lapse confocal microscopy were used
2016-11-04It is currently unclear which forms of the protein tau contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, but Δtau314, which is produced following caspase 2-mediated tau cleavage, is elevated in the brains of cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD. Here, in vitro expression of
2016-11-04Transient, high-frequency hippocampal oscillations called sharp wave–ripples may be involved in the formation of memories that are later consolidated in the neocortex. Oscillations of ripple frequency (∼200 Hz) have been reported in the rodent neocortex during sleep but are not well understood. Here, the authors
2016-10-20This study suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is released from dendritic spines in response to activity and acts in an autocrine manner to mediate structural plasticity of the spine from which it was released.
2016-11-04Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of mice influence the intake of food and body weight by regulating appetite suppression.
2016-10-27In rats, stress promotes alcohol use by altering chloride gradients across the membranes of GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area.
2016-11-04Integrins are a large family of extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors. In the developing and adult brain, many integrins are present at high levels at synapses. The tetrapartite structure of synapses — which comprises presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, the ECM and glial processes — places synaptic
2016-10-20The mirror mechanism is a basic brain mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' behaviour into one's own motor or visceromotor representations concerning that behaviour. According to its location in the brain, it may fulfil a range of cognitive functions, including action and emotion understanding.
2016-11-04It is becoming clear that the manner by which the immune response resolves or contains infection by a pathogen varies according to the tissue that is affected. Unlike many peripheral cell types, CNS neurons are generally non-renewable. Thus, the cytolytic and inflammatory strategies that are
2016-11-10The function of neural circuits and networks can be controlled, in part, by modulating the synchrony of their components' activities. Network hypersynchrony and altered oscillatory rhythmic activity may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this condition, network activities that support cognition are