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Nature Reviews Neuroscience





 



Working memory: Persistence is key

2017-05-25

Three studies demonstrate that thalamocortical connections are necessary to maintain cortical delay activity in mice.



Neuron—glia interactions: Waking the synapse

2017-05-25

Wakefulness influences synaptic function in the hippocampus through the modulation of NMDA receptor co-agonist availability by astrocytes.



Learning and memory: When novel becomes familiar

2017-06-08

The transition from an odour being novel to being familiar in Drosophila Melanogaster involves dopaminergic modulation of the kenyon cell–α′3 mushroom body output neuron synapse in the fly mushroom body.



Sleep: Labelling sleep generators

2017-06-19

The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is implicated in sleep generation, but deciphering exactly which POA neurons promote sleep has been difficult. The POA sends inhibitory projections to the wakefulness-promoting tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). Through the use of virus-mediated retrograde tracing and optogenetics, Chung et



Neurodevelopment: Organizing the second brain

2017-06-19

How enteric nervous system (ENS) circuits are assembled and organized is not well understood. Most ENS neurons and glia are derived from SOX10-expressing enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs). Here, cell-fate mapping showed that ENCCs give rise to clonal clusters of cells in the small intestine,



Neural circuits: An angle on navigation

2017-06-19

Various animals use an internal sense of heading to aid navigation, but the underlying neural circuits are unclear. Green et al. used tethered flies walking on a ball to examine the role of neurons that directly connect the protocerebral bridge and the ellipsoid body



Neurodevelopmental disorders: Taking on FXS with a diabetes drug

2017-06-19

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by learning disabilities and behavioural problems and is linked to dysregulated mRNA translation. Here, the authors treated a mouse model of FXS with the type 2 diabetes drug metformin, which, among other effects, suppresses translation. Metformin treatment rescued various



Functional consequences of neuropeptide and small-molecule co-transmission

2017-06-08

Colocalization of small-molecule and neuropeptide transmitters is common throughout the nervous system of all animals. The resulting co-transmission, which provides conjoint ionotropic ('classical') and metabotropic ('modulatory') actions, includes neuropeptide- specific aspects that are qualitatively different from those that result from metabotropic actions of small-molecule transmitter



The sleep-deprived human brain

2017-05-18

How does a lack of sleep affect our brains? In contrast to the benefits of sleep, frameworks exploring the impact of sleep loss are relatively lacking. Importantly, the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) do not simply reflect the absence of sleep and the benefits attributed



Cerebral blood flow regulation and neurovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer disease

2017-05-18

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation is essential for normal brain function. The mammalian brain has evolved a unique mechanism for CBF control known as neurovascular coupling. This mechanism ensures a rapid increase in the rate of CBF and oxygen delivery to activated brain structures. The



Non-motor features of Parkinson disease

2017-06-08

Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD.



Linking social context and addiction neuroscience: a computational psychiatry approach

2017-06-19

In their recent article (Time to connect: bringing social context into addiction neuroscience (Nat. Rev. Neurosci.17, 592–599 (2016)), Heilig et al. suggest that the lack of progress towards treatment and prevention of addiction is partly due to a neglect