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Genome organization: Add a TAD of duplication

2016-10-26

Genomic duplications that modify the structure and function of topologically associated domains can deregulate gene expression and cause disease without altering gene copy numbers.



Turning the tide on 3D nuclear organization

2016-11-03

Physically bridging an enhancer to a β-globin gene increased transcription and explained how enhancers could function over long distances.



Organelle dynamics: RecovERy after stress

2016-11-03

Selective autophagy that is dependent on the ER translocon component SEC62 mediates ER recovery following protein stress.



Nuclear organization: NUP-tial binding to super-enhancers

2016-11-21

Super-enhancers interact with human nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex to regulate cell type-specific genes.



3D solutions to complex gene regulation

2016-11-21

Edith Heard describes how the discovery of lamina-associated domains changed her thinking about the mechanisms of X-chromosome inactivation and gene regulation.



Plant cell biology: Blue light gives CRY the blues

2016-11-09

The activity of the plant photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 is regulated by a newly characterized interacting protein that prevents cryptochrome 2 homodimerization.



DNA Repair: RNA–DNA hybrids: a double-edged sword in genomic stability

2016-11-21

The formation of RNA–DNA hybrids results in replicative stress and, as a consequence, the emergence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Thus, RNA–DNA hybrid formation has been primarily associated with genomic instability. The findings of Ohle et al. now change this view, implicating RNA–DNA hybrids



Stem cells: Coordinated expansion of cells in the skin

2016-11-21

Coordination between different cell types that comprise an organ is essential to ensure proper organ growth and remodelling during homeostasis, but how this is achieved is poorly understood. Zhang et al. used mouse skin to study how the growth of the hair follicle is



Cell Senescence: Controlling the senescence-associated secretory phenotype

2016-11-21

Cell entry into senescence is typically irreversible and is associated with heterochromatization of the genome, which is marked by the establishment of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). However, in contrast to many genes that are silenced on senescence entry (including pro-proliferative genes), the expression of factors



Mapping the 3D genome: Aiming for consilience

2016-11-21

The spatial organization of genomes is studied using microscopy- and chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods. The two types of methods produce data that are often consistent, but there are cases where they appear discordant. These cases provide opportunities to derive better models of chromatin folding,



Genome-wide mapping and analysis of chromosome architecture

2016-09-01

Chromosomes of eukaryotes adopt highly dynamic and complex hierarchical structures in the nucleus. The three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes profoundly affects DNA replication, transcription and the repair of DNA damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of nuclear architecture is fundamental to the study of nuclear processes



Long non-coding RNAs: spatial amplifiers that control nuclear structure and gene expression

2016-10-26

Over the past decade, it has become clear that mammalian genomes encode thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are now implicated in diverse biological processes. Recent work studying the molecular mechanisms of several key examples — including Xist, which orchestrates X chromosome



Regulation of disease-associated gene expression in the 3D genome

2016-11-09

Genetic variation associated with disease often appears in non-coding parts of the genome. Understanding the mechanisms by which this phenomenon leads to disease is necessary to translate results from genetic association studies to the clinic. Assigning function to this type of variation is notoriously difficult



Nuclear receptors outside the nucleus: extranuclear signalling by steroid receptors

2016-10-12

Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation.



Internetwork competition for monomers governs actin cytoskeleton organization

2016-09-14

Cells precisely control the formation of dynamic actin cytoskeleton networks to coordinate fundamental processes, including motility, division, endocytosis and polarization. To support these functions, actin filament networks must be assembled, maintained and disassembled at the correct time and place, and with proper filament organization and