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Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology


Stem cells: Colonic organoids for drug testing and colorectal disease modelling


Two studies report the generation of human colonic organoids, which could be useful for disease modelling and drug testing.

Chromosome biology: Structuring interphase chromatin


The oligomerization of scaffold attachment factor A through its binding to chromatin-associated RNAs regulates the structure of interphase chromosomes.

Circadian rhythms: Replication keeps the clock ticking


DNA replication regulates nucleosome dynamics at the promoter of a negative element of the circadian clock, thereby providing regulatory feedback into circadian rhythms.

Cancer biology: Therapy-induced transcription is cryptically widespread


Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and of histone deacetylases induce transcription from cryptic transposable elements, which results in 5′-truncated and mis-spliced proteins that may increase cancer immunogenicity.

Ribosome cycle emerges from DNA replication


A modification of Meselson and Stahl's density gradient centrifugation method and a rare Texan yeast helped show that eukaryotic ribosomes dissociate and reform during translation.

Unfolded protein response: Reacting to membrane stress


Changes in endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition induce the oligomerization of Ire1 and activate the unfolded protein response.

Physiological functions of programmed DNA breaks in signal-induced transcription


The idea that signal-dependent transcription might involve the generation of transient DNA nicks or even breaks in the regulatory regions of genes, accompanied by activation of DNA damage repair pathways, would seem to be counterintuitive, as DNA damage is usually considered harmful to cellular integrity.

Vascular heterogeneity and specialization in development and disease


Blood and lymphatic vessels pervade almost all body tissues and have numerous essential roles in physiology and disease. The inner lining of these networks is formed by a single layer of endothelial cells, which is specialized according to the needs of the tissue that it

Non-homologous DNA end joining and alternative pathways to double-strand break repair


DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most dangerous type of DNA damage because they can result in the loss of large chromosomal regions. In all mammalian cells, DSBs that occur throughout the cell cycle are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway.

Mechanisms of DNA replication termination


Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication

The winding path of protein methylation research: milestones and new frontiers


In 1959, while analysing the bacterial flagellar proteins, Ambler and Rees observed an unknown species of amino acid that they eventually identified as methylated lysine. Over half a century later, protein methylation is known to have a regulatory role in many essential cellular processes that

Transcriptional and epigenetic control of brown and beige adipose cell fate and function


Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology17, 480–495 (2016)Two errors in Table 1 of the HTML and PDF versions of this article have been corrected. In addition, corrections to a number of protein definitions have been made.