2017-03-22Two studies report new methods for studying the 3D genome — one captures three-way contacts and the other calculates 3D structures of genomes in single cells.
2017-04-05In mouse muscle cells, an isoform of EZH1 — a subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) — sequesters another subunit in the cytosol, thereby inhibiting PRC2 function.
2017-04-05Cold stress activates Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane-localized CRPK1, which leads to 14-3-3 proteins entering the nucleus and promoting the degradation of CBF transcription factors, thus attenuating the cold-induced response.
2017-04-05Cell senescence is associated with permanent withdrawal from the cell cycle in response to various stresses and ageing. Kang et al. screened human fibroblasts for factors that alleviate senescence and identified the major DNA damage repair kinase ATM as one of the hits. ATM
2017-04-05Xiang et al. screened human cell lines for chromatin-associated factors that participate in the DNA damage response. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation caused rapid and transient methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A), predominantly in 5′ untranslated regions of poly(A)+ RNA,
2017-04-05mTORC1 is a master regulator of cell growth, which responds to nutrient availability — in particular, amino acids. Castellano et al. now show that mTORC1 is also regulated by cholesterol, suggesting a strong link between sterol metabolism and cell growth control. Cholesterol is metabolized
2017-03-30Kai Simons discusses how MDCK cells grown on semi-permeable filters have become a model for studying apico-basal cell polarity with the use of viruses.
2017-03-30Mechanical tension is shown to contribute to the establishment of the cell polarity axis in plant epidermal stem cells, which is important for regulating asymmetric cell division.
2017-02-22Single-stranded guanine-rich DNA sequences can fold into four-stranded DNA structures called G-quadruplexes (G4s) that arise from the self-stacking of two or more guanine quartets. There has been considerable recent progress in the detection and mapping of G4 structures in the human genome and in biologically
2017-02-22Biomolecular condensates are micron-scale compartments in eukaryotic cells that lack surrounding membranes but function to concentrate proteins and nucleic acids. These condensates are involved in diverse processes, including RNA metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, the DNA damage response and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown that liquid–liquid
2017-02-01Histone variants endow chromatin with unique properties and show a specific genomic distribution that is regulated by specific deposition and removal machineries. These variants — in particular, H2A.Z, macroH2A and H3.3 — have important roles in early embryonic development, and they regulate the lineage commitment
2017-03-22Structure-specific endonucleases (SSEs) have key roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair, and emerging roles in transcription. These enzymes have specificity for DNA secondary structure rather than for sequence, and therefore their activity must be precisely controlled to ensure genome stability. In this Review, we
2017-03-08Transcription and chromatin function are regulated by proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosomes or RNA polymerase II, with specific non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) functioning to modulate their recruitment or activity. Unlike ncRNAs, nascent pre-mRNA was considered to be primarily a passive player in these processes. In