2017-01-05Two studies report on two independent synthetic biology approaches to tackle hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance that are associated with diabetes.
2017-01-05Two groups report that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects alternative splicing in fruit files, with notable phenotypes in sex determination and the nervous system.
2017-01-05Partial reprogramming through short-term expression of OSKM reverses the ageing process in mice.
2017-01-24The transcription and processing of long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), which are a class of lncRNAs expressed independently of protein-coding genes, are poorly understood. Schlackow et al. studied 285 lincRNAs that are highly expressed in HeLa cells using mNET-seq, which enables monitoring of the
2017-01-24Wong et al. report that metabolism — more specifically, fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) — promotes lymphatic development. They found that FAO is high in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs; which line lymph vessels) and that inhibition or LEC-specific loss of CPT1A, which is a rate-controlling
2017-01-24Terminally stalled ribosomes can initiate degradation of nascent polypeptides and the dissociation of ribosome subunits, a process known as ribosome-associated quality control (RQC). Using a reporter that quantitatively measures ribosome terminal stalling, Juszkiewicz and Hegde found that most ribosomes in human cells stalled when they
2017-01-11A new mechanism of controlling translation initiation depends on DEAD-box RNA helicases and on RNA structures, including those present in coding sequences.
2017-01-11Secondary necrosis following apoptosis induction is a regulated process that is dependent on the cleavage of DFNA5 by the executioner caspase, caspase 3.
2016-12-21Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) fuse the inner and outer nuclear membranes to form channels across the nuclear envelope. They are large macromolecular assemblies with a complex composition and diverse functions. Apart from facilitating nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPCs are involved in chromatin organization, the regulation of gene
2016-12-07Eight types of short-chain Lys acylations have recently been identified on histones: propionylation, butyrylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, crotonylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation. Emerging evidence suggests that these histone modifications affect gene expression and are structurally and functionally different from the widely studied histone Lys acetylation. In
2016-11-16A goal of human genetics studies is to determine the mechanisms by which genetic variation produces phenotypic differences that affect human health. Efforts in this respect have previously focused on genetic variants that affect mRNA levels by altering epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Recent studies show
2016-12-07Most histones are assembled into nucleosomes behind the replication fork to package newly synthesized DNA. By contrast, histone variants, which are encoded by separate genes, are typically incorporated throughout the cell cycle. Histone variants can profoundly change chromatin properties, which in turn affect DNA replication
2016-12-21In the early 2000s, receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a molecule already recognized as an important regulator of cell survival, inflammation and disease, was attributed an additional function: the regulation of a novel cell death pathway that came to be known as necroptosis. Subsequently,