2016-10-26Genomic duplications that modify the structure and function of topologically associated domains can deregulate gene expression and cause disease without altering gene copy numbers.
2016-11-03Physically bridging an enhancer to a β-globin gene increased transcription and explained how enhancers could function over long distances.
2016-11-03Selective autophagy that is dependent on the ER translocon component SEC62 mediates ER recovery following protein stress.
2016-11-21Super-enhancers interact with human nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex to regulate cell type-specific genes.
2016-11-21Edith Heard describes how the discovery of lamina-associated domains changed her thinking about the mechanisms of X-chromosome inactivation and gene regulation.
2016-11-09The activity of the plant photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 is regulated by a newly characterized interacting protein that prevents cryptochrome 2 homodimerization.
2016-11-21The formation of RNA–DNA hybrids results in replicative stress and, as a consequence, the emergence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Thus, RNA–DNA hybrid formation has been primarily associated with genomic instability. The findings of Ohle et al. now change this view, implicating RNA–DNA hybrids
2016-11-21Coordination between different cell types that comprise an organ is essential to ensure proper organ growth and remodelling during homeostasis, but how this is achieved is poorly understood. Zhang et al. used mouse skin to study how the growth of the hair follicle is
2016-11-21Cell entry into senescence is typically irreversible and is associated with heterochromatization of the genome, which is marked by the establishment of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). However, in contrast to many genes that are silenced on senescence entry (including pro-proliferative genes), the expression of factors
2016-11-21The spatial organization of genomes is studied using microscopy- and chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods. The two types of methods produce data that are often consistent, but there are cases where they appear discordant. These cases provide opportunities to derive better models of chromatin folding,
2016-09-01Chromosomes of eukaryotes adopt highly dynamic and complex hierarchical structures in the nucleus. The three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes profoundly affects DNA replication, transcription and the repair of DNA damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of nuclear architecture is fundamental to the study of nuclear processes
2016-10-26Over the past decade, it has become clear that mammalian genomes encode thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), many of which are now implicated in diverse biological processes. Recent work studying the molecular mechanisms of several key examples — including Xist, which orchestrates X chromosome
2016-11-09Genetic variation associated with disease often appears in non-coding parts of the genome. Understanding the mechanisms by which this phenomenon leads to disease is necessary to translate results from genetic association studies to the clinic. Assigning function to this type of variation is notoriously difficult
2016-10-12Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation.
2016-09-14Cells precisely control the formation of dynamic actin cytoskeleton networks to coordinate fundamental processes, including motility, division, endocytosis and polarization. To support these functions, actin filament networks must be assembled, maintained and disassembled at the correct time and place, and with proper filament organization and