2016-09-26This study investigated the role of IFITM proteins in the restriction of HIV-1 strains that have different receptor tropism and identified IFITM proteins as major effectors of the innate immune response.
2016-09-26Visualization of the morphogenesis and egress of a prototypical archaeal virus reveals some key similarities with eukaryotic viruses.
2016-10-03ProQ is revealed to be a global post-transcriptional regulator that stabilizes structured RNAs.
2016-10-12Species in the cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium are considered to be the main contributors to microbial dinitrogen (N2) fixation in the ocean. However, Martínez-Pérez et al. now show that the symbiotic cyanobacterium UCYN-A, which associates with eukaryotic algae, also fixes N2
2016-10-12Despite the importance of the bacterial F pilus in DNA transfer and as an entry point for phages, its structure was unknown. Costa et al. now solve the structure of two plasmid-purified F family pili — the pED208 and F pili — at 3.6
2016-10-12Current antimalarial drugs cannot target all stages of the Plasmodium spp. lifecycle and are challenged by drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Kato et al. sought more effective drugs against this parasite by testing synthetic compounds, the structures of which were based on
2016-09-26This study shows that T6SS components that are transferred between cells can be reused to assemble a fucntional T6SS system in the recipient.
2016-10-12This study reveals that TcdB binds to two different receptors, CSPG4 and FZD, in a cell type-dependent manner.
2016-10-12The tripartite efflux pump CmeABC is the most important efflux system in Campylobacter spp. that confers multidrug resistance. Yao, Shen et al. report the identification of a CmeABC variant that exhibits enhanced efflux function. This variant, termed resistance-enhancing CmeABC (RE-CmeABC), was more potent
2016-10-12The ability of Treponema pallidum to disseminate throughout the host and exit from the vasculature is crucial to its pathogenesis. This process is governed by T. pallidum proteins, including TP0751 (also known as pallilysin), that mediate attachment to the host extracellular matrix (ECM).
2016-10-12Methanogenic anaerobic archaea produce the largest amount of methane on Earth. Methane metabolism was thought to originate early in the evolution of the phylum Euryarchaeota, a notion that was challenged following the discovery of putative methane metabolism in the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota. Vanwonterghem et al
2016-09-12Parasitic unicellular eukaryotes use extracellular vesicles (EVs) as vehicles for intercellular communication and host manipulation. By using various mechanisms to generate EVs and by transferring a wide range of molecules through EVs, pathogenic protozoans are able to establish infective niches, modulate the immune system of
2016-09-26Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses sophisticated secretion systems, named 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) protein family secretion (ESX) systems (also known as type VII secretion systems), to export a set of effector proteins that helps the pathogen to resist or evade the host immune
2016-09-26Autotrophic microorganisms convert CO2 into biomass by deriving energy from light or inorganic electron donors. These CO2-fixing microorganisms have a large, but so far only partially realized, potential for the sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels. Productivities have been improved in
2016-08-30The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal microcephaly has led to a renewed interest in the mechanisms by which vertically transmitted microorganisms reach the fetus and cause congenital disease. In this Opinion article, we provide an overview of the structure
2016-09-19The division of labour, whereby individuals within a group specialize in certain tasks, has long been appreciated as central to the evolution of complex biological societies. In recent years, several examples of division of labour in microorganisms have arisen, which suggests that this strategy may