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Archaeal evolution: Evolutionary insights from the Vikings

2017-01-16

This study provides insights into the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes and the primal stages of eukaryogenesis.



Bacterial physiology: Building a bacterial ribosome

2017-01-03

Biogenesis of the mature bacterial ribosome requires the stepwise association of ∼50 ribosomal proteins and intricately folded rRNA, and involves ∼100 molecular chaperones. Each bacterium can generate ∼100,000 ribosomes per hour, and therefore the direct visualization of ribosome biogenesis has been challenging. Davis et al



Viral infection: Fine tuning HCV replication

2017-01-03

Efficient replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell lines requires the acquisition of host-specific adaptive mutations; however, the molecular basis for this adaptation has remained unsolved. Harak et al. report that adaptive mutations in the genes encoding viral NS5A and NS5B regulate the



Parasite biology: Busting out from the inside

2017-01-03

Malaria parasites traverse through various cells within their human hosts and mosquito vectors to complete their life cycles. Although the mosquito cell traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) is an essential protein for traversal of malaria parasites, and thus critical for the transmission and



Symbiosis: New horizons for Wolbachia

2016-12-28

Two new studies provide insights into the close association between Wolbachia spp. and their hosts; one shows plant-mediated transmission and the other the bacterial origin of a new host sex chromosome.



Microbiome: Expanding through the microbiota

2017-01-03

This paper shows that the intestinal microbiota is required for normal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell population in zebrafish during early larval development.



Microbiome: Rhythm and bacteria

2016-12-19

This study shows that circadian changes in the gut microbiota influence host physiology in the intestine and the liver.



You are where you live

2017-01-16

This month's Genome Watch discusses how whole-genome sequencing of bacteria from several body sites has provided insights into the spatial diversity of bacteria within patients.



Nuclear landscape of HIV-1 infection and integration

2016-12-12

To complete its life cycle, HIV-1 enters the nucleus of the host cell as reverse-transcribed viral DNA. The nucleus is a complex environment, in which chromatin is organized to support different structural and functional aspects of cell physiology. As such, it represents a challenge for



Cellulosomes: bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant polysaccharides

2016-12-12

Cellulosomes are multienzyme complexes that are produced by anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. They comprise a complex of scaffoldin, which is the structural subunit, and various enzymatic subunits. The intersubunit interactions in these multienzyme complexes are mediated by cohesin and dockerin



Candida albicans cell-type switching and functional plasticity in the mammalian host

2016-11-21

Candida albicans is a ubiquitous commensal of the mammalian microbiome and the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. A cell-type transition between yeast and hyphal morphologies in C. albicans was thought to underlie much of the variation in virulence observed in different host



Collateral damage: insights into bacterial mechanisms that predispose host cells to cancer

2017-01-03

Infections are estimated to contribute to 20% of all human tumours. Viruses are known to induce cell transformation, but evidence has also linked bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, to different cancer types. In addition, Chlamydia



A new view into prokaryotic cell biology from electron cryotomography

2016-12-28

Nature Reviews Microbiology14, 205–220 (2016)It has recently come to the authors' attention that this Review is the first place in which Figure 1 was published. Yi-Wei Chang, who collected the data for Figure 1 and helped to